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1.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 137, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fifteen states, including West Virginia, have liberalized their laws concerning fireworks possession and sale. Effective June 1, 2016, House Bill 2852 enabled all Class C fireworks to be sold within the state. The effects of this policy on fireworks-related injuries requiring immediate medical care are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this policy may have affected the fireworks-related injury rate and/or injury severity. METHODS: Data were collected from the electronic medical records of patients treated by West Virginia University Medicine between June 1, 2015-May 31, 2017. The pre and post law periods were defined as June 1, 2015-May 31, 2016 and June 1, 2016-May 31, 2017, respectively. Fireworks-related injuries were identified via International Classification of Disease Clinical Modification codes and by free text searches of the electronic medical records. The rate of injuries pre and post-legislation were compared by Exact Poisson Regression, while demographic characteristics and injury severity were compared via Fisher's Exact tests. RESULTS: 56 individuals were treated for fireworks-related injuries during the study period. The majority of patients were over 25 years of age (64%) and male (77%). Most of the injuries occurred within 7 days of a celebrated U.S. holiday (64%), and 28% were severe in nature. Age, sex, and injury severity did not significantly differ pre and post law passage. The injury rate per 100,000 patients was 39% higher after the law was enacted (p = 0.3475; incidence rate ratio 1.39, 95% Confidence Interval 0.74, 2.68). CONCLUSION: The law increasing access to Class C fireworks may have affected the injury rate, but not injury severity among treated patients. Effective, evidence-based, public health interventions applicable to all age groups may be warranted particularly around national holidays. This study may inform other states looking to amend their legislation.


Assuntos
Traumatismos por Explosões/epidemiologia , Substâncias Explosivas/efeitos adversos , Legislação como Assunto , Política , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Férias e Feriados , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , West Virginia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Chemosphere ; 250: 126210, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109698

RESUMO

This study utilized innovative analyses to develop multiple lines of evidence for natural attenuation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in groundwater at the U.S. Department of Energy's Pantex Plant. RDX, as well as the degradation product 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal (NDAB; produced by aerobic biodegradation or alkaline hydrolysis) were detected in a large portion of the plume, with lower concentrations of the nitroso-containing metabolites produced during anaerobic biodegradation. 16S metagenomic sequencing detected the presence of bacteria known to aerobically degrade RDX (e.g., Gordonia, Rhodococcus) and NDAB (Methylobacterium), as well as the known anoxic RDX degrader Pseudomonas fluorescens I-C. Proteomic analysis detected both the aerobic RDX degradative enzyme XplA, and the anoxic RDX degradative enzyme XenB. Groundwater enrichment cultures supplied with low concentrations of labile carbon confirmed the potential of the extant groundwater community to aerobically degrade RDX and produce NDAB. Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of RDX collected at the site showed fractionation of nitrogen isotopes with δ15N values ranging from approximately -5‰ to +9‰, providing additional evidence of RDX degradation. Taken together, these results provide evidence of in situ RDX degradation in the Pantex Plant groundwater. Furthermore, they demonstrate the benefit of multiple lines of evidence in supporting natural attenuation assessments, especially with the application of innovative isotopic and -omic technologies.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Água Subterrânea/química , Triazinas/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Substâncias Explosivas/análise , Gordonia (Bactéria)/metabolismo , Água Subterrânea/microbiologia , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Proteômica , Rhodococcus/metabolismo , Triazinas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
J Chromatogr A ; 1611: 460580, 2020 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601423

