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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 738: 139828, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534275

RESUMO

We studied the prevalence of anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) in liver and muscle tissues of wild boar captured in the urban area of Barcelona, the suburban area of Collserola Natural Park and the rural area of Santa Quiteria, next to Cabañeros National Park, in Spain. The objective was to assess the influence of both urbanisation and wild boar (Sus scrofa) trophic opportunism on the accumulation of these compounds. We have also evaluated the risk for human consumers of this game meat. Wild boars from Barcelona city showed the highest prevalence of ARs detection (60.8%), followed by the adjoining suburban area of Collserola N.P. (40%) and the rural distant area of Santa Quiteria (7.7%). Liver bioaccumulated ARs (45.2%) more frequently than muscle (11.9%). A significant proportion (13.7%) of wild boar captured in Barcelona city exceeded 200 ng/g of total ARs in liver, a threshold for adverse effects on blood clotting. For difenacoum, there was a predominance of cis isomer, while for brodifacoum and bromadiolone cis and trans isomers appeared in a similar proportion. According to the scarce available information on ARs toxicity in humans, the risk of acute poisoning from game meat consumption seems to be low. However, repeated exposure through liver consumption should be considered in further risk assessments because of the high concentration detected in some samples (up to 0.68 mg/kg).


Assuntos
Rodenticidas/análise , Animais , Anticoagulantes , Cidades , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , Espanha , Sus scrofa , Suínos
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 740: 139905, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563868

RESUMO

Prevalent findings of anticoagulant rodenticide (AR) residues in liver tissue of freshwater fish recently emphasized the existence of aquatic exposure pathways. Thus, a comprehensive wastewater treatment plant and surface water monitoring campaign was conducted at two urban catchments in Germany in 2018 and 2019 to investigate potential emission sources of ARs into the aquatic environment. Over several months, the occurrence and fate of all eight ARs authorized in the European Union as well as two pharmaceutical anticoagulants was monitored in a variety of aqueous, solid, and biological environmental matrices during and after widespread sewer baiting with AR-containing bait. As a result, sewer baiting in combined sewer systems, besides outdoor rodent control at the surface, was identified as a substantial contributor of these biocidal active ingredients in the aquatic environment. In conjunction with heavy or prolonged precipitation during bait application in combined sewer systems, a direct link between sewer baiting and AR residues in wastewater treatment plant influent, effluent, and the liver of freshwater fish was established. Moreover, study results confirmed insufficient removal of anticoagulants during conventional wastewater treatment and thus indirect exposure of aquatic organisms in receiving streams via tertiary treated effluents and combined sewer overflows. Nevertheless, further research is required to determine the ecological implications and risks for aquatic organisms as well as fish-eating predators from chronic AR exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations.


Assuntos
Rodenticidas , Animais , Anticoagulantes , Monitoramento Ambiental , Alemanha , Controle de Roedores , Águas Residuárias
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 733: 139366, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446086

RESUMO

Episodes of indoor exposure to toxic compounds in companion animals are frequent. Toxico-epidemiological data on this matter are fundamental not only to take proper corrective actions but especially because domestic animals represent crucial sentinels for environmental toxicants. In this review we will present an overview on indoor poisoning of companion animals by chemicals in Europe, providing information on trends and emphasizing emerging indoor contaminants. In general, pesticides are the most frequent class of toxicants involved in indoor animal poisoning episodes in Europe. Among them, insecticides (in particular anticholinesterase compounds) and anticoagulant rodenticides are frequently implicated, but molluscicides (i.e. metaldehyde) together with household products have also shown a growing or at least stable trend in the poisoning episodes. Considering the emerging molecules, neonicotinoids (imidacloprid and acetamiprid) and glyphosate formulations have been pointed out, whereas with regard to households, besides the well-known ethylene glycol, attention should be paid to emerging products such as sodium polyacrylate polymeric hydrogels, xylitol, glowsticks and liquid laundry detergent capsules. The environmental contamination by chemical households is a global challenge and bioindicators like pets may be valuable tools to perform a comprehensive monitoring and risk assessment.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Praguicidas , Envenenamento , Rodenticidas , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Animais de Estimação
4.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447894

