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1.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239250, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931517

RESUMO

To manage coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a national health authority has implemented a case definition of patients under investigation (PUIs) to guide clinicians' diagnoses. We aimed to determine characteristics among all PUIs and those with and without COVID-19. We retrospectively reviewed clinical characteristics and risk factors for laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases among PUIs at a tertiary care center in Bangkok, Thailand, between March 23 and April 7, 2020. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2 RNA was performed. There were 405 evaluable PUIs; 157 (38.8%) were men, with a mean age ± SD of 36.2 ± 12.6 years. The majority (68.9%) reported no comorbidities. There were 53 (13.1%) confirmed COVID-19 cases. The most common symptoms among those were cough (73.6%), fever (58.5%), sore throat (39.6%), and muscle pain (37.4%). Among these patients, diagnoses were upper respiratory tract infection (69.8%), viral syndrome (15.1%), pneumonia (11.3%), and asymptomatic infection (3.8%). Multivariate analysis identified close contact with an index case (OR, 3.49; 95%CI, 1.49-8.15; P = 0.004), visiting high-risk places (OR, 1.92; 95%CI, 1.03-3.56; P = 0.039), productive cough (OR, 2.03; 95%CI, 1.05-3.92; P = 0.034), and no medical coverage (OR, 3.91; 95%CI, 1.35-11.32; P = 0.012) as independent risk factors for COVID-19 among the PUIs. The majority had favorable outcomes, though one (1.9%) died from severe pneumonia. COVID-19 was identified in 13% of PUIs defined per a national health authority's case definition. History of contact with a COVID-19 patient, visiting a high-risk place, having no medical coverage, and productive cough may identify individuals at risk of COVID-19 in Thailand.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Pressão Sanguínea , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Fatores de Risco , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239235, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941548

RESUMO

New evidence on the COVID-19 pandemic is being published daily. Ongoing high-quality assessment of this literature is therefore needed to enable clinical practice to be evidence-based. This review builds on a previous scoping review and aimed to identify associations between disease severity and various clinical, laboratory and radiological characteristics. We searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE, Scopus and LILACS for studies published between January 1, 2019 and March 22, 2020. Clinical studies including ≥10 patients with confirmed COVID-19 of any study design were eligible. Two investigators independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. A quality effects model was used for the meta-analyses. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression identified sources of heterogeneity. For hospitalized patients, studies were ordered by overall disease severity of each population and this order was used as the modifier variable in meta-regression. Overall, 86 studies (n = 91,621) contributed data to the meta-analyses. Severe disease was strongly associated with fever, cough, dyspnea, pneumonia, any computed tomography findings, any ground glass opacity, lymphocytopenia, elevated C-reactive protein, elevated alanine aminotransferase, elevated aspartate aminotransferase, older age and male sex. These variables typically increased in prevalence by 30-73% from mild/early disease through to moderate/severe disease. Among hospitalized patients, 30-78% of heterogeneity was explained by severity of disease. Elevated white blood cell count was strongly associated with more severe disease among moderate/severe hospitalized patients. Elevated lymphocytes, low platelets, interleukin-6, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and D-dimers showed potential associations, while fatigue, gastrointestinal symptoms, consolidation and septal thickening showed non-linear association patterns. Headache and sore throat were associated with the presence of disease, but not with more severe disease. In COVID-19, more severe disease is strongly associated with several clinical, laboratory and radiological characteristics. Symptoms and other variables in early/mild disease appear non-specific and highly heterogeneous. Clinical Trial Registration: PROSPERO CRD42020170623.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Terapia Combinada , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Avaliação de Sintomas
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 609, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ratios of different immune cell populations (i.e., monocyte-to-lymphocyte, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte, and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios) have been studied as a means of predicting future tuberculosis (TB) disease risk or to assist in the diagnosis of incident TB disease. No studies to-date, however, have evaluated the potential of these ratios to predict or assist in the diagnosis of incident TB infection - the first step in the natural history of TB disease. METHODS: In this prospective study, we evaluated the complete blood count (CBC)-derived metrics of monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) as predictors of future TB infection risk or aids in the diagnosis of TB infection among 145 Tanzanian adolescents enrolled in the DAR-901 vaccine trial, using paired CBCs and interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) obtained at 0, 60 and 720 days after study enrollment. RESULTS: At baseline, there were no significant differences between study participants who remained persistently IGRA negative throughout the study period and those who subsequently converted to IGRA positive with respect to MLR (0.18 vs 0.17, p = 0.10), NLR (0.88 vs 1.02, p = 0.08), or PLR (115 vs 120, p = 0.28). Similarly, no significant differences were noted with respect to MLR, NLR, and PLR between IGRA converters and time-matched negative controls at the time of IGRA conversion. With respect to other blood cell measures, however, there were modest but significant differences between IGRA negatives and IGRA converters with respect to red blood cell count (4.8 vs 4.6 ×  106 cells/mcL, p = 0.008), hemoglobin (12.6 vs 12.3 g/dL, p = 0.01), and hematocrit (38.8 vs 37.8%, p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to prior studies that have suggested that the ratios of different immune cell populations are associated with development of TB disease, our present findings do not demonstrate an association between these ratios and the development of TB infection. However, decreased red blood cell measures were associated with the subsequent development of TB infection, suggesting either that dysregulation of iron metabolism may play a role in TB pathogenesis or that following TB infection, iron dysregulation may precede IGRA positivity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02712424 . Date of registration: March 14, 2016.


