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1.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 22(7): 755-761, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669174

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical features of catch-up growth of body height after kidney transplantation in children and related influencing factors. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed from the chart review data of 15 children who underwent kidney transplantation in Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center from July 2017 to November 2019. According to whether the increase in height standard deviation score (ΔHtSDS) in the first year after kidney transplantation reached ≥0.5, the children were divided into a catch-up group with 8 children and a non-catch-up group with 7 children. According to whether final HtSDS was ≥-2, the children were divided into a standard group with 6 children and a non-standard group with 9 children. The features of catch-up growth of body height and related influencing factors were compared between groups. RESULTS: The data showed that median ΔHtSDS was 0.8 in the first year after transplantation, which suggested catch-up growth of body height. There was a significant difference in HtSDS between the non-catch-up and catch-up groups (P<0.05). Baseline HtSDS before transplantation was positively correlated with HtSDS at the end of follow-up (r=0.622, P<0.05) and was negatively correlated with ∆HtSDS in the first year after transplantation (r=-0.705, P<0.05). Age of transplantation and mean dose of glucocorticoid (GC) per kg body weight were risk factors for catch-up growth after kidney transplantation (OR=1.23 and 1.74 respectively; P<0.05), while baseline HtSDS and use of antihypertensive drugs were independent protective factors for catch-up growth (OR=0.08 and 0.18 respectively; P<0.05); baseline HtSDS and ΔHtSDS in the first year after kidney transplantation were influencing factors for final HtSDS (ß=0.984 and 1.271 respectively; P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Kidney transplantation should be performed for children as early as possible, growth retardation before transplantation should be improved as far as possible, and multiple treatment methods (including the use of GC and antihypertensive drugs) should be optimized after surgery, in order to help these children achieve an ideal body height.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Criança , Glucocorticoides , Transtornos do Crescimento , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(6_Supple_A): 85-90, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475285

RESUMO

AIMS: The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship between height, weight, and sex with implant size in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) using a multivariate linear regression model and a Bayesian model. METHODS: A retrospective review of an institutional registry was performed of primary TKAs performed between January 2005 and December 2016. Patient demographics including patient age, sex, height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were obtained from registry and medical record review. In total, 8,100 primary TKAs were included. The mean age was 67.3 years (SD 9.5) with a mean BMI of 30.4 kg/m2 (SD 6.3). The TKAs were randomly split into a training cohort (n = 4,022) and a testing cohort (n = 4,078). A multivariate linear regression model was created on the training cohort and then applied to the testing cohort . A Bayesian model was created based on the frequencies of implant sizes in the training cohort. The model was then applied to the testing cohort to determine the accuracy of the model at 1%, 5%, and 10% tolerance of inaccuracy. RESULTS: Height had a relatively strong correlation with implant size (femoral component anteroposterior (AP) Pearson correlation coefficient (ρ) = 0.73, p < 0.001; tibial component mediolateral (ML) ρ = 0.77, p < 0.001). Weight had a moderately strong correlation with implant size, (femoral component AP ρ = 0.46, p < 0.001; tibial ML ρ = 0.48, p < 0.001). There was a significant linear correlation with height, weight, and sex with implant size (femoral component R2 = 0.607, p < 0.001; tibial R2 = 0.695, p < 0.001). The Bayesian model showed high accuracy in predicting the range of required implant sizes (94.4% for the femur and 96.6% for the tibia) accepting a 5% risk of inaccuracy. CONCLUSION: Implant size was correlated with basic demographic variables including height, weight, and sex. The linear regression and Bayesian models accurately predicted required implant sizes across multiple manufacturers based on height, weight, and sex alone. These types of predictive models may help improve operating room and implant supply chain efficiency. Level of Evidence: Level IV Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(6 Supple A):85-90.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Prótese do Joelho , Ajuste de Prótese , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desenho de Prótese , Estudos Retrospectivos , Caracteres Sexuais
4.
Prim Health Care Res Dev ; 21: e20, 2020 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519636