RESUMO

Acute osteofascial compartment syndrome is a series of symptoms and signs caused by acute ischemia of muscles and nerves in osteofascial compartment. If it is not treated in time, it can lead to tissue necrosis. It is rare that it is caused by rodenticide poisoning. Such patients are often difficult to diagnose and treat early and have poor prognosis. In May 2018, a patient with acute osteofascial compartment syndrome caused by anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning was admitted to the Twelfth Hospital of Guangzhou City. After systematic treatment, he finally recovered and discharged. The early manifestations of this patient were mainly coagulation dysfunction, and finally acute osteofascial compartment syndrome. 5 days later, the diagnosis was made, and the operation of incision decompression and vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) was performed.


Assuntos
Síndromes Compartimentais/induzido quimicamente , Rodenticidas/envenenamento , Síndromes Compartimentais/terapia , Drenagem , Fáscia/patologia , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 724: 138218, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247128

RESUMO

Anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) are regularly used around the world to control pest mammals. Second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs) are highly persistent in biological tissue and have a high potential for bioaccumulation and biomagnification. Consequently, exposure and poisoning of non-target organisms has been frequently documented, especially in countries with unregulated AR sales and usage. Most of this research has focussed on rodent-predators, usually raptors and predatory mammals, although exposure has also been documented in invertebrates and insectivorous fauna. Few studies have explored non-target exposure in reptiles, despite species sharing similar trophic positions and dietary preferences to other exposed fauna. We tested three abundant urban reptile species in Perth, Western Australia that differ in diet and trophic tiers for multiple AR exposure, the dugite Pseudonaja affinis (rodent-predator), the bobtail Tiliqua rugosa (omnivore) and the tiger snake Notechis scutatus occidentalis (frog-predator). We found frequent exposure in all three species (91% in dugites, 60% in bobtails and 45% in tiger snakes). Mean combined liver concentrations of ARs of exposed individuals were 0.178 mg/kg in dugites, 0.040 mg/kg in bobtails and 0.009 mg/kg in tiger snakes. High exposure frequency and liver concentration was expected for the dugite. Exposure in the other species is more surprising and implies widespread AR contamination of the food web. We discuss the likelihood of global AR exposure of urban reptiles, highlight the potential for reptiles to be important vectors of ARs in the food web and highlight implications for humans consuming wild reptiles.


Assuntos
Rodenticidas , Animais , Anticoagulantes , Monitoramento Ambiental , Répteis , Austrália Ocidental
6.
Aust Vet J ; 98(6): 225-231, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32189335

RESUMO

Four dogs with anticoagulant rodenticide toxicosis were treated with intravenous vitamin K1 in lieu of plasma transfusion due to client cost constraints. Two dogs experienced a suspected anaphylactoid reaction, necessitating cessation of the treatment in one dog. Prothrombin time was rechecked 1 h after treatment in the remaining three dogs and all results were within the normal reference range. All four dogs were discharged from hospital within 48 h of presentation. Intravenous vitamin K1 rapidly reverses the coagulopathic state in dogs with anticoagulant rodenticide toxicosis. It is a viable alternative therapy to plasma transfusion if circumstances preclude its use; however, patients must be monitored for anaphylactoid reactions.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Rodenticidas , Animais , Anticoagulantes , Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos/veterinária , Cães , Plasma , Tempo de Protrombina/veterinária , Vitamina K 1
7.
Aquat Toxicol ; 221: 105429, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035410

