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1.
Lancet ; 395(10234): 1404-1405, 2020 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359455
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(18): 533-539, 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379728

RESUMO

In 2017, approximately one in three U.S. adults reported having been told by a health care professional that they had high blood pressure (hypertension) (1). Although hypertension prevalence is well documented at national and state levels, less is known about rural-urban variation and county-level prevalence. To examine prevalence of self-reported hypertension and antihypertensive medication use by rural-urban classification and county, CDC analyzed data reported by 442,641 adults aged ≥18 years who participated in the 2017 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). In rural (noncore) areas, 40.0% (unadjusted prevalence) of adults reported having hypertension, whereas in the most urban (large central metro) areas, 29.4% reported having hypertension. Age-standardized hypertension prevalence was significantly higher in the most rural areas, compared with the most urban areas within nearly all categories of age, sex, and other demographic characteristics. Model-based hypertension prevalence across counties ranged from 18.0% to 55.0% and was highest in Southeastern* and Appalachian† counties. Model-based county-level prevalence of antihypertensive medication use among adults with hypertension ranged from 54.3% to 84.7%. Medication use also was higher in rural areas compared with use in most urban areas, with prevalence highest in Southeastern and Appalachian counties as well as counties in the Dakotas and Nebraska. CDC is working with states to enhance hypertension awareness and management through a strategy of team-based care that involves physicians, nurses, pharmacists, dietitians, and community health workers. The increased use of telemedicine to support this strategy might improve access to care among underserved populations.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 757-760, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228222

RESUMO

The dysfunction of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been observed in coronavirus infection disease (COVID-19) patients, but whether RAS inhibitors, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs), are associated with clinical outcomes remains unknown. COVID-19 patients with hypertension were enrolled to evaluate the effect of RAS inhibitors. We observed that patients receiving ACEI or ARB therapy had a lower rate of severe diseases and a trend toward a lower level of IL-6 in peripheral blood. In addition, ACEI or ARB therapy increased CD3 and CD8 T cell counts in peripheral blood and decreased the peak viral load compared to other antihypertensive drugs. This evidence supports the benefit of using ACEIs or ARBs to potentially contribute to the improvement of clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients with hypertension.


Assuntos
Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Complexo CD3 , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/virologia , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral
4.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e923696, 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND This study evaluated the impact of clinical features and concomitant conditions on the clinical selection of different renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors in patients with hypertension, and built a renin-angiotensin inhibitors selection model (RAISM) to provide a reference for clinical decision making. MATERIAL AND METHODS We included 213 hypertensive patients in the study cohort; patients were divided into two groups: the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) combined with calcium channel blocker (CCB) group (ACEI+CCB group) and the angiotensin receptor antagonist (ARB) combined with CCB group (ARB+CCB group). Basic demographic characteristics and concomitant conditions of the patients were compared. Single-factor and multi-factor analysis was performed by adopting logistic regression model. The RAISM was established by utilizing the nomograph technology. C-index and calibration curve were used to evaluate the model's efficacy. RESULTS In the study, 34.27% of the patients used ACEI+CCB and 65.73% of patients used ARB+CCB. The difference in age, body mass index (BMI), elderly patient, diabetes, renal dysfunction, and hyperlipidemia between the 2 groups determined medication selection. To be specific, compared to the group using ARB+CCB, the odds ratios and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the aforementioned factors for the ACEI+CCB group were 0.476 (0.319-0.711), 1.274 (1.001-1.622), 0.365 (0.180-0.743), 0.471 (0.203-1.092), 0.542 (0.268-1.094), and 0.270 (0.100-0.728), respectively; The C-index of RAISM acquired from the model construction parameters was 0.699, and the correction curve demonstrated that the model has good discriminative ability. CONCLUSIONS The outcome of our study suggests that independent discriminating factors that influence the clinical selection of different RAS inhibitors were elderly patient, renal insufficiency, and hyperlipidemia; and the RAISM constructed in this study has good predictability and clinical benefit.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(16): e19583, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311925