RESUMO

AIM: Examining the credibility of self-reported height, weight, and blood pressure by the elderly population using a tablet in a retirement residence, and examining the influence of health beliefs on the self-reporting credibility. BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major problem with rising prevalence in the western world. Hypertension is also a significant risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Self-report, remotely from the clinic, becomes even more essential when patients are encouraged to avoid visiting the clinic as during the COVID-19 pandemic. Self-reporting of height and weight is suspected of leading to underestimation of obesity prevalence in the population; however, it has not been well studied in the elderly population.The Health Belief Model tries to predict and explain decision making of patients based on the patient's health beliefs. METHODS: Residents of a retirement home network filled a questionnaire about their health beliefs regarding hypertension and obesity and self-reported their height, weight, and blood pressure. Blood pressure, height, and weight were then measured and compared to the patients' self-reporting. FINDINGS: Ninety residents, aged 84.90 ± 5.88, filled the questionnaire. From a clinical perspective, the overall gap between the measured and the self-reported BMI (M = 1.43, SD = 2.72), which represents an absolute gap of 0.74 kilograms and 2.95 centimeters, is expected to have only a mild influence on the physician's clinical evaluation of the patient's medical condition. This can allow the physician to estimate their patient's BMI status before the medical consultation and physical examination upon the patient's self-reporting. Patients' dichotomous (normal/abnormal) self-report of their blood pressure condition was relatively credible: positive predictive value (PPV) of 77.78% for normal blood pressure (BP) and 78.57% for abnormal BP. The relatively high PPV of BP self-reporting demonstrates an option for the physician to recognize patients at risk. Regression analysis found no correlation between the anthropometric parameters and the Health Belief Model.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Idoso Fragilizado/estatística & dados numéricos , Nível de Saúde , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Autorrelato , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Nature ; 582(7811): 234-239, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499652

RESUMO

On average, Peruvian individuals are among the shortest in the world1. Here we show that Native American ancestry is associated with reduced height in an ethnically diverse group of Peruvian individuals, and identify a population-specific, missense variant in the FBN1 gene (E1297G) that is significantly associated with lower height. Each copy of the minor allele (frequency of 4.7%) reduces height by 2.2 cm (4.4 cm in homozygous individuals). To our knowledge, this is the largest effect size known for a common height-associated variant. FBN1 encodes the extracellular matrix protein fibrillin 1, which is a major structural component of microfibrils. We observed less densely packed fibrillin-1-rich microfibrils with irregular edges in the skin of individuals who were homozygous for G1297 compared with individuals who were homozygous for E1297. Moreover, we show that the E1297G locus is under positive selection in non-African populations, and that the E1297 variant shows subtle evidence of positive selection specifically within the Peruvian population. This variant is also significantly more frequent in coastal Peruvian populations than in populations from the Andes or the Amazon, which suggests that short stature might be the result of adaptation to factors that are associated with the coastal environment in Peru.


Assuntos
Estatura/genética , Fibrilina-1/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Seleção Genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hereditariedade , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Masculino , Microfibrilas/química , Microfibrilas/genética , Peru
6.
Sports Health ; 12(4): 341-346, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although there is mounting evidence on sex-linked differences in paraspinal muscle function, it is unknown whether sex-based variations in mechanical and contractile characteristics of the lumbar erector spinae (LES) can be monitored noninvasively in healthy participants at rest using tensiomyography (TMG). HYPOTHESIS: Sex-specific effects in muscle displacement (Dm) and velocity of muscle deformation (Vd) will be observed via TMG assessed in the LES. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. METHODS: LES response was measured in a relaxed state in 40 healthy adults (20 females). Possible differences between the conditions were investigated using mixed-model analyses of variance. Two-stage hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to predict the outcome of TMG Dm and Vd based on participant sex. RESULTS: There were significant main effects of sex with large effect sizes for both TMG parameters, resulting from lower mean values in women compared with men (Dm, P < 0.01; Vd, P < 0.01). In contrast, neither the main effect of side (left vs right LES) nor the interaction between the side and sex reached significance (all P > 0.3). Introducing the sex variable in stage 2 of the regression analyses significantly improved the prediction of the TMG parameters (all ∆R2 ≥ 0.18; all P < 0.01; all f2 ≥ 0.29). CONCLUSION: Sex-based differences in muscle stiffness and contractile characteristics could be observed by TMG on LES muscles in healthy individuals at rest. The data suggest that these disparities are not exclusively attributable to anthropometric measures but may be linked to intrinsic sex-based differences in skeletal muscle characteristics. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: We recommend implementing TMG in a clinical setting using the obtained results as a basis to factor for the patient's biological sex when assessing effects of therapeutic/exercise regimens aiming at the optimization of myofascial tissue regeneration and performance.