Assuntos
Contagem de Células Sanguíneas/métodos , Plaquetas , Linfócitos , Monócitos , Neutrófilos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/sangue , Tuberculose/microbiologia
4.
Ann Clin Lab Sci ; 50(4): 528-535, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826251

RESUMO

The COVID-19 outbreak has had a high impact on diagnostic laboratory services recently. The current literature has focused on reviewing tests that are specifically related to the diagnosis of COVIDS-19 infection using either molecular testing or immunoassays detecting viral antigens or antibodies. In this short communication review, we aimed to summarize the most common non-specific laboratory tests that may be requested in patients with suspected COVID-19 infection to help in the assessment of different organs and other vital laboratory tests to avoid complications as a consequence of COVID-19 infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Análise Química do Sangue , Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea , Gasometria , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/urina , Citocinas/sangue , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/urina
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21398, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756134

RESUMO

Pediatric patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) tend to have more advanced disease at presentation, for which more aggressive radioiodine (RAI) treatment would be commonly recommended. Several previous studies recommended dosimetry to calculate the optimal activity of RAI in pre-pubertal children and in children with a significant distant metastasis. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of empirical RAI treatment for DTC on bone marrow function in pre-pubertal children and adolescents.DTC patients aged ≤ 18 years receiving empirical RAI treatment with complete blood count data before and after treatment were included and divided into pre-pubertal and pubertal groups. Blood count values at baseline and 1.5-3 months, 3-6 months, and 6-12 months after RAI treatment were compared. The effect of demographic, clinical, and laboratory variables on bone marrow function were assessed.We included 83 patients (113 treatments). At diagnosis, pre-pubertal children had more aggressive tumor features, including tumor size (P = .045) and distant metastases (P = .037). Approximately 51% to 96% of hypocellular bone marrow, and 11% to 14% of anemia were observed in the pre-pubertal and pubertal groups, with a majority of mild (Grade 1-2) and minority of moderate (Grade 3) bone marrow suppression. No significant differences in bone marrow function or Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) grades were found between the pre-pubertal and pubertal groups after RAI treatment. None of the clinical factors tested were found to be significant predictors for bone marrow suppression after RAI treatment.Empirical RAI treatment for DTC in pre-pubertal children and adolescents causes mild to moderate bone marrow suppression with limited clinical significance. With adequate preparations for RAI treatment, empirical high activities (150-200 mCi) could be safe and well tolerated by both pre-pubertal and pubertal patients with DTC.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos do Iodo/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/radioterapia , Adolescente , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Radioisótopos do Iodo/farmacologia , Leucopenia/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/sangue , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Georgian Med News ; (302): 39-44, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32672687