RESUMO

Anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) are used in rat eradication efforts on island wildlife refuges. AR bait pellets can get into coral reef areas during broadcasting and lead to exposure of non-target organisms, such as marine fishes. The objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity of representative saltwater fishes, Red-toothed triggerfish (Odonus niger) and Black triggerfish (Melichthys niger), and common freshwater fishes, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) to first generation ARs, diphacinone (DPN) and chlorophacinone (CPN), as well as a second-generation AR, brodifacoum (BROD). Acute toxicity of ARs was evaluated by single dose, intraperitoneal injections. The median lethal dose (LD50) ranges were 137-175 µg DPN/g, 155-182 µg CPN/g, and 36-48 µg BROD/g for Red-toothed triggerfish and 90-122 µg DPN/g, 125-164 µg CPN/g, and 50-75 µg BROD/g for black triggerfish. Laboratory surrogate test fish species fathead minnow and largemouth bass were of similar sensitivity toward AR-induced toxicity compared to triggerfish based on LD50 values. Sublethal effects on elevated clotting time occurred in dose-dependent fashion in all fish tested. Fish appear to have low sensitivity to AR chemicals as compared to other taxa, in particular mammals and birds, based on across-taxa comparisons of species sensitivity distributions of whole body, single dose acute lethality (LD50 values). The sensitivity of fish to waterborne exposures of ARs has yet to be fully evaluated and indeed may prove more hazardous to fish.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/toxicidade , Bass/sangue , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Cyprinidae/sangue , Rodenticidas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea , Dose Letal Mediana , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639498

RESUMO

Worldwide use of anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) for rodents control has frequently led to secondary poisoning of non-target animals, especially raptors. In order to suggest some factors that may help considering the mechanism of the incidents, this study focused on the avian vitamin K 2, 3-epoxide reductase (VKOR) that is the target protein of ARs. We addressed the interspecific differences in VKOR activity and inhibition related to amino acid sequence and mRNA expression of VKORC1 and VKORC1-like1 (VKORC1L1). Poultry have been considered to be more tolerant to ARs than mammals. However, VKOR activity of owls, hawks, falcon and surprisingly, canaries, was lower and inhibited by warfarin more easily than that of chickens and turkeys. The amino acid sequence of VKORC1 and VKORC1L1 implied that the value of Ki for VKOR activity to ARs could depend on the amino acid at position 140 in the TYX warfarin-binding motif in VKORC1, and other amino acid mutations in VKORC1L1. The mRNA expression ratio of VKORC1:VKORC1L1 differed between turkey (8:1) and chicken (2:3) liver. VKORC1L1 has been reported to be resistant to warfarin compared to VKORC1. Hence, both the Ki of specific VKORC1 and VKORC1L1, and the mRNA expression ratio would cause avian interspecific difference of the VKOR inhibition. Our study also suggested the high inhibition of VKOR activities in raptors and surprisingly that in canaries as well. These factors are the most likely to contribute to the high sensitivity to ARs found in raptors.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/envenenamento , Canários/genética , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Aves Predatórias/genética , Rodenticidas/envenenamento , Vitamina K Epóxido Redutases/antagonistas & inibidores , Varfarina/envenenamento , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Animais , Mutação , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , Especificidade da Espécie , Vitamina K Epóxido Redutases/química , Vitamina K Epóxido Redutases/genética
9.
Pest Manag Sci ; 76(5): 1958-1966, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anticoagulant rodenticides are used worldwide to control pest rodent species. However, the risks posed to non-target reptiles have not been well characterized. In this study, 46 giant ameivas (Ameiva ameiva), 39 boa constrictors (Boa constrictor), 33 wood turtles (Rhinoclemmys pulcherrima), and 47 green iguanas (Iguana iguana) were orally dosed with one of two levels of either diphacinone or brodifacoum anticoagulant in propylene glycol solutions. Dosages were derived using daily food intake (DFI) equations, converting DFI to an equivalent anticoagulant bait amount and gavaging the solution volume needed to deliver the quantity of anticoagulant in that amount of bait. Animals were dosed on days 0 and 7 and monitored for a further 7 days for signs of anticoagulant intoxication and differences in behaviors and postures. At necropsy on day 14, animals were examined for thoracic and abdominal bleeding, and both tissue and organ samples were taken for histology. Liver and whole-body anticoagulant residues were assessed. RESULTS: No turtles or boas died due to anticoagulant exposure. However, anticoagulant intoxication was suspected in one iguana dosed with brodifacoum. A few treated ameivas died but exhibited no hemorrhaging. Liver residue levels were higher than whole-body remainder residue levels for all species. Unlike the other species, turtles had higher diphacinone residue levels than brodifacoum. CONCLUSION: Turtles and boas exhibited a relative insensitivity to diphacinone and brodifacoum, while the lizards appeared to be somewhat more sensitive to these compounds. This study provides data for future assessments of the risks to these species associated with anticoagulant use. Published 2019. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.