RESUMO

The feasibility of measuring the aging and degradation of PBX 9501 via online two dimensional liquid chromatography (LC × LC) is investigated, and a preliminary instrumental setup and method is developed. Plastic-Bonded eXplosive (PBX) 9501 is nominally composed of 94.9 wt% HMX, 2.5 wt% Estane® 5703 (poly (ester urethane)), 2.5 wt% BDNPA/F (nitroplasticizer), 0.1 wt% Irganox 1010 and PBNA (N-phenyl-naphthylamine) at low concentrations. When exposed to various environmental conditions, PBX 9501 will degrade through different pathways. Because PBX 9501 is composed of both low molecular weight compounds (BDNPA/F, Irganox 1010, PBNA, and potential degradation products) and high molecular weight compounds (Estane® 5703), analysis is normally performed via two independent analyses. The low molecular weight species are analyzed via high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the high molecular weight species via size exclusion chromatography (SEC). While these individual techniques yield information about the aging of PBX 9501, the combination of HPLC and SEC (i.e. HPLC × SEC) can simplify and streamline the analyses while also providing additional chemical information. A simplified sample preparation method is proposed for LC × LC analysis. Various SEC columns and HPLC column selection, flow rate, and gradient ramps were investigated for their application of measuring aged PBX 9501. Finally, two LC × LC separations of a library standard of PBX 9501 and a sample of aged PBX 9501 are compared.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Substâncias Explosivas/análise , Plásticos/análise , Cromatografia em Gel , Uretana/análise
4.
Molecules ; 24(23)2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816831

RESUMO

The dynamic sorption concentration of explosive vapours on concentrators made of a metal mesh, and the transportation of explosive vapours through the extended metal channels are considered. The efficiency of the concentration and transportation is determined by the breakthrough of the substance's molecules through the channels. The research methods we used were breakthrough calculation theory and experiment. When calculating the breakthrough, a mesh was presented as a set of parallel identical channels. Wire mesh and extended channels were made of stainless steel. The breakthrough is determined through the specific frequency of the collisions between the molecules and the channel's surface. This is presented as a function of the ratio of the substance diffusion flow to the channel's surface to the airflow through the channel. The conditions for high-speed concentration, complete capture of explosive vapours, and low vapour losses during their transportation through the extended channels were determined theoretically and experimentally. For a concentrator made of a mesh, the condition of a high concentration rate at a high breakthrough (up to 80%) was determined. The described sorption concentration is used in portable gas chromatographic detectors of explosive vapours of the EKHO series.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa/instrumentação , Substâncias Explosivas/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Gases , Cinética
5.
Molecules ; 24(24)2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817642

RESUMO

Glycidyl azide polymer (GAP), an energetic binder, is the focus of this review. We briefly introduce the key properties of this well-known polymer, the difference between energetic and non-energetic binders in propellant and explosive formulations, the fundamentals for producing GAP and its copolymers, as well as for curing GAP using different types of curing agents. We use recent works as examples to illustrate the general approaches to curing GAP and its derivatives, while indicating a number of recently investigated curing agents. Next, we demonstrate that the properties of GAP can be modified either through internal (structural) alterations or through the introduction of external (plasticizers) additives and provide a summary of recent progress in this area, tying it in with studies on the properties of such modifications of GAP. Further on, we discuss relevant works dedicated to the applications of GAP as a binder for propellants and plastic-bonded explosives. Lastly, we indicate other, emerging applications of GAP and provide a summary of its mechanical and energetic properties.


Assuntos
Substâncias Explosivas/química , Plastificantes/química , Polímeros/química , Triazinas/química
6.
Molecules ; 24(23)2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783515

RESUMO

Explosives detection systems (EDS) based on X-ray are used at airports to screen baggage for the presence of explosives. In Europe and the United States, EDS equipment is tested extensively by specialist test centres prior to approval for operational use in airports. Once EDS are installed in airports, however, it can be challenging to test the EDS equipment and verify that it continues to perform at the highest level, because of the impracticality of introducing bulk explosives into civil aviation airports. We have developed inert, non-toxic polymer-bonded simulants and validated them against real explosives using EDS equipment. The accuracy of our simulants is within 1% of the target bulk density, and within 2% of the target effective atomic number, and the materials have a stability of at least 4 years, with an uncertainty of 0.5%. The simulants generate alarms in almost 100% of cases on a wide range of commercial EDS models, and we consider the simulants fit for purpose for use during testing of EDS equipment at airports.