RESUMO

Inflammation sometimes can be associated with the development of number of diseases, among them cancer. Few studies show prognostic value of different inflammatory markers, such as lymphocyte and monocyte count, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and others in some types of blood cancers. There is further need to investigate easy measurable diagnostic and prognostic novel biomarkers in hematologic malignancies. Our aim was to investigate the role of inflammatory markers: NLR, PLR, platelet-monocyte ratio (PMR), hemoglobin-platelet ratio (HPR), hemoglobin-lymphocyte ratio (HLR), lymphocyte-monocyte ratio (LMR), systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) and derived neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (dNLR), which were used alone or in combination, in early diagnoses of hematologic malignancies. The counts for total white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, monocyte and hemoglobin as well as systemic inflammatory factors, such as NLR, PLR, PMR, HPR, HLR, LMR, SII and dNLRwere analysed from patients with hematologic malignancies and their age-matched controls. The area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity and cut-off values, as well as correlations between these inflammatory markers were analyzed. The patients with hematologic malignancies have significantly increased level of inflammatory markers: NLR, PLR, PMR, HLR, SII and dNLR in comparison with age-matched controls. NLR and PLR positively correlate with each other and SII and negatively correlate with HGB. Additionally, PLR has positive correlation with HLR. dNLR has the highest AUC score. For diagnosing hematologic malignancies the AUC of the ROC curve for dNLR was 0.810 with a 95% CI of 0.646-0.975. However, combining these six markers - NLR, PLR, PMR, HLR, SII and dNLR reached the best AUC score - 0.923 with a 95% of CI of 0.778-1.000. Results indicate that NLR, PLR, PMR, HLR, SII and dNLR, which are easily detectable laboratory parameters and reflect systemic inflammatory response can be predictive factors for hematologic malignancies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas , Linfócitos , Biomarcadores , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Plaquetas , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Neutrófilos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(28): e20906, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664083

RESUMO

Osteoporosis (OP) is a metabolic bone disease that can cause structural changes in bone marrow cavity. Bone marrow is the hematopoietic organ of adults. Accumulating evidence has shown a close connection between bone marrow hematopoietic function and bone formation. Some studies have revealed that OP is associated with hematopoiesis. However, the relationship is not definite.This study aimed to evaluate the association between peripheral blood cell counts (white blood cells [WBC], red blood cells [RBC], platelets [PLT]), hemoglobin [HGB], and bone mineral density [BMD]) in a sample of Chinese postmenopausal women. This is a retrospective study involving 673 postmenopausal women cases. The BMD of lumbar spine and left hip joint were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The levels of blood cell counts and HGB were measured and analyzed.The study results showed the WBC, RBC, PLT, and HGB levels of postmenopausal women in the OP group were all higher than those in the non-osteoporosis group. Spearman linear trend analysis and partial correlation analysis demonstrated that BMD was negatively correlated with WBC, RBC, PLT, and HGB in postmenopausal women.Due to the differences between different countries and races, and there are few studies on the association of BMD with peripheral blood cell counts and HGB in Chinese Postmenopausal Women. Therefore, more large sample studies are needed.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas/métodos , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Hemoglobinas/análise , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Idoso , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas/tendências , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/diagnóstico , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Hematopoese/fisiologia , Articulação do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Lombares/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Angiology ; 71(9): 831-839, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638621

RESUMO

Individual parameters of complete blood count (CBC) have been associated with worse outcome in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, the prognostic role of CBC taken as a whole has never been evaluated for long-term incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). Patients were grouped according to their hematopoietic cells' inflammatory response at different time points during hospital stay. Patients with admission white blood cell count >10 × 109/L, discharge hemoglobin <120 g/L, and discharge platelet count >250 × 109/L were defined as "high-risk CBC." Among 1076 patients with ACS discharged alive, 129 (12%) had a "high-risk CBC" and 947 (88%) had a "low-risk CBC." Patients with "high-risk CBC" were older and had more comorbidities. Over a median follow-up of 665 days, they experienced a higher incidence of MACE compared to "low-risk CBC" patients (18.6% vs 8.1%). After adjustment for age, age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index, female sex, cardiac arrest, suboptimal discharge therapy, coronary artery bypass, and ejection fraction, a high-risk CBC was significantly associated with increased MACE occurrence (adjusted hazard ratio 1.80; 95% CI: 1.09-3.00). The CBC was a prognostic marker in patients with ACS, and its evaluation at admission and discharge could better classify patient's risk and improve therapeutic management.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Biosci Rep ; 40(8)2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725148