Assuntos
Répteis , 4-Hidroxicumarinas , Animais , Anticoagulantes , Fenindiona/análogos & derivados , Rodenticidas
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 707: 136129, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869614

RESUMO

Data obtained from samples of poisoned domestic and wild animals sent for toxicological evaluation during the period between 2005 and 2014 have been analyzed. Among the 4606 tested samples, the majority of which were collected in the northern regions of Italy, 2006 (43.55%) were found positive for pesticides. Analytical detections were performed via solvent extraction followed by separation and chromatographic characterization and all the methods applied for the toxicological investigations were developed by IZSLER. Insecticides, mainly represented by acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (carbamates 17.55%, n = 352; organophosphates 15.15%, n = 304) and organochlorines (29.21%, n = 586), were found to be the first category of pesticides involved in intoxications, in both domestic and in wild animals, followed by rodenticides (anticoagulant rodenticides 21.09%, n = 423; zinc phosphide 2.59%, n = 52; chloralose 0.95%, n = 19 and thallium 0.15%, n = 3) and molluscicides (metaldehyde 6.63%, n = 133). Second and third generation anticoagulants (bromadiolone and brodifacoum) were the most represented (10.52%, n = 211) but also first generation compounds (i.e. coumatetralyl and warfarin) were still found responsible of intoxications. Even if some pesticides are frequently involved in domestic animal poisoning (i.e. metaldehyde and strychnine), they did not show the same diffusion in wild animals. In particular, unlike domestic species, cyanide and pyrethroids have not been found responsible of intoxications in wild animals. Interestingly, a great number of positive samples involved banned pesticides like α- (14.41%, n = 289) and ß- (14.16%, n = 284) endosulfan, carbofuran (5.73%, n = 115), methamidophos (9.47%, n = 190), strychnine (6.23%, n = 125) but, on the other hand, many positives were due to the exposure to commercially available products (i.e. metaldehyde and anticoagulant rodenticides). Thus, together with measures aimed to reduce illegal uses, educational campaigns and a wider range of compounds to detect would be beneficial in order to address the issue of animal poisoning, which besides has also repercussions on environmental and public health.


Assuntos
Praguicidas/toxicidade , Envenenamento , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Animais Selvagens , Anticoagulantes , Itália , Rodenticidas
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(34): 35270-35274, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741277

RESUMO

Rodents infest urban environments, causing damage and acting as vectors for disease transmission. Currently, anticoagulants are the most widely used chemical rodenticides, and their extensive and widespread use can contaminate the environment. To ensure effectiveness and avoid accumulation of rodent baits in the environment, it is important to evaluate how long rodent baits maintain their palatability and efficacy. In rodent control programs, rodent baits are placed in locations such as sewers, but after a few days, baits appear altered, causing doubts about the control efficacy. For this reason, baits are replaced periodically, which increases costs and generation of chemical waste. The objective of this study was to evaluate the palatability and efficacy of commercial paraffin-type rodent bait blocks placed in sewers in São Paulo City over a period of 90 days. Bait blocks were placed in sewers and collected after 30, 60, and 90 days. Additionally, in a laboratory two-choice test, wild-caught urban Norway rats were offered 40-60 g of bait and an equal volume of standard rat pellets. The amount of bait and rat pellet consumed was registered, the palatability was calculated, and the efficacy was measured as the percentage mortality over 14 days. The results showed that, even when they had an altered appearance, bait blocks remained palatable to the rats and were effective after at least 90 days. Leaving bait blocks for longer periods could be an effective strategy for reducing costs and could help to ensure the control of urban rodents in an environmentally sustainable way.