Assuntos
Substâncias Explosivas/análise , Polímeros/química , Raios X , Aeroportos , Aviação , Europa (Continente) , Substâncias Explosivas/química , Ciência dos Materiais , Polímeros/análise , Poliuretanos/química , Radiografia , Padrões de Referência , Software , Fatores de Tempo , Incerteza , Estados Unidos
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(22)2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703334

RESUMO

Explosives molecules have been widely used since World War II, leading to considerable contamination of soil and groundwater. Recently, bioremediation has emerged as an environmentally friendly approach to solve such contamination issues. However, the 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX) explosive, which has very low solubility in water, does not provide satisfying results with this approach. In this study, we used a rational design strategy for improving the specificity of the nitroreductase from E. Cloacae (PDB ID 5J8G) toward HMX. We used the Coupled Moves algorithm from Rosetta to redesign the active site around HMX. Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations and affinity calculations allowed us to study the newly designed protein. Five mutations were performed. The designed nitroreductase has a better fit with HMX. We observed more H-bonds, which productively stabilized the HMX molecule for the mutant than for the wild type enzyme. Thus, HMX's nitro groups are close enough to the reductive cofactor to enable a hydride transfer. Also, the HMX affinity for the designed enzyme is better than for the wild type. These results are encouraging. However, the total reduction reaction implies numerous HMX derivatives, and each of them has to be tested to check how far the reaction can' go.


Assuntos
Azocinas , Proteínas de Bactérias , Enterobacter cloacae/enzimologia , Substâncias Explosivas , Nitrorredutases , Azocinas/química , Azocinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Substâncias Explosivas/química , Substâncias Explosivas/metabolismo , Nitrorredutases/química , Nitrorredutases/metabolismo
8.
Molecules ; 24(23)2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779257

RESUMO

Due to a significant and prolific activity in the field of design and synthesis of new energetic molecules, it becomes increasingly difficult to introduce new explosophore structures with attractive properties. In this work, we synthesized a trans-bimane-based energetic material-3,7-diamino-2,6-dinitro-1H,5H-pyrazolo-[1,2-a]pyrazole-1,5-dione (4), the structure of which was comprehensively analyzed by a variety of advanced spectroscopic methods and by X-ray crystallo-graphy (with density of 1.845 g·cm-3 at 173 K). Although obtained crystals of 4 contained solvent molecules in their structure, state-of-the-art density functional theory (DFT) computational techniques allowed us to predict that solvent-free crystals of this explosive would preserve a similar tightly packed planar layered molecular arrangement, with the same number of molecules of 4 per unit cell, but with a smaller unit cell volume and therefore higher energy density. Explosive 4 was found to be heat resistant, with an onset decomposition temperature of 328.8 °C, and was calculated to exhibit velocity of detonation in a range of 6.88-7.14 km·s-1 and detonation pressure in the range of 19.14-22.04 GPa, using for comparison both HASEM and the EXPLO 5 software. Our results indicate that the trans-bimane explosophore could be a viable platform for the development of new thermostable energetic materials.


Assuntos
Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/química , Substâncias Explosivas/química , Temperatura Alta , Pirazóis/química , Software , Solventes/química , Termodinâmica
9.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(10)2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645382

RESUMO

Firework injuries, which most commonly affect hands, are increasing in frequency and severity. We present a pictorial case of a devastating hand injury following a firework explosion in a young male patient. The blast resulted in splaying of the hand with multiple fractures, neurovascular compromise and soft tissue loss. Reconstruction involved a third-ray amputation, fracture fixation, nerve and soft tissue repair resulting in an adequate hand with near-normal appearance. Firework-related hand injuries pose a significant surgical challenge due to the combination of burn and blast forces that can compromise the function of intact vessels and nerves making salvage and reconstruction particularly difficult. Here, we propose a treatment algorithm based on current literature. Our case demonstrates, what initially appeared to be an unsalvageable injury can be reconstructed to produce a functional hand if appropriate surgical measures are taken.