RESUMO

The new 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19), according to the World Health Organization (WHO), has been characterized as a pandemic. As more is being discovered about this virus, we aim to report findings of the complete blood count (CBC) of COVID-19 patients. This would serve in providing physicians with important knowledge on the changes that can be expected from the CBC of mild and normal COVID-19 patients. A total of 208 mild and common patients were admitted at the Dongnan Hospital located in the city of Xiaogan, Hubei, China. The CBCs of these patients, following a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19, were retrospectively analyzed and a significant P<0.05 was found after a full statistical analysis was conducted using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (IBM SPSS). CBC analysis revealed changes in the levels of red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Clinicians should expect similar findings when dealing with the new COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Respiratória/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Assintomáticas , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Índices de Eritrócitos , Eritrócitos/patologia , Eritrócitos/virologia , Feminino , Hematócrito , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/sangue , Insuficiência Respiratória/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
10.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e146, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631458

RESUMO

Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has presented an unprecedented challenge to the health-care system across the world. The current study aims to identify the determinants of illness severity of COVID-19 based on ordinal responses. A retrospective cohort of COVID-19 patients from four hospitals in three provinces in China was established, and 598 patients were included from 1 January to 8 March 2020, and divided into moderate, severe and critical illness group. Relative variables were retrieved from electronic medical records. The univariate and multivariate ordinal logistic regression models were fitted to identify the independent predictors of illness severity. The cohort included 400 (66.89%) moderate cases, 85 (14.21%) severe and 113 (18.90%) critical cases, of whom 79 died during hospitalisation as of 28 April. Patients in the age group of 70+ years (OR = 3.419, 95% CI: 1.596-7.323), age of 40-69 years (OR = 1.586, 95% CI: 0.824-3.053), hypertension (OR = 3.372, 95% CI: 2.185-5.202), ALT >50 µ/l (OR = 3.304, 95% CI: 2.107-5.180), cTnI >0.04 ng/ml (OR = 7.464, 95% CI: 4.292-12.980), myohaemoglobin>48.8 ng/ml (OR = 2.214, 95% CI: 1.42-3.453) had greater risk of developing worse severity of illness. The interval between illness onset and diagnosis (OR = 1.056, 95% CI: 1.012-1.101) and interval between illness onset and admission (OR = 1.048, 95% CI: 1.009-1.087) were independent significant predictors of illness severity. Patients of critical illness suffered from inferior survival, as compared with patients in the severe group (HR = 14.309, 95% CI: 5.585-36.659) and in the moderate group (HR = 41.021, 95% CI: 17.588-95.678). Our findings highlight that the identified determinants may help to predict the risk of developing more severe illness among COVID-19 patients and contribute to optimising arrangement of health resources.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise de Variância , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Análise Química do Sangue , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Testes de Função Renal , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
11.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 40(7): 965-971, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701240

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the key biochemical indicators that affect the clinical type and outcomes of COVID-19 patients and explore the application of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in COVID-19. METHODS: Ninety-three patients with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 admitted in Ezhou Central Hospital from February to April in 2020 were analyzed. Among them, 43 patients were selected from Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with the diagnosis of critical type of COVID-19, and 50 cases of common type were selected from the Department of Respiratory Medicine. The baseline data, blood routine test and biochemical indexes of the patients were collected on the first day of admission. NLRs of the patients were calculated, and COX survival analysis according to the NLR 4-category method was performed. The patients' outcomes were analyzed with receiver operating curves (ROCs). The patients were divided into two groups according to NLR cutoff value for comparison of the biochemical indexes. Based on the patients' outcomes, NLR cutoff value classification and clinical classification, multiple binary logistics regression was performed to screen the key variables and explore their significance in COVID-19. RESULTS: The NLR four-category method was not applicable for prognostic evaluation of the patients. The cut-off value of NLR for predict the prognosis of COVID-19 was 11.26, with a sensitivity of 0.903 and a specificity of 0.839; the laboratory indicators of the patients with NLR < 11.26 were similar to those in patients of the common type; the indicators were also similar between patients with NLR≥11.26 and those with critical type COVID-19. NLR, WBC, NEUT, PCT, DD, BUN, TNI, BNP, and LDH had significant effects on the clinical classification and outcome of the patients (P < 0.05); Cr, Ca, PH, and Lac had greater impact on the outcome of the patients (P < 0.05), while Na, PCO2 had greater impact on the clinical classification of the patients (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: NLR can be used as an important reference for clinical classification, prognostic assessment, and biochemical abnormalities of COVID-19. Patients of critical type more frequently have bacterial infection with more serious inflammatory reactions, severer heart, lung and kidney damages, and much higher levels of DD and LDH than those of the common type. NLR, NEUT, DD, TNI, BNP, LDH, Ca, PCT, PH, and Lac have obvious influence on the prognosis of COVID-19 and should be observed dynamically.