Assuntos
Drenagem Sanitária , Controle de Roedores/métodos , Animais , Anticoagulantes , Brasil , Meio Ambiente , Masculino , Ratos , Rodenticidas/análise
12.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(11)2019 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767603

RESUMO

Haemoptysis is a worrying symptom for patients and can represent a diagnostic challenge for clinicians. We present the case of a 56-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department with acute haemoptysis and associated sudden-onset dyspnoea. The patient remained haemodynamically stable and there was no demonstrable drop in haemoglobin concentration. Following rigorous investigations, on further questioning, the patient recalled inadvertent inhalation of the rodenticide brodifacoum. This exposure was deemed to represent the cause of their acute haemoptysis, which subsequently fully resolved without intervention.


Assuntos
4-Hidroxicumarinas/envenenamento , Hemoptise/induzido quimicamente , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Rodenticidas/envenenamento , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Water Res ; 167: 115090, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553930

RESUMO

The recent emergence of second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (AR) in the aquatic environment emphasizes the relevance and impact of aquatic exposure pathways during rodent control. Pest control in municipal sewer systems of urban and suburban areas is thought to be an important emission pathway for AR to reach wastewater and municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), respectively. To circumstantiate that AR will enter streams via effluent discharges and bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms despite very low predicted environmental emissions, we conducted a retrospective biological monitoring of fish tissue samples from different WWTP fish monitoring ponds exclusively fed by municipal effluents in Bavaria, Germany. At the same time, information about rodent control in associated sewer systems was collected by telephone survey to assess relationships between sewer baiting and rodenticide residues in fish. In addition, mussel and fish tissue samples from several Bavarian surface waters with different effluent impact were analyzed to evaluate the prevalence of anticoagulants in indigenous aquatic organisms. Hepatic AR residues were detected at 12 out of 25 WWTP sampling sites in the low µg/kg range, thereof six sites with one or more second-generation AR (i.e., brodifacoum, difenacoum, bromadiolone). 14 of 18 surveyed sites confirmed sewer baiting with AR and detected hepatic residues matched the reported active ingredients used for sewer baiting at six sites. Furthermore, second-generation AR were detected in more than 80% of fish liver samples from investigated Bavarian streams. Highest total hepatic AR concentrations in these fish were 9.1 and 8.5 µg/kg wet weight, respectively and were observed at two riverine sampling sites characterized by close proximity to upstream WWTP outfalls. No anticoagulant residues were found in fish liver samples from two lakes without known influences of effluent discharges. The findings of our study clearly show incomplete removal of anticoagulants during conventional wastewater treatment and confirm exposure of aquatic organisms via municipal effluents. Based on the demonstrated temporal and spatial coherence between sewer baiting and hepatic AR residues in effluent-exposed fish, sewer baiting in combined sewer systems contributes to the release of active ingredients into the aquatic environment.


Assuntos
Rodenticidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Anticoagulantes , Monitoramento Ambiental , Alemanha , Estudos Retrospectivos , Águas Residuárias
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(36): e17015, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490385