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hypertension (systemic arterial hypertension [SAH]) is a systemic condition that affects about 30% of the world population, according to data from the World Health Organization (WHO). Drugs used to control this disease have the potential to induce xerostomia, an oral condition in which the decrease of the salivary flow is observed and whose presence leads to the increase of the index of caries, periodontal disease, loss of the teeth, dysgeusia, difficulty of mastication, dysphagia, bad breath and oral burning and impairment of prothesis installed in the buccal cavity, including retention of removable and total dentures. METHODS: This is a randomized, placebo-controlled, blind clinical protocol that aims to analyze the impact of phobiomodulation (PBM) on salivary glands of patients with antihypertensive drug induced xerostomia. Patients will be divided into 2 groups: G1: older adults with xerostomia induced by antihypertensive drugs and treatment with PBM (n = 30); G2: placebo PBM (n = 30). The irradiation will be made using a diode laser emitting at 808 nm with 100 mW and 40 seconds of exposure per site at the salivary glands. Twenty sites will be irradiated weekly for 4 weeks. Non-stimulated and stimulated salivary flow will be analyzed before and after the treatment. RESULTS: This protocol will determine the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy regarding the reduction of xerostomia in older adults using antihypertensive drugs. CONCLUSION: This protocol will determine the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy regarding the reduction of xerostomia in older adults using antihypertensive drugs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov - NCT03632096.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Lasers Semicondutores/uso terapêutico , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade , Salivação/efeitos da radiação , Xerostomia/metabolismo , Xerostomia/radioterapia , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Saliva/metabolismo , Xerostomia/induzido quimicamente
9.
Lancet ; 395(10234): 1444-1451, 2020 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Catheter-based renal denervation has significantly reduced blood pressure in previous studies. Following a positive pilot trial, the SPYRAL HTN-OFF MED (SPYRAL Pivotal) trial was designed to assess the efficacy of renal denervation in the absence of antihypertensive medications. METHODS: In this international, prospective, single-blinded, sham-controlled trial, done at 44 study sites in Australia, Austria, Canada, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Japan, the UK, and the USA, hypertensive patients with office systolic blood pressure of 150 mm Hg to less than 180 mm Hg were randomly assigned 1:1 to either a renal denervation or sham procedure. The primary efficacy endpoint was baseline-adjusted change in 24-h systolic blood pressure and the secondary efficacy endpoint was baseline-adjusted change in office systolic blood pressure from baseline to 3 months after the procedure. We used a Bayesian design with an informative prior, so the primary analysis combines evidence from the pilot and Pivotal trials. The primary efficacy and safety analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02439749. FINDINGS: From June 25, 2015, to Oct 15, 2019, 331 patients were randomly assigned to either renal denervation (n=166) or a sham procedure (n=165). The primary and secondary efficacy endpoints were met, with posterior probability of superiority more than 0·999 for both. The treatment difference between the two groups for 24-h systolic blood pressure was -3·9 mm Hg (Bayesian 95% credible interval -6·2 to -1·6) and for office systolic blood pressure the difference was -6·5 mm Hg (-9·6 to -3·5). No major device-related or procedural-related safety events occurred up to 3 months. INTERPRETATION: SPYRAL Pivotal showed the superiority of catheter-based renal denervation compared with a sham procedure to safely lower blood pressure in the absence of antihypertensive medications. FUNDING: Medtronic.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/cirurgia , Rim/inervação , Rim/cirurgia , Adulto , Anti-Hipertensivos/normas , Austrália/epidemiologia , Áustria/epidemiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/etnologia , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Simpatectomia/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1177: 149-268, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246447

RESUMO

Hypertension is still the number one global killer. No matter what causes are, lowering blood pressure can significantly reduce cardiovascular complications, cardiovascular death, and total death. Unfortunately, some hypertensive individuals simply do not know having hypertension. Some knew it but either not being treated or treated but blood pressure does not achieve goal. The reasons for inadequate control of blood pressure are many. One important reason is that we are not very familiar with antihypertensive agents and less attention has been paid to comorbidities, complications as well as the hypertension-modified target organ damage in patients with hypertension. The right antihypertensive drug was not given to the right hypertensive patients at right time. This reviewer studied comprehensively the literature, hopefully that the review will help improve antihypertensive drug selection and antihypertensive therapy.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos
11.
J Glob Health ; 10(1): 010805, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32257169

RESUMO

Methods: We used the baseline survey and first follow-up surveys of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study of middle-aged and older populations conducted between 2011 and 2013. Correlates of effective coverage and treatment coverage for hypertension were analysed using multivariate logistic regression models, after controlling for demographic characteristics. Results: In 2011, 38.40% of 13 702 individuals surveyed were identified with hypertension. Overall, the effective treatment coverage among the middle-aged and older population in China from 2011 to 2013 was only 22.40% compared to the treatment coverage of 55.86%. Variations in effective coverage among patients enrolled in the three public health insurance schemes ranged from 22.60% to 29.31%. Conclusions: The level of effective coverage for hypertension treatment in China was still very low, and that health insurance schemes play a significant role in improving treatment coverage and effective coverage for hypertension treatment. In the implementation of China's health system reform, health equity and health care equality should be emphasised and enhanced by offering more equitable benefits packages across social health insurance schemes.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anti-Hipertensivos/economia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Envelhecimento Saudável , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aposentadoria , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/economia
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(14): 393-398, 2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271727

RESUMO

Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a major risk factor for heart disease and stroke (1). The prevalence of hypertension is higher among men than among women, increases with age, is highest among non-Hispanic blacks (blacks) (2), and has been consistently highest in the Southeastern region of the United States (1). To update prevalence estimates for self-reported hypertension and use of antihypertensive medication, CDC analyzed data from the 2017 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). The overall (unadjusted) prevalence of self-reported hypertension was 32.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 32.1%-32.7%). The age-standardized, median state-specific prevalence of self-reported hypertension was 29.7% (range = 24.3%-38.6%). Overall age-standardized hypertension prevalence was higher among men (32.9%) than among women (27.0%), highest among blacks (40.0%), decreased with increasing levels of education and household income, and was generally highest in the Southeastern and Appalachian states.* Among persons reporting hypertension, the overall unadjusted prevalence of self-reported antihypertensive medication use was 76.0% (95% CI = 75.5%-76.4%). The age-standardized, median state-specific prevalence of antihypertensive medication use among persons with reported hypertension was 59.4% (range = 50.2%-71.2%). Prevalence was higher among women than men, highest among blacks compared with other racial/ethnic groups, and highest among states in the Southeast, Appalachia, and the Dakotas. These findings can help inform CDC's initiatives to enhance hypertension awareness, treatment, and control across all states.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Autorrelato , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(17): e19769, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332617