Assuntos
Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Infecções por Coronavirus , Linfócitos , Neutrófilos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Linfócitos/citologia , Neutrófilos/citologia , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
12.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 20(4): e114-e119, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620590

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has dramatically increased the workload for health systems and a consequent need to optimise resources has arisen, including the selection of patients for swab tests. We retrospectively reviewed consecutive patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 and undergoing swab tests for SARS-CoV-2. Complete blood counts (CBCs) were analysed looking for predictors of test positivity. Eight significant predictors were identified and used to build a 'complete' CBC score with a discriminatory power for COVID-19 diagnosis of AUC 92% (p<0.0001). When looking at the weight of individual variables, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), age, platelets and eosinophils (MAPE: MCV ≤90 fL, 65 points; age ≥45 years, 100 points; platelets ≤180×103/µL, 73 points; eosinophils <0.01/µL, 94 points) gave the highest contribution and were used to build a 'simplified' MAPE score with a discriminatory power of AUC 88%. By setting the cut-off MAPE score at ≥173 points, sensitivity and specificity for COVID-19 diagnosis were 83% and 82%, respectively, and the actual test positivity rate was 60% as compared to 6% of patients with MAPE score <173 points (odds ratio 23.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] 9.1-58.3, p-value <0.0001). In conclusion, CBC-based scores have potential for optimising the SARS-CoV-2 testing process: if these findings are confirmed in the future, swab tests may be waived for subjects with low score and uncertain symptoms, while they may be considered for asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic patients with high scores.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Fatores Etários , Área Sob a Curva , Eosinófilos , Índices de Eritrócitos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Pandemias , Contagem de Plaquetas , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 86: 106705, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652499

RESUMO

Since December 2019 the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has been identified as the cause of the pandemic COVID-19. Early symptoms overlap with other common conditions such as common cold and Influenza, making early screening and diagnosis are crucial goals for health practitioners. The aim of the study was to use machine learning (ML), an artificial neural network (ANN) and a simple statistical test to identify SARS-CoV-2 positive patients from full blood counts without knowledge of symptoms or history of the individuals. The dataset included in the analysis and training contains anonymized full blood counts results from patients seen at the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, at São Paulo, Brazil, and who had samples collected to perform the SARS-CoV-2 rt-PCR test during a visit to the hospital. Patient data was anonymised by the hospital, clinical data was standardized to have a mean of zero and a unit standard deviation. This data was made public with the aim to allow researchers to develop ways to enable the hospital to rapidly predict and potentially identify SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. We find that with full blood counts random forest, shallow learning and a flexible ANN model predict SARS-CoV-2 patients with high accuracy between populations on regular wards (AUC = 94-95%) and those not admitted to hospital or in the community (AUC = 80-86%). Here, AUC is the Area Under the receiver operating characteristics Curve and a measure for model performance. Moreover, a simple linear combination of 4 blood counts can be used to have an AUC of 85% for patients within the community. The normalised data of different blood parameters from SARS-CoV-2 positive patients exhibit a decrease in platelets, leukocytes, eosinophils, basophils and lymphocytes, and an increase in monocytes. SARS-CoV-2 positive patients exhibit a characteristic immune response profile pattern and changes in different parameters measured in the full blood count that are detected from simple and rapid blood tests. While symptoms at an early stage of infection are known to overlap with other common conditions, parameters of the full blood counts can be analysed to distinguish the viral type at an earlier stage than current rt-PCR tests for SARS-CoV-2 allow at present. This new methodology has potential to greatly improve initial screening for patients where PCR based diagnostic tools are limited.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Aprendizado de Máquina , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Brasil , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Modelos Estatísticos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico , Curva ROC
14.
Scand J Immunol ; 92(3): e12930, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640052