Assuntos
Traumatismos por Explosões/cirurgia , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Traumatismos da Mão/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Adulto , Algoritmos , Amputação , Traumatismos por Explosões/etiologia , Substâncias Explosivas/efeitos adversos , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Traumatismos da Mão/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(21): 12648-12656, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553579

RESUMO

3-Nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) is one of the main ingredients of many insensitive munitions, which are being used as replacements for conventional explosives. As its use becomes widespread, more research is needed to assess its environmental fate. Previous studies have shown that NTO is biologically reduced to 3-amino-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (ATO). However, the final degradation products of ATO are still unknown. We have studied the aerobic degradation of ATO by enrichment cultures derived from the soil. After multiple transfers, ATO degradation was monitored in closed bottles through measurements of inorganic carbon and nitrogen species. The results indicate that the members of the enrichment culture utilize ATO as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. As ATO was mineralized to CO2, N2, and NH4+, microbial growth was observed in the culture. Co-substrates addition did not increase the ATO degradation rate. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the organisms that enriched using ATO as carbon and nitrogen source were Terrimonas spp., Ramlibacter-related spp., Mesorhizobium spp., Hydrogenophaga spp., Ralstonia spp., Pseudomonas spp., Ectothiorhodospiraceae, and Sphingopyxis. This is the first study to report the complete mineralization of ATO by soil microorganisms, expanding our understanding of natural attenuation and bioremediation of the explosive NTO.


Assuntos
Substâncias Explosivas , Nitrocompostos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Núcleo Familiar , Estresse Oxidativo , Triazóis
11.
Molecules ; 24(19)2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561514

RESUMO

In the fields of Security and Defense, explosive traces must be analyzed at the sites of the terrorist events. The persistence on surfaces of these traces depends on the sublimation processes and the interactions with the surfaces. This study presents evidence that the sublimation process of these traces on stainless steel (SS) surfaces is very different than in bulk quantities. The enthalpies of sublimation of traces of four highly energetic materials: triacetone triperoxide (TATP), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and 1,3,5- trinitrohexahydro-s-triazine (RDX) deposited on SS substrates were determined by optical fiber coupled-grazing angle probe Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. These were compared with enthalpies of sublimation determined by thermal gravimetric analysis for bulk amounts and differences between them were found. The sublimation enthalpy of RDX was very different for traces than for bulk quantities, attributed to two main factors. First, the beta-RDX phase was present at trace levels, unlike the case of bulk amounts which consisted only of the alpha-RDX phase. Second, an interaction between the RDX and SS was found. This interaction energy was determined using grazing angle FTIR microscopy. In the case of DNT and TNT, bulk and traces enthalpies were statistically similar, but it is evidenced that at the level of traces a metastable phase was observed. Finally, for TATP the enthalpies were statistically identical, but a non-linear behavior and a change of heat capacity values different from zero was found for both trace and bulk phases.


Assuntos
Substâncias Explosivas/química , Modelos Químicos , Algoritmos , Substâncias Explosivas/síntese química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Termogravimetria , Difração de Raios X
12.
J Mol Model ; 25(9): 298, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482374

RESUMO

A series of nitro-imidazole derivatives were designed by replacing hydrogen atoms on imidazole ring with nitro group one by one. In order to investigate the thermodynamic stability, heat of formation (HOF), and bond dissociation energy (BDE) are calculated at the B3PW91/6-311+G(d,p) level. In order to investigate the impact sensitivity and detonation property, the drop height (H50), free space per molecule in crystal lattice (ΔV), detonation velocity (D), and detonation pressure (P) are calculated by using the empirical Kamlet-Jacobs (K-J) equation. The results show that the thermal stabilities of title molecules are determined by whether nitro group is associated to 1-position or not and accompanied with the steric hindrance between nitro groups and the charge population on the carbon atoms of imidazole ring. The excellent impact sensitivity and detonation performance of title molecules are also evaluated. On the consideration both of stability and detonation characters, 2,4,5-trinitro-1H-imidazole (D = 8.98 km/s, P = 36.70 GPa) is screened out as the potential high-energy-density molecule for further research.


