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1.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 38(2): 145-151, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611860

RESUMO

Background: Complete elimination of microorganisms from the root canals is the important key for the successful endodontic treatment. Constant emergence of resistant strains and adverse effects of synthetic drugs has led to the search of effective herbal alternatives. Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) is one such spice used for its various medicinal activities. Aims: To evaluate the antimicrobial effect of M. fragrans on common endodontic pathogens of primary tooth. Materials and Methods: Essential oil of nutmeg was extracted by hydrodistillation method, and its phytoconstituents were determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high-performance TLC, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Minimum inhibitory concentration of essential oil against standard strains of common endodontic pathogens (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans, Lactobacillus casei, Actinomyces viscosus, Prevotella intermedia, and Porphyromonas gingivalis) was determined by serial tube dilution method. Results: Essential oil of M. fragrans was effective against all tested endodontic microorganisms. Discussion: The active components of essential oil of nutmeg such as myristicin, myristic acid, trimyristin, elemicin, and safrole have good antimicrobial activity and are effective against endodontic microorganisms. Conclusion: M. fragrans can be used as an effective medicament in the treatment of endodontic infections.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Myristica , Óleos Voláteis , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Sementes
2.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 38(2): 164-170, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611863

RESUMO

Aim: Sodium hypochlorite, though considered an ideal root canal irrigant, cannot be used at required concentrations in children, due to its undesirable effects. Hence, it is imperative to search for an ideal root canal irrigant to avoid these undesirable effects which we hope to achieve with this study. The antimicrobial efficacy of aqueous ozone, green tea, and normal saline as irrigants in pulpectomy procedures of the primary teeth has been compared. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients between 4 and 8 years of age with a single-rooted deciduous tooth indicated for pulpectomy were included. The infected teeth were randomly allocated to one of the three treatment groups based on the irrigating agents used, namely normal saline, green tea extract, or ozonated water. Specimens for anaerobic culture were collected three times from the teeth: before irrigation, after initial irrigation, and on the 3rd day after final irrigation. Results and Conclusion: Mean colony forming unit (CFU) count after both initial and final irrigation with ozonated water was significantly lower when compared with green tea and normal saline. Further, it was observed that the mean CFU count with green tea was significantly lower than the counts obtained with normal saline on the 3rd day after final irrigation. Hence, both ozonated water and green tea could be considered a good alternative to conventional root canal irrigants in the primary teeth. Larger sample sizes with a larger variety of irrigants are recommended.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Ozônio , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cavidade Pulpar , Humanos , Pulpectomia , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Solução Salina , Hipoclorito de Sódio , Chá , Dente Decíduo
3.
Surg Clin North Am ; 100(4): 681-693, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681869

RESUMO

Chronic wounds present a unique therapeutic challenge to heal. Chronic wounds are colonized with bacteria and the presence of a biofilm that further inhibits the normal wound healing processes, and are locked into a very damaging proinflammatory response. The treatment of chronic wounds requires a coordinated approach, including debridement of devitalized tissue, minimizing bacteria and biofilm, control of inflammation, and the use of specialized dressings to address the specific aspects of the particular nonhealing ulcer.


Assuntos
Angiopatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Úlcera Cutânea/fisiopatologia , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Crônica , Citocinas/fisiologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/imunologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/terapia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/fisiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Imunidade Celular/fisiologia , Peptídeo Hidrolases/fisiologia , Úlcera Cutânea/imunologia , Úlcera Cutânea/terapia , Cicatrização/imunologia , Infecção dos Ferimentos/imunologia , Infecção dos Ferimentos/fisiopatologia , Infecção dos Ferimentos/terapia
4.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 18(3): 537-542, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515425