RESUMO

Synthetic cannabinoids have become increasingly popular drugs of abuse due to low cost and inability to detect these substances on routine drug screenings. In the United States, incidence of synthetic cannabinoid contamination with long-acting anticoagulant rodenticides (LAARs) resulting in coagulopathy and bleeding complications has been described.We sought to describe the natural history, management approach, and outcomes of bleeding secondary to synthetic cannabinoid-associated LAAR toxicity in an observational case series of patients evaluated at an urban academic medical system.We conducted an observational study of patients with suspected exposure to LAAR-contaminated synthetic cannabinoids and associated bleeding treated within the Johns Hopkins Health System.In this 16 subject cohort, hematuria was the most common bleeding symptom at presentation. The majority of the cohort (75%) had international normalized ratio (INR) > 9.6 at presentation. Of the 13 patients with brodifacoum testing, 12/13 (92%) were positive. Twelve patients (75%) had at least 1 INR value below 2 within 24 hours of the first INR measurement. Of this cohort, 1/16 (6%) died in hospital. The median length of hospital stay was 4 days, (interquartile range = 3-6). The average cost of pharmacological treatment for coagulopathy during inpatient hospitalization was $5300 (range, $2241-$8086).In patients presenting with unexplained coagulopathy it is important for emergency department providers to consider LAAR intoxication and consider formal testing for brodifacoum to assist with treatment planning. Use of a standardized management algorithm including intravenous/oral vitamin K, judicious use of blood products and close laboratory monitoring is essential to optimizing outcomes.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/tratamento farmacológico , Rodenticidas/envenenamento , Vitamina K/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Algoritmos , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/induzido quimicamente , Canabinoides , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Drogas Ilícitas , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
J Clin Pharm Ther ; 44(6): 958-962, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556967

RESUMO

WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Many cases of rodenticide poisoning have been reported. Bromadiolone, often called a super-warfarin, is a second-generation dicoumarin rodenticide with long half-life. The main clinical manifestations of bromadiolone poisoning are excessive or inappropriate bleeding of skin mucosa, digestive tract and urinary tract. However, the phenomenon of central nervous system (CNS) toxicity is an uncommon medical emergency. We present a case of SAH and intracerebral haematoma mediated by bromadiolone intoxication, revealing that bromadiolone poisoning might cause intracerebral haematoma. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 44-year-old woman presented with skin mucosa haemorrhage and haematuresis initially. The patient developed lethargy, headache, nausea and vomiting. The toxicology test result revealed that the presence of bromadiolone in her blood. Coagulation test results showed a longer prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and a high international normalized ratio (INR). SAH, frontal lobe haematoma, midline shift and brain oedema were discovered by skull CT examination. The coagulation disorders were addressed after the treatment of vitamin K and fresh frozen plasma. The intracranial symptoms were relieved after surgery and the treatment with mannitol. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: This case suggests that bromadiolone poisoning should be diagnosed and treated as early as possible. Bromadiolone poisoning might cause SAH and intracerebral haematoma, which is rare but potentially lethal. It is important to strengthen the diagnosis and post-treatment monitoring.


Assuntos
4-Hidroxicumarinas/efeitos adversos , Rodenticidas/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Protrombina/métodos
16.
Neurotoxicology ; 74: 264-271, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408636

RESUMO

Ingestion of the noncompetitive GABAA receptor antagonist tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) results in arrhythmias, respiratory depression, and life-threatening convulsive status epilepticus. We have previously developed a realistic model of voluntary TETS consumption, in which rats promptly consumed a piece of cereal containing a dose of TETS that led to rapid progression of toxic signs (including convulsions) and profound and enduring behavioral suppression. Recently, this model was used to survey nine different drugs from distinct drug classes over a large range of doses to identify possible therapeutics. The drugs included three benzodiazepines (diazepam, midazolam, and lorazepam), two barbiturates (phenobarbital and pentobarbital), the GABAA allosteric modulator allopregnanolone, and three non-traditional therapeutics (dexmedetomidine, ketamine, and ethanol). Treatment was administered intraperitoneally 10 min after consumption of the cereal morsel containing TETS (600 µg/kg). This exposure model resulted in a survival rate of 30% in vehicle-treated rats. Diazepam (12.5 mg/kg) and midazolam (25 mg/kg), compared to vehicle, significantly increased survival (75 and 100% respectively) but at only one of the three doses tested. Lorazepam increased survival across a wide range of doses (1.56-25 mg/kg) with survival rates between 80-100%. Phenobarbital (100 mg/kg) was the only other drug and non-benzodiazepine to improve survival rates (80%). Although the four aforementioned therapeutics increased survival, TETS-induced weight loss, food wastage, and behavioral deficits remained in survivors.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes/envenenamento , Envenenamento/tratamento farmacológico , Rodenticidas/envenenamento , Animais , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Barbitúricos/uso terapêutico , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Moduladores GABAérgicos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Análise de Sobrevida , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(25): 6755-6765, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388716