Assuntos
Substâncias Explosivas/química , Hidrogênio/química , Nitrocompostos/química , Nitroimidazóis/química , Substâncias Explosivas/síntese química , Nitroimidazóis/síntese química , Teoria Quântica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Temperatura , Termodinâmica
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 576, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428877

RESUMO

Evolution of submicron particles in terms of particle number concentration and mobility-equivalent diameter was measured during Diwali festival-specific intensive pyrotechnic displays in Varanasi over central Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP). A scanning mobility particle sizer coupled with an optical particle sizer was used to fit in an overlapping size range, and particle number concentration was analyzed to have an insight into the new particle formation and subsequent evolution of particles from nucleation to accumulation mode. Further, variation in black carbon (BC) concentration and aerosol ionic composition was measured simultaneously. Frequent fluctuation in particle number concentration in and around Diwali festival was evidenced, primarily influenced by local emission sources and meteorology, with three distinct peaks in number concentrations (dN/dlogDp, 3.1-4.5 × 104 cm3) coinciding well with peak firework emission period (18:00-23:00 h). Submicron particle size distribution revealed a single peak covering a size range of 80-130 nm, and for all instances, number concentration maximum coincided with geometric mean minimum, indicating the emission primarily in the ultrafine range (< 0.1 µm). Interestingly, during peak firework emissions, besides rise in accumulation mode, an event of new particle formation was identified with increase in nucleation and small Aitken mode, before being dispersed to background aerosols. On an integral scale, a clear distinction was noted between a normal and an episodic event, with a definite shift in the formation of ultrafine particles compared with the accumulation mode. The BC diurnal profile was typical, with a prominent nocturnal peak (12.0 ± 3.9 µg m-3) corresponding to a decrease in the boundary layer height. A slight variation in maximum BC concentration (16.8 µg m-3) was noted in the night of the event coinciding well with firework emissions. An increase in some specific ionic species was also noted in combination with an increase in the overall cation to anion ratio, which was explained in terms of heterogeneous transformation of NOx and catalytic conversion of SO2. Graphical abstract Time-resolved evolution of particle size distribution during normal and episodic events.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Substâncias Explosivas , Material Particulado/análise , Férias e Feriados , Índia , Tamanho da Partícula , Fuligem/análise , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Environ Res ; 177: 108621, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421450

RESUMO

2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP) is environmentally deleterious substance that has been of pressing societal concern. Therefore, developing a convenient and reliable platforms for its fast and efficient detection is of paramount importance from security point of view. Herein, amphiphilic fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) were prepared by a simple solvothermal method. CDs exhibit high selectivity and sensitivity on TNP in the polar and apolar solvent and even natural water samples. Moreover, the simple and portable indicator paper can be prepared conveniently and used for sensing TNP visually with high sensitivity and fast response. Research findings obtained from this study would assist in the development of portable devices for the on-site and real-time detection of environmental hazards.


Assuntos
Carbono , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Substâncias Explosivas/análise , Picratos/análise , Pontos Quânticos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Corantes Fluorescentes
15.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 38(11): 2383-2391, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365142

RESUMO

Munitions constituents (MC) may be released into aquatic environments as a result of underwater military munitions (UWMM) corrosion and breach. The present study investigated the release of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) from Composition B fragments under 2 realistic exposure scenarios in a large flume with flow set at 15 cm/s: the first represented the release of MC from fully exposed Composition B, and the second represented release through a small hole, simulating a breached munition. Release of MC through a small hole was approximately 10 times lower than from exposed Composition B, demonstrating the strong influence of exposure to flow on release. The rate of release of MC into the flume was similar to that previously reported in a related field experiment, but a similar mass loss resulted in MC concentration in the field >300 times lower, likely by the dilution effect of hydrodynamic transport. The present study corroborates previous findings of release of MC at UWMM sites resulting in concentrations below the toxicity threshold to most species. In the flume water, MC was quantified using frequent grab sampling and polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS). For TNT, POCIS-estimated time-weighted average concentrations were up to 40% higher than those derived from grab samples, whereas for RDX differences were 6% or less, demonstrating that POCIS provide reliable temporal integration of changing environmental concentrations for common MC. Environ Toxicol Chem 2019;38:2383-2391. Published 2019 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Substâncias Explosivas/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Água/química , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Tempo , Triazinas/análise , Trinitrotolueno/análise
16.
Psychiatry Res ; 280: 112519, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442670