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study investigated whether selected natural products could specifically target the growth of a caries-associated bacterial species (Streptococcus mutans) without affecting the viability of a health-associated oral commensal bacterial species (Streptococcus sanguinis). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Agar diffusion assays were used to screen the natural products for bacterial-growth inhibitory effects and the diameters of the inhibitory zones for the two bacterial species compared. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the natural products that showed growth inhibitory effects were determined using the broth microdilution method. RESULTS: Except for the berry extracts (cranberry, wild blueberry, and strawberry), all the other selected natural products (peppermint, ginger, cinnamon, rosemary, liquorice, xanthorrrhizol, tt-farnesol, guaijaverin, and macelignan) exhibited varying degrees of bacterial growth inhibition. The MIC values ranged from as low as 4 µg/ml for xanthorrrhizol to 1000 µg/ml for guaijaverin. All the growth inhibitory natural agents tested showed similar inhibition for both S. mutans and S. sanguinis. CONCLUSIONS: Although several natural products exerted significant antibacterial effects, none had selective inhibitory action on the growth of S. mutans.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Produtos Biológicos , Cárie Dentária , Antibacterianos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Streptococcus mutans
5.
Anticancer Res ; 40(6): 3139-3145, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to directly compare the anti-infectious and anti-cancer effects of five commercially available glucans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used five different glucans isolated from algae, yeast, bacteria, oat, and mushroom. We compared their effects on the stimulation of phagocytosis of blood cells, on the secretion of IL-2, and on the inhibition of melanoma and breast and lung cancers. In addition, we evaluated the effects of glucan supplementation on two experimental models of infection. RESULTS: Most of the tested glucans stimulated phagocytosis and IL-2 secretion, reduced cancer growth, and ameliorated some effects of experimental infections. CONCLUSION: Glucans can produce significant pleiotropic effects, but the activity varies among individual samples.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , beta-Glucanas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia
6.
Water Res ; 181: 115893, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502751

RESUMO

Anthropogenic organohalide contaminants present in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) often remain untreated and can be discharged into the environment. Although organohalide respiring bacteria (OHRB) contribute to the elimination of anthropogenic organohalides in natural anaerobic environments, reductive dehalogenation by OHRB in mainstream WWTPs remains poorly understood. In this study, we quantified OHRB during a long-term operation of a municipal WWTP with short hydraulic and sludge retention times (3 h and 1.5-5 days, respectively). The obligate OHRB were detected at high levels (averaging 2.56 ± 1.73 × 107 and 3.11 ± 1.16 × 107 16S rRNA gene copies/ml MLSS sludge in anoxic and aerobic zones, respectively) over the entire sampling period and throughout the wastewater treatment train. Microcosms derived from mainstream activated sludge contained an unidentified member of the Dehalococcoides genus that metabolically dechlorinated triclosan, used as a representative emerging organohalide antimicrobial, to diclosan, suggesting the potential of anaerobic degradation of emerging contaminants in WWTPs. To further understand the mechanisms for such antimicrobials' removal, an investigation of dechlorination of triclosan by Dehalococcoides strains was conducted. Dechlorination of environmentally relevant concentrations of triclosan to diclosan was observed in Dehalococcoides mccartyi strain CG1, yielding 4.59 ± 0.34 × 108 cells/µmole Cl- removed at a rate of 0.062 µM/day and a minimal inhibitory concentration of 0.5 mg/L. Notably, both the tolerance of strain CG1 to triclosan and the rate of triclosan dechlorination increased when CG1 was cultured in the presence of both triclosan and tetrachloroethene. Taken together, our results suggest that anaerobic degradation of organohalide antimicrobials might be more prevalent in mainstream WWTPs than previously speculated, though the low growth yields that are supported by triclosan dechlorination seem to indicate that other organohalide substrates could be necessary to sustain OHRB populations in these systems.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Chloroflexi , Bactérias , Biodegradação Ambiental , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Águas Residuárias
7.
AAPS J ; 22(4): 86, 2020 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533263

RESUMO

The co-administration of hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin is proposed in COVID-19 therapy. We hypothesize a new mechanism supporting the synergistic interaction between these drugs. Azithromycin is a substrate of ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein) which is localized in endosomes and lysosomes with a polarized substrate transport from the cell cytosol into the vesicle interior. SARS-CoV-2 and drugs meet in these acidic organelles and both basic drugs, which are potent lysosomotropic compounds, will become protonated and trapped within these vesicles. Consequently, their intra-vesicular concentrations can attain low micromolar effective cytotoxic concentrations on SARS-CoV-2 while concomitantly increase the intra-vesicular pH up to around neutrality. This last effect inhibits lysosomal enzyme activities responsible in virus entry and replication cycle. Based on these considerations, we hypothesize that ABCB1 could be a possible enhancer by confining azithromycin more extensively than expected when the trapping is solely dependent on the passive diffusion. This additional mechanism may therefore explain the synergistic effect when azithromycin is added to hydroxychloroquine, leading to apparently more rapid virus clearance and better clinical benefit, when compared to monotherapy with hydroxychloroquine alone.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Azitromicina/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Hidroxicloroquina/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/agonistas , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Pandemias
8.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 3447-3470, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32523343