RESUMO

Major surgery is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality with early post-operative adverse events (POAE) occurring in 30% of patients within the first 30 days. The underlying pathogenesis is multifactorial, including immune dysfunction and increased inflammatory response to surgery. We investigated preoperative immune function by the TruCulture® whole blood technique in a cohort of patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), hypothesizing that patients developing inflammatory POAE defined as leucocytosis, fever or high (above median) area under the curve (AUC) C-reactive protein (CRP) the first post-operative week would display perturbed preoperative immune function. Sixty-two adult patients were screened, 30 included and 11 excluded post-inclusion due to other surgical procedures than PD and post-operative complications directly attributed to surgery, leaving 19 patients for analysis of preoperative immune function. Patients developing leucocytosis (n = 5, 26%) had lower Toll-like receptor (TLR)-3-stimulated IL-12p40 and higher Candida Albicans (TLR1/2/4/6, Dectin-1)-stimulated TNF-α, compared to patients without leucocytosis (all P < .05). Patients developing fever (n = 7, 37%) had lower TLR7/8-stimulated IFN-γ and patients with high AUC CRP (n = 9, 47%) had lower TLR3-stimulated IFN-γ and IL-6 and lower TLR7/8-stimulated IL-10 (all P < .05), compared to patients without fever or low CRP, respectively. In conclusion, patients with inflammatory POAE displayed lower preoperative stimulated IL-12p40, IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-10 and higher TNF-α response, compared to patients without inflammatory POAE. This finding suggests that TruCulture is a feasible immunologic screening tool in surgical patients, with a potential for preoperative identification of patients at increased risk for inflammatory POAE, allowing for risk-based intervention trials.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Citocinas/sangue , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Inflamação/etiologia , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Idoso , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Proteína C-Reativa , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Perioperatório , Projetos Piloto , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
15.
J Med Case Rep ; 14(1): 66, 2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-593355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, was declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 51-year-old Chinese woman who was evacuated from Wuhan, China and diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 infection at a Southern California quarantine facility. Her clinical course was notable for high fevers, night sweats, productive cough, transient leukopenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, and transaminitis. Evolving hypoxia and infiltrates on chest imaging warranted the trial of an investigational antiviral drug - remdesivir. Our patient recovered and was discharged after 2 weeks of hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights our patient's clinical course, including diagnostic work-up, medical management, and challenges in defining non-infectivity in a relatively unknown disease.


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Monofosfato de Adenosina/administração & dosagem , Alanina/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , California/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Função Hepática/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Quarentena/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(26): 14779-14789, 2020 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561645

RESUMO

Hematological analysis, via a complete blood count (CBC) and microscopy, is critical for screening, diagnosing, and monitoring blood conditions and diseases but requires complex equipment, multiple chemical reagents, laborious system calibration and procedures, and highly trained personnel for operation. Here we introduce a hematological assay based on label-free molecular imaging with deep-ultraviolet microscopy that can provide fast quantitative information of key hematological parameters to facilitate and improve hematological analysis. We demonstrate that this label-free approach yields 1) a quantitative five-part white blood cell differential, 2) quantitative red blood cell and hemoglobin characterization, 3) clear identification of platelets, and 4) detailed subcellular morphology. Analysis of tens of thousands of live cells is achieved in minutes without any sample preparation. Finally, we introduce a pseudocolorization scheme that accurately recapitulates the appearance of cells under conventional staining protocols for microscopic analysis of blood smears and bone marrow aspirates. Diagnostic efficacy is evaluated by a panel of hematologists performing a blind analysis of blood smears from healthy donors and thrombocytopenic and sickle cell disease patients. This work has significant implications toward simplifying and improving CBC and blood smear analysis, which is currently performed manually via bright-field microscopy, and toward the development of a low-cost, easy-to-use, and fast hematological analyzer as a point-of-care device and for low-resource settings.


Assuntos
Contagem de Células Sanguíneas/métodos , Microscopia Ultravioleta/métodos , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas/instrumentação , Células Sanguíneas/classificação , Células Sanguíneas/citologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Microscopia Ultravioleta/instrumentação , Imagem Molecular/instrumentação , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito
18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0232043, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is linked to poor overall survival (OS) in pancreatic cancer. We aim to investigate the association of the various hematologic markers, in particular NLR among others, with distant metastases, a common feature in pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Clinical data from 355 pancreatic cancer patients managed at King Hussein Cancer Center (Amman-Jordan) have been reviewed. We examined the relationship between absolute neutrophil count (ANC), absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), absolute eosinophilic count (AEC), absolute monocytic count (AMC), NLR, monocyte to lymphocyte ratio (MLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) with the presence of baseline distant metastases and OS. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was plotted to identify the NLR optimum cutoff value indicative of its association with distant metastases. RESULTS: On univariate and multivariate analyses patients whom on presentation had high NLR (≥3.3) showed more baseline distant metastases compared to patients with low NLR (<3.3), (p-value: <0.0001 and <0.0001, respectively). Patients with high baseline ANC (≥5500/µL), AMC (≥600/µL), MLR (≥0.3) had more baseline distant metastases in comparison to patients with lower values (p-value: 0.02, 0.001, and <0.0001, respectively). High ANC, NLR, MLR, and PLR and low ALC were associated with poorer OS, (p-value: <0.0001, <0.0001, <0.0001, 0.04, and 0.01, respectively). CONCLUSION: This study presents additional evidence of the association of some of the hematologic markers; in particular ANC, NLR, AMC, and MLR, with baseline distant metastases and poor outcome in pancreatic cancer. Whether these immune phenomena can help in identifying patients at higher risk for the subsequent development of distant metastases is unknown.