RESUMO

The first of its kind, this study determined whether blast exposure interacts with genetic variant 5HTTLPR to predict posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms in 78 military explosives operators. In all models, blast-exposed 5HTTLPR S carriers registered definitively higher PTS symptoms in comparison to non-exposed S carriers, as well as exposed and non-exposed LL carriers (all p < 0.01). All findings were robust to confounding influences of age and traumatic brain injury diagnosis. Not only is blast exposure prevalent in EOD personnel, but it also interacts with genetic predisposition to predict trauma symptoms in this unique, at-risk military population.


Assuntos
Traumatismos por Explosões/genética , Traumatismos por Explosões/psicologia , Militares/psicologia , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/genética , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/genética , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adulto , Traumatismos por Explosões/epidemiologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/epidemiologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/genética , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/psicologia , Substâncias Explosivas/efeitos adversos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/psicologia , Variação Genética/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
17.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 381: 114712, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437493

RESUMO

Stringent toxicological tests have to be performed prior to the industrial development of alternative chemicals particularly high energy dense materials (HEDMs) such as explosives. The properties (e.g., power, stability) of these compounds are constantly being improved, the current axis of research being the nitration of nitrogen heterocycles leading to HEDMs such as nitropyrazole-derived molecules. However, except for 3,4,5-trinitropyrazole (3,4,5-TNP), which was shown to be highly toxic in mice, the toxicological impact of these HEDMs has so far not been investigated. Furthermore, as industrials are strongly advised to develop alternative safety testing assays to in vivo experiments, we herein focused on determining the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of seven Nitropyrazole-derived HEDMs on three rodent cell lines (mouse embryonic BALB/3T3 clone A31 cells, Chinese hamster ovary cells CHO-K1 and mouse lymphoma L5178Y TK +/- clone (3.7.2C) cells), two human fibroblast lines (CRC05, PFS04062) and on the human hepatic HepaRG model (both in proliferative and differentiated cells). A stronger cytotoxic effect was observed for 1,3-dinitropyrazole (1, 3-DNP) and 3,4,5-TNP in all cell lines, though differentiated HepaRG cells clearly displayed fewer likely due to the metabolism and elimination of these molecules by their functional biotransformation pathways. At the mechanistic level, the sub-chronic cytotoxic and genotoxic effects were linked to ROS/RNS production (experimental assays), HA2.X and to transcriptomic data highlighting the increase in DNA repair mechanisms.


Assuntos
Substâncias Explosivas/toxicidade , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Pirazóis/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cricetulus , Dano ao DNA , Substâncias Explosivas/química , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Metabolômica , Camundongos , Mutagênicos/química , Pirazóis/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
18.
Talanta ; 204: 189-197, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357281

RESUMO

It is fairly crucial to detect inorganic explosives through a sensitive and fast method in the field of public safety, nevertheless, the high non-volatility and stability characteristics severely confine their accurate on-site detection from a real-world surface. In this work, an efficient, simple and cost effective method was developed to fabricate uniform silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) immobilized on polyurethane (PU) sponge through the in-situ reduction of polydopamine (PDA) based on mussel-inspired surface chemistry, in virtue of a large quantities catechol and amine functional groups. The formed PU@PDA@Ag sponges exhibited high SERS sensitivity, uniformity and reproducibility to 4-Aminothiophenol (4-ATP) probe molecule, and the limit of detection was calculated to be about 0.02 nmol L-1. Moreover, these PU@PDA@Ag sponges could be served as excellent flexible SERS substrates to rapidly detect trace inorganic explosives with high collection efficiency via swabbing extraction. The detection limit for perchlorates (ClO4-), chlorates (ClO3-) and nitrates (NO3-) were approximately down to 0.13, 0.13 and 0.11 ng respectively. These flexible substrates not only could drastically increase the sample collection efficiency, but also enhance analytical sensitivity and reliability for inorganic explosive, and would have a great potential application in the future homeland security fields.