RESUMO

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanostructures are one of the most plentiful compounds that have emerged in various fields of technology such as medicine, energy and biosensing. Various TiO2 nanostructures (nanotubes [NTs] and nanowires) have been employed in photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensing applications, greatly enhancing the detection of targets. TiO2 nanostructures, used as reinforced material or coatings for the bare surface of titanium implants, are excellent additive materials to compensate titanium implants deficiencies-like poor surface interaction with surrounding tissues-by providing nanoporous surfaces and hierarchical structures. These nanostructures can also be loaded by diversified drugs-like osteoporosis drugs, anticancer and antibiotics-and used as local drug delivery systems. Furthermore, TiO2 nanostructures and their derivatives are new emerging antimicrobial agents to overcome human pathogenic microorganisms. However, like all other nanomaterials, toxicity and biocompatibility of TiO2 nanostructures must be considered. This review highlights recent advances, along with the properties and numerous applications of TiO2-based nanostructure compounds in nano biosensing, medical implants, drug delivery and antibacterial fields. Moreover, in the present study, some recent advances accomplished on the pharmaceutical applications of TiO2 nanostructures, as well as its toxicity and biocompatibility, are presented.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Biomédica/métodos , Nanoestruturas/química , Titânio/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Próteses e Implantes , Titânio/toxicidade
9.
Braz Dent J ; 31(2): 103-108, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556007

RESUMO

Periodontopathogenic subgingival biofilm is the main etiological agent of periodontitis. Thus, a search for antimicrobials as adjuvant for periodontal treatment in the literature is intense. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) is a well-known antimicrobial agent commonly used in mouthrinses. However, CPC effects on a complex biofilm model were not found over the literature. Therefore, the aim of this manuscript is to evaluate 0.075% CPC antimicrobial properties in a multispecies subgingival biofilm model in vitro. The subgingival biofilm composed by 31 species related to periodontitis was formed for 7 days, using the calgary device. The treatments with CPC and chlorhexidine (CHX) 0.12% (as positive control) were performed 2x/day, for 1 min, from day 3 until the end of experimental period, totaling 8 treatments. After 7 days of biofilm formation, biofilm metabolic activity was evaluated by a colorimetric reaction and biofilms microbial composition by DNA-DNA hybridization. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA with data transformed via BOX-COX followed by Dunnett post-hoc. Both CPC and CHX reduced biofilm metabolic activity in 60% and presented antimicrobial activity against 13 different species. Specifically, only CHX reduced levels of F.n. vicentii and P. gingivalis while only CPC reduced A. odontolyticus and A. israelli. CPC was as effective as CHX as antimicrobial through in vitro complex multispecies subgingival biofilm. However, future studies using in vivo models of experimental periodontal disease should be performed to prove such effect.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Anti-Infecciosos , Antibacterianos , Biofilmes , Cetilpiridínio , Clorexidina
10.
Elife ; 92020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510329
12.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(7): 906-913, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546437

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To identify the clinical characteristics and outcomes of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Oman. METHODS: A case series of hospitalized COVID-19 laboratory-confirmed patients between February 24th through April 24th, 2020, from two hospitals in Oman. Analyses were performed using univariate statistics. RESULTS: The cohort included 63 patients with an overall mean age of 48±16 years and 84% (n=53) were males. A total of 38% (n=24) of the hospitalized patients were admitted to intensive care unit (ICU). Fifty one percent (n=32) of patients had at least one co-morbidity with diabetes mellitus (DM) (32%; n=20) and hypertension (32%; n=20) as the most common co-morbidities followed by chronic heart and renal diseases (12.8%; n=8). The most common presenting symptoms at onset of illness were fever (84%; n=53), cough (75%; n=47) and shortness of breaths (59%; n=37). All except two patients (97%; n=61) were treated with either chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, while the three most prescribed antibiotics were ceftriaxone (79%; n=50), azithromycin (71%; n=45), and the piperacillin/tazobactam combination (49%; n=31). A total of 59% (n=37), 49% (n=31) and 24% (n=15) of the patients were on lopinavir/ritonavir, interferons, or steroids, respectively. Mortality was documented in (8%; n=5) of the patients while 68% (n=43) of the study cohort recovered. Mortality was associated with those that were admitted to ICU (19% vs 0; p=0.009), mechanically ventilated (31% vs 0; p=0.001), had DM (20% vs 2.3%; p=0.032), older (62 vs 47 years; p=0.045), had high total bilirubin (43% vs 2.3%; p=0.007) and those with high C-reactive protein (186 vs 90mg/dL; p=0.009) and low corrected calcium (15% vs 0%; p=0.047). CONCLUSIONS: ICU admission, those on mechanical ventilation, the elderly, those with high total bilirubin and low corrected calcium were associated with high mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Envelhecimento , Bilirrubina/sangue , Cálcio/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Omã/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Respiração Artificial , Fatores de Risco
13.
J Environ Manage ; 270: 110831, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32507740