RESUMO

Diphacinone (DPN) is an extensively used anticoagulant rodenticide that is also considered a hazardous chemical, which poses a threat to nontarget species. DPN poisoning cases in humans or other species frequently occur, while rapid and sensitive detection methods are rarely reported. Thus, it is meaningful to develop an immunoassay for DPN detection with high sensitivity and specificity. In this study, a hapten was synthesized and then conjugated with carrier proteins to prepare the immunogens with different conjugation ratios for the preparation of antibody. After evaluation of the antisera using an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) and statistical analysis, we found that the immunogen prepared using the N,N-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) method with a conjugation ratio of 28.5 could elicit mice to generate antibodies with high performance. Using hybridoma technology, we obtained the specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) 4G5 with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.82 ng/mL in buffer solution. We initially explored the recognition mechanism of DPN/CLDPN and mAb from both conformational and electronic aspects. Then, mAb 4G5 was applied to develop icELISA for biological samples. The limits of detection (LODs) of icELISA were 0.28 µg/L, 0.32 µg/L, and 0.55 µg/kg for swine plasma, urine, and liver samples, respectively, and the recoveries ranged from 72.3 to 103.3% with a coefficient of variation (CV) of less than 12.3% in spiked samples. In summary, we developed a sensitive, specific, and accurate icELISA for the detection of DPN in biological samples, which showed potential in food safety analysis and clinical diagnosis. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/análise , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Fenindiona/análogos & derivados , Rodenticidas/análise , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Formação de Anticorpos , Anticoagulantes/sangue , Anticoagulantes/imunologia , Anticoagulantes/urina , Feminino , Limite de Detecção , Fígado/química , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Moleculares , Fenindiona/análise , Fenindiona/sangue , Fenindiona/imunologia , Fenindiona/urina , Rodenticidas/sangue , Rodenticidas/imunologia , Rodenticidas/urina , Suínos
18.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 3794876, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31341897

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a reemerging zoonosis and ranges in severity from benign to sometimes fatal. In cattle, infection may be responsible for abortion and infertility cases causing economic losses. Humans may be contaminated through direct contact with urine of infected animals or indirectly though interaction with urine-contaminated environment. Many wildlife species living close to cattle, especially commensal rodents may play a role in the transmission of leptospires. Because little is known on the epidemiology of nonmaintenance Leptospira serovars, appropriate management is still limited. On a French farm where human and cattle leptospirosis were detected, the transmission cycle was explored to propose appropriate mitigation measures. For that, commensal rodents present on the farm were trapped and their leptospires carriage was studied by molecular methods. Trapped mice were shown to carry two pathogenic Leptospira species (L. interrogans and L. kirschneri). Since these 2 serogroups were simultaneously detected in the trapped mice and in the cows of this farm, we suspected an initial Leptospira transmission from mice to cows requiring an effective management of mice on this farm. Because resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides due to Vkorc1 mutations has been largely described in rodents and first-generation anticoagulant rodenticides seemed to be inefficient in controlling mice on this farm, susceptibility of these mice to anticoagulants has been characterized by Vkorc1 sequencing. 50% of the trapped mice carried mutations in the Vkorc1 gene leading to severe resistance to first-generation anticoagulants. The management of such mice that are a real sanitary threat can be achieved only by using the most toxic second-generation anticoagulants or nonanticoagulant solutions.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Leptospirose/transmissão , Camundongos/microbiologia , Animais , Anticoagulantes , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospira interrogans/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Roedores , Rodenticidas , Sorogrupo , Vitamina K Epóxido Redutases/genética , Zoonoses/transmissão
19.
Ann Glob Health ; 85(1)2019 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The dearth of information on the economic cost of childhood poisoning in sub-Saharan Africa necessitated this study. OBJECTIVE: This study has investigated the prevalence of childhood drug and non-drug poisoning, treatment modalities and economic costs in Nigeria. METHOD: A retrospective study of childhood drug and non-drug poisoning cases from January 2007 to June 2014 in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH), Port Harcourt, Nigeria was carried out. Medical records were analysed for demographic and aetiological characteristics of poisoned children (0-14 years of age), as well as fiscal impact of poisoning cases. FINDINGS: Of the 100 poisoned patients, 46% were male and 54% female, with female/male ratio of 1.17:1. Most of the children were under five years of age. Paracetamol, amitriptyline, chlorpromazine, ferrous sulphate, kerosene, organophosphates, carbon monoxide, snake bite, alcohol and rodenticides were involved in the poisoning. The average cost of poison management per patient was about $168, which is high given the economic status of Nigeria. CONCLUSION: Childhood poisoning is still a significant cause of morbidity among children in Nigeria and accounts for an appreciable amount of health spending, therefore preventive strategies should be considered.