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: High blood pressure is the leading modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality and with significant health care costs for individuals and society. However, fewer than half of the patients with hypertension receiving pharmacological treatment have adequate blood pressure control. The main reasons for this are therapeutic inertia, lack of adherence to treatment, and unhealthy lifestyle (i.e., excess dietary fat and salt, sedentary lifestyle, and overweight). Cardiovascular risk and mortality are greater in hypertensive patients who are receiving treatment but have suboptimal control of blood pressure. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a multicentre, parallel, 2-arm, single-blind (outcome assessor), controled, cluster-randomized clinical trial. General practitioners and nurses will be randomly allocated to the intervention group (self-management of antihypertensive medication, self-measurement of blood pressure, hypocaloric and low sodium diet, and physical exercise) or the control group (regular clinical practice). A total of 424 patients in primary care centers who use 2 or more antihypertensive drugs and blood pressure of at least 130/80 during 24-hambulatory blood pressure monitoring will be recruited. The primary outcome is systolic blood pressure at 12 months. The secondary outcomes are blood pressure control (<140/90 mm Hg); quality of life (EuroQol 5D); direct health care costs; adherence to use of antihypertensive medication; and cardiovascular risk (REGICOR and SCORE scales). DISCUSSION: This trial will be conducted in the primary care setting and will evaluate the impact of a multifactorial intervention consisting of self-management of blood pressure, antihypertensive medications, and lifestyle modifications (hypocaloric and low sodium diet and physical exercise).


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/normas , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/normas , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Restrição Calórica/métodos , Análise por Conglomerados , Dieta Hipossódica/métodos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/psicologia , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Autogestão/métodos , Autogestão/psicologia , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 27(2): 105-108, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32266708

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases, in particular hypertension, as well as the cardiovascular treatment with Renin-Angiotensin System inhibitors such as Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs), are claimed once again as mechanisms of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) during the COVID-19 outbreak due to Cov-2 epidemics. In vitro studies are available to support the eventual role of ACE inhibitors and ARBs in both the promotion and antagonism of the disease. The available literature, indeed, presents contrasting results, all concentrated in experimental models. Evidence in humans is lacking that those mechanisms are actually occurring in the present COVID-19 outbreak. Here we present the reasoned statement of the Italian Society of Hypertension to maintain ongoing antihypertensive treatments. Furthermore, the Italian Society of Hypertension presents its own initiative to investigate the issue using an online questionnaire to collect relevant data in human disease.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Anti-Hipertensivos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Itália , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Wiad Lek ; 73(1): 46-51, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124805

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To evaluate the dynamics of structural and functional parameters of the heart, vessels in patients with hypertension of the II-nd stage under the influence of combined antihypertensive treatment depending on the type of the left ventricle remodelling and the profile of blood pressure (BP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The study involved 110 patients with hypertension of the II-nd stage. The ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, echocardiography and Doppler examination of the shoulder arteries were performed. Initial treatment included bisoprolol, lisinopril, hydrochlorothiazide. With impossibility of BP lowering to the target level, amlodipine has been added. RESULTS: Results: higher levels of BP in the "non-dipper" patients have led to the development of more pronounced changes in the heart and vessels compared with "dipper" patients. Three-component therapy was effective in patients with lower BP. The prescription of amlodipine has been found to be necessary for the majority of "non-dipper" patients and for the minority of "dipper". Combined therapy effectively controlled the BP at the level of the target and contributed to a decrease in the displays of remodelling of the heart and blood vessels. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: combined therapy used for 6 months reduces displays of disadaptive heart and vascular remodelling, diastolic, endothelial dysfunction. With the lack of efficacy of the therapy, which includes bisoprolol, lisinopril, hydrochlorothiazide, the adding of amlodipine to it can reach the target level of BP.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão Essencial/tratamento farmacológico , Anlodipino , Pressão Sanguínea , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Ventrículos do Coração , Humanos
20.
Drug Discov Ther ; 14(2): 105-106, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213760

RESUMO

Based on some publications that associate SARS-CoV-2 infection with the use of anti-hypertensive drug groups such as angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (e.g. enalapril) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (e.g. losartan), many patients from South America, Central America or Spain, have stopped or intend to interrupt their treatments with these drugs. Hence, it may exist ominous consequences due to this drop out. For this reason, it is necessary to quickly warn about this situation and the risks associated with it.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Hipertensão/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Enalapril/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Losartan/efeitos adversos , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A , Internalização do Vírus
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