RESUMO

A simple biogenic approach for synthesis of Fe3O4/Au nanocomposite with 31 nm size using aqueous extract of Carum carvi L. seeds has been reported. Phytochemicals of Carum carvi L. seeds extract play three roles, including reducing, capping, and stabilizing agents during the nanocomposite fabrication process. Resulting nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, differential reflectance spectroscopy, vibrating-sample magnetometer, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray elemental mapping. Differential reflectance spectroscopy investigated optical property and absorption spectra display a sharp absorption agreeing to a bandgap of 1.6 eV. Photocatalytic activity of biogenic Fe3O4/Au nanocomposite has been investigated for degradation of imatinib and imipenem drugs under UV and visible light irradiation, due to pharmaceuticals have shown to be recalcitrant in wastewater and conventional wastewater treatments do not remove them, often. Degradation efficiency of imatinib, and imipenem are about 92% and 96% after 1200 s exposure UV light and about 82% and 84% after 3600s exposure visible light in the concentration of 10 ppm drugs. Also, antimicrobial activity of biogenic Fe3O4/Au nanocomposite was investigated on three human pathogens and best result can see in 25 mg/mL of nanocomposite versuse Bacillus subtilis that inhibition zone is about 27 mm. Design of nanocomposites capable of simultaneously removing pharmaceutical and microbial contaminations is important in environments such as hospitals wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Nanocompostos , Catálise , Fotólise , Difração de Raios X
14.
PLoS Biol ; 18(6): e3000644, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511236

RESUMO

Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are abundant antimicrobial T cells in humans and recognize antigens derived from the microbial riboflavin biosynthetic pathway presented by the MHC-Ib-related protein (MR1). However, the mechanisms responsible for MAIT cell antimicrobial activity are not fully understood, and the efficacy of these mechanisms against antibiotic resistant bacteria has not been explored. Here, we show that MAIT cells mediate MR1-restricted antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli clinical strains in a manner dependent on the activity of cytolytic proteins but independent of production of pro-inflammatory cytokines or induction of apoptosis in infected cells. The combined action of the pore-forming antimicrobial protein granulysin and the serine protease granzyme B released in response to T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated recognition of MR1-presented antigen is essential to mediate control against both cell-associated and free-living, extracellular forms of E. coli. Furthermore, MAIT cell-mediated bacterial control extends to multidrug-resistant E. coli primary clinical isolates additionally resistant to carbapenems, a class of last resort antibiotics. Notably, high levels of granulysin and granzyme B in the MAIT cell secretomes directly damage bacterial cells by increasing their permeability, rendering initially resistant E. coli susceptible to the bactericidal activity of carbapenems. These findings define the role of cytolytic effector proteins in MAIT cell-mediated antimicrobial activity and indicate that granulysin and granzyme B synergize to restore carbapenem bactericidal activity and overcome carbapenem resistance in E. coli.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Granzimas/metabolismo , Células T Invariáveis Associadas à Mucosa/imunologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Carga Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Citotoxicidade Imunológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HeLa , Humanos , Cinética
15.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(2): 178-182, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381824

RESUMO

AIM: To compare the antimicrobial efficacy of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO at 2.5% and 5.25%) and calcium hypochlorite [Ca(ClO)2 at 2.5%] on a biofilm of Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212™ and Candida albicans ATCC 10231™. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed an experimental in vitro study. Strains of C. albicans and E. faecalis, which had previously been reactivated were used. Then the colonies to be used were standardized in a turbidity standard to guarantee a quantity of 108 (CFU/mL) using the McFarland scale (0.5). Subsequently, the biofilm formed in brain-heart infusion agar was seeded into 42 sterile disks previously embedded with the experimental substances. Both 2.5% NaClO and Ca(ClO)2 solutions were placed in each Petri dish. They were then incubated at 37°C for 24 hours and the inhibition halos were measured using the Kirby-Bauer technique. RESULTS: The means between the halos corresponding to NaClO and Ca(ClO)2 at 2.5% were 13.38 ± 0.64 mm and 13.42 ± 0.62 mm, respectively. According to the Tukey test, no statistically significant differences were found between the hypochlorite groups evaluated (p = 0.989). CONCLUSION: Both Ca(ClO)2 and NaClO have a similar antimicrobial efficacy with biofilm based on E. faecalis and C. albicans, with no statistically significant differences between the two. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates the effectiveness of Ca(ClO)2 and NaClO as endodontic irrigators to combat the most frequent microorganisms of the root canal.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Enterococcus faecalis , Biofilmes , Cálcio , Candida albicans , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular , Hipoclorito de Sódio
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(21): 26845-26855, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32382904