Assuntos
Linfócitos/citologia , Neutrófilos/citologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
J Clin Virol ; 129: 104502, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Testing for COVID-19 remains limited in the United States and across the world. Poor allocation of limited testing resources leads to misutilization of health system resources, which complementary rapid testing tools could ameliorate. OBJECTIVE: To predict SARS-CoV-2 PCR positivity based on complete blood count components and patient sex. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective case-control design for collection of data and a logistic regression prediction model was used. Participants were emergency department patients > 18 years old who had concurrent complete blood counts and SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing. 33 confirmed SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive and 357 negative patients at Stanford Health Care were used for model training. Validation cohorts consisted of emergency department patients > 18 years old who had concurrent complete blood counts and SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing in Northern California (41 PCR positive, 495 PCR negative), Seattle, Washington (40 PCR positive, 306 PCR negative), Chicago, Illinois (245 PCR positive, 1015 PCR negative), and South Korea (9 PCR positive, 236 PCR negative). RESULTS: A decision support tool that utilizes components of complete blood count and patient sex for prediction of SARS-CoV-2 PCR positivity demonstrated a C-statistic of 78 %, an optimized sensitivity of 93 %, and generalizability to other emergency department populations. By restricting PCR testing to predicted positive patients in a hypothetical scenario of 1000 patients requiring testing but testing resources limited to 60 % of patients, this tool would allow a 33 % increase in properly allocated resources. CONCLUSIONS: A prediction tool based on complete blood count results can better allocate SARS-CoV-2 testing and other health care resources such as personal protective equipment during a pandemic surge.


Assuntos
Contagem de Células Sanguíneas/métodos , Regras de Decisão Clínica , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , California , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Chicago , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Washington , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0232610, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497137

RESUMO

Pneumonia is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in children. Identification and characterization of pathogens that cause infections are crucial for accurate treatment and accelerated recovery. However, in most cases, the causative agent cannot be identified, which is partly due to the limited spectrum of pathogens covered by current diagnostics based on nucleic acid amplification. Therefore, in this study, we explored the application of metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) for the diagnosis of children with severe pneumonia. From April to July 2017, 32 hospitalized children with severe nonresponding pneumonia in Shenzhen Children's Hospital were included in this study. Blood tests were conducted immediately after hospitalization to assess cell counts and inflammatory markers, oropharyngeal swabs were collected to identify common pathogens by qPCR and culture. After bronchoscopy, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples were collected for further pathogen identification using standardized diagnostic tests and mNGS. Blood tests were normal in 3 of the 32 children. In 9 oropharyngeal swabs, bacterial pathogens were detected, in 5 of these Mycoplasma pneumoniae was detected. Adenovirus was detected in 5 BALF samples, using the Direct Immunofluorescence Assay (DFA). In 15 cases, no common pathogens were found in BALF samples, using the current standard diagnostic tests, while in all 32 BALFs, pathogens were identified using mNGS, including adenovirus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, cytomegalovirus and bocavirus. This study shows that, with mNGS, the sensitivity of detection of the causative pathogens in children with severe nonresponding pneumonia is significantly improved. In addition, mNGS gives more strain specific information, helps to identify new pathogens and could potentially help to trace and control outbreaks. In this study, we have shown that it is possible to have the results within 24 hours, making the application of mNGS feasible for clinical diagnostics.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Metagenômica/métodos , Pneumonia Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/microbiologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , DNA Bacteriano/análise , DNA Viral/análise , Feminino , Técnica Direta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Humanos , Lactente , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Metagenoma , Orofaringe/microbiologia , Orofaringe/virologia , Pneumonia Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Bacteriana/microbiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , RNA Viral/análise , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
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