Assuntos
Etanol/envenenamento , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Envenenamento/economia , Envenenamento/epidemiologia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Acetaminofen/envenenamento , Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade , Amitriptilina/envenenamento , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/envenenamento , Antipsicóticos/envenenamento , Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono/economia , Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Clorpromazina/envenenamento , Feminino , Compostos Ferrosos/envenenamento , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Querosene/envenenamento , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Intoxicação por Organofosfatos/economia , Intoxicação por Organofosfatos/epidemiologia , Envenenamento/etiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rodenticidas/envenenamento , Distribuição por Sexo , Mordeduras de Serpentes/economia
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 691: 1051-1058, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326797

RESUMO

Anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) are known to cause extensive secondary exposure in top predators in Europe and North America, but there remains a paucity of data in Asia. In this study, we collected 221 liver samples from 21 raptor species in Taiwan between 2010 and 2018. Most birds were recovered from rescue organizations, but some free-ranging individuals were obtained from bird-strike prevention measures at airports. ARs were detected in 10 species and more than half of the total samples. Common rodent-eating Black-winged Kites (Elanus caeruleus) had the highest prevalence (89.2%) and highest average sum concentration (0.211 ±â€¯0.219 mg/kg), which was similar between free-ranging birds at airports and injured birds from rescue organizations. Scavenging Black Kites (Milvus migrans) and snake-eating Crested Serpent-eagles (Spilornis cheela) had the second highest prevalence or sum concentration, respectively. Seven different AR compounds were detected, of which brodifacoum was the most common and had the highest average concentration, followed by flocoumafen and bromadiolone. The frequency of occurrence in the three most numerous species (Black-winged Kite, Crested Goshawk [Accipiter trivirgatus], and Collared Scops-owl [Otus lettia]) was significantly higher in autumn than summer, which is consistent with the timing of the Taiwanese government's supply of free ARs to farmers. Regional differences in the detection of individual compounds also tended to reflect differences in human population density and use patterns (in agriculture or urban-dominated environments). Clinical poisoning was confirmed in Black Kites with sum concentrations as low as 0.026 mg/kg; however, further study of interspecific differences in AR sensitivity and potential population effects are needed. In addition, continued monitoring remains important given the Taiwanese government has modified their farmland rodent control policy to gradually reduce free AR supplies since 2015.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Aves Predatórias/metabolismo , Rodenticidas/metabolismo , 4-Hidroxicumarinas/metabolismo , Animais , Controle de Roedores , Rodenticidas/análise , Taiwan
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