Assuntos
Substâncias Explosivas/análise , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Poliuretanos/química , Prata/química , Compostos de Anilina/química , Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Cloratos/análise , Indóis/química , Limite de Detecção , Nitratos/análise , Oxirredução , Percloratos/análise , Polímeros/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química
19.
N Z Vet J ; 67(6): 323-328, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262239

RESUMO

Aims: To provide updated results on the adverse behavioural effects of fireworks on companion animals in New Zealand, measures that owners use to mitigate these effects, and opinions on a ban on the sale of fireworks. Method: A cross-sectional survey of companion animal owners in New Zealand was conducted between 2 November and 5 December 2016 using an online survey. The survey was modelled after a similar study conducted in 2006. Owners were asked to provide information on the types and severity of behaviours observed in their animals that were frightened by fireworks, what they did for their frightened animals and whether they would support a ban on the sale of fireworks. Results: There were 4,293 respondents who completed the online survey and they owned 15,871 companion animals, of which 11,750 (74.4%) were frightened of fireworks. For the 7,464 fearful animals with individual data available, the most commonly reported adverse behaviours were hiding (5,287; 70.8%), shivering (4,058; 54.3%) and cowering (3,324; 44.5%). Owners reported that 345 animals had been physically injured as the result of fireworks. Of 3,682 owners with frightened animals, 2,649 (71.9%) had not sought help or treatment for their animal. Frightened animals were mostly kept inside (3,479/7,464; 46.%) or comforted (2,112/7,464; 28.2%). Of all 4,325 respondents, 3,631 (84.0%) were supportive of a ban on the private sale of fireworks, with 370 (8.6%) against and 315 (7.3%) undecided. Owners with ≥1 animal that was fearful towards fireworks were more likely to support a ban (3,137/3,412; 91.9%) than owners whose animals were not afraid (466/561; 83.1%) (OR = 2.32; 95% CI = 1.80-2.98). Conclusion and Clinical Relevance: Among respondents to this survey, many owners of companion animals reported that their animals were adversely affected by fireworks, but few of them sought advice about strategies to mitigate the impacts. The majority of respondents supported a ban on the private sale of fireworks. Campaigns to raise public awareness of treatment strategies for managing fear behaviours during anticipated fireworks displays may be beneficial.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Substâncias Explosivas/efeitos adversos , Animais de Estimação/psicologia , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Medo , Humanos , Propriedade
20.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 103(17): 7161-7175, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352507

RESUMO

The explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a contaminant at many military sites. RDX bioremediation as a clean-up approach has been gaining popularity because of cost benefits compared to other methods. RDX biodegradation has primarily been linked to six functional genes (diaA, nfsI, pnrB, xenA, xenB, xplA). However, current methods for gene quantification have the risk of false negative results because of low theoretical primer coverage. To address this, the current study designed new primer sets using the EcoFunPrimer tool based on sequences collected by the Functional Gene Pipeline and Repository and these were verified based on residues and motifs. The primers were also designed to be compatible with the SmartChip Real-Time PCR system, a massively parallel singleplex PCR platform (high throughput qPCR), that enables quantitative gene analysis using 5,184 simultaneous reactions on a single chip with low volumes of reagents. This allows multiple genes and/or multiple primer sets for a single gene to be used with multiple samples. Following primer design, the six genes were quantified in RDX-contaminated groundwater (before and after biostimulation), RDX-contaminated sediment, and uncontaminated samples. The final 49 newly designed primer sets improved upon the theoretical coverage of published primer sets, and this corresponded to more detections in the environmental samples. All genes, except diaA, were detected in the environmental samples, with xenA and xenB being the most predominant. In the sediment samples, nfsI was the only gene detected. The new approach provides a more comprehensive tool for understanding RDX biodegradation potential at contaminated sites.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Substâncias Explosivas/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Triazinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Primers do DNA/genética , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Água Subterrânea/microbiologia
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