RESUMO

This work describes the development of novel electrospun nanofibrous membranes (ENMs) prepared by embedding graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) into poly (ether) sulfone (PES). FTIR and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the successful incorporation of the GOQDs into the PES membranes. The optimal electrospinning polymer concentration that showed no defects or bead formation was at 26 wt% of the PES polymer. Spectroscopy, microscopy and contact angle were some of the techniques used to characterize the ENMs. SEM images showed smooth and unbranched ENMs. The average diameter upon incorporation of the GOQDs was determined to be 2.45 µm. XRD revealed that the GOQDs were structurally close to graphite with an interlaying space of 0.36 nm. The antimicrobial effect of the GOQDs-PES electrospun nanofibrous membranes was assessed against three bacterial strains (Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Bacillus cereus (B. cereus)) using the disc diffusion method. The electrospun nanofibres containing 10 wt% of GOQDs showed the most active antimicrobial activity against all three bacterial strains tested. The zones of inhibition ranged from 9 to 40 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined to be 0.5 mg/mL, 0.3 mg/mL and 0.2 mg/mL for E. coli, B. cereus and S. aureus, respectively. The results demonstrated that incorporating GOQDs in the PES nanofibre gives rise to new antimicrobial properties, and as a result, the GOQDs-PES nanofibrous membrane can be used in antimicrobial applications such as water treatment.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Grafite , Nanofibras , Pontos Quânticos , Escherichia coli , Éter , Éteres , Staphylococcus aureus , Sulfonas
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 735: 139530, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473436

RESUMO

Novel composites of BEA zeolite and silver tungstophosphate were prepared by different procedures: two-step impregnation, ion-exchange, and as physical mixtures with varying component mass ratios. Composites were characterized using Atomic force microscopy, Infrared, Raman and Atomic absorption spectroscopy, and results were related to adsorption properties and antimicrobial efficiencies of the composites. Prepared samples were tested as antimicrobial agents for fungal and different bacterial strains, as well as for adsorbents for pesticide nicosulfuron in aqueous solutions by using High-performance liquid chromatography. Experimental conditions for batch adsorption testing were optimized in order to efficiently eliminate nicosulfuron from aqueous solutions, while enabling antimicrobial activity of these advanced materials. Antimicrobial efficiency of composites was verified, and indicated that silver ion persistence in the solid phase is of utmost significance for the antimicrobial activity. Spectroscopic investigation revealed interaction of the silver tungstophosphate active phase and the zeolite framework, giving evidence of uniform distribution of active sites in the synthesized materials that proved to be essential for adsorption application. The best obtained adsorption capacity, as well as highest antimicrobial efficiency, is found for composite samples prepared by two-step impregnation with (BEA: silver tungstophosphate) mass ratio 2:1. The amount of nicosulfuron removed from water suspension was 38.2 mg per gram of composite, and the minimum inhibitory concentration determined for all investigated gram-negative bacteria was 125 µg mL-1.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Praguicidas , Zeolitas , Adsorção , Prata
20.
Planta Med ; 86(11): 732-748, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32422667

RESUMO

The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge acquired on preclinical (incision, excision, and dead space wound models) and clinical studies regarding topically used herbal products with wound healing activity. The antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant mechanisms of their action as well as the adverse effects of herbal therapy will be described. Numerous preclinical and few clinical trials have confirmed the activity of herbal products in the stimulation of wound healing. In contrast to synthetic drugs, for which chemical compositions, purity, efficacy, minimal active concentration, and toxicity are well specified, several herbal formulations require further investigations. Nevertheless, it cannot be precluded that herbal products may be considered as an important support during conventional wound healing therapy or even as synthetic medicament replacements.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Cicatrização , Anti-Inflamatórios , Antioxidantes , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais
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