Assuntos
Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Miografia/métodos , Músculos Paraespinais/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto , Idoso , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculos Paraespinais/anatomia & histologia , Valores de Referência , Adulto Jovem
7.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(2): C9-C10, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413843

RESUMO

Short stature is one of the most common causes for referrals to pediatric endocrinologists. However, in a majority of the children, no underlying cause can be identified and the child instead receives the unhelpful diagnosis of idiopathic short stature (ISS), often after extensive work-up and testing. Recent advances in genetic methodology have allowed for the identification of a number of different monogenic conditions within the large cohort of ISS children. Isolated short stature and advanced bone age, with or without early-onset osteoarthritis and/or osteochondritis dissecans (MIM#165800) due to heterozygous aggrecan gene mutations exemplifies how this progress is changing the way we assess, counsel and treat children with non-endocrine growth disorders.


Assuntos
Agrecanas/genética , Estatura/genética , Nanismo/genética , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Mutação/genética
8.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232593, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357183

RESUMO

We sought to evaluate the relationship between adult body height and risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) among healthy Koreans using nationwide population-based data. We analyzed data derived from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011. Participants over 40 years of age were included in the sample after excluding individuals with systemic comorbidities or missing relevant data. The presence and severity of AMD were graded using fundus photographs. The relationship between body height and risk of AMD was determined using multiple logistic regression analyses. Among a total of 8,435 participants, 544 (6.45%) had AMD: 502 (5.95%) with early AMD and 42 (0.5%) with late AMD. In multivariate-adjusted analyses, taller body height was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of AMD (odds ratio [OR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81-0.99), while body mass index (BMI) was not associated with AMD. An inverse association between body height and risk of AMD was observed most frequently in participants under 65 years of age (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.70-0.94). Furthermore, body height showed an inverse association with risk of AMD among obese participants (BMI ≥25.0 kg/m2) (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.60-0.93). Subgroup analysis by AMD type disclosed a significant inverse association between body height and early AMD (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.79-0.97) but not late AMD. Our results suggest that shorter body height is independently associated with increased risk of AMD, especially early AMD, in a dose-response manner in people who are obese or under 65 years of age.


Assuntos
Degeneração Macular/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estatura , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
9.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0231989, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Birth weight and post-natal growth are important predictors of adult health. Preeclampsia (PE) is associated with low birth weight and may have long term effects on the health of the children. The current study aims to compare anthropometry and blood pressure between children of mothers with and without PE in an Indian cohort. METHODS: We studied children born to women with (PE; n = 211) and without preeclampsia (non-PE; n = 470) at Bharati Hospital, Pune, India. Anthropometry and blood pressure were measured in children at 3-7 years of age. Weight and height Z-scores were calculated using the WHO 2006 growth reference. Independent t-tests were used to compare means between the two groups, and associations between preeclampsia and child outcomes were analyzed using multiple linear regression, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Weight and height Z-scores (p = 0.04 and 0.008), and subscapular skinfold thickness (p = 0.03) were higher among children of PE compared with children of non-PE mothers. Systolic blood pressure was also higher in children of PE mothers (1.70 mmHg [95% CI 0.05, 2.90] p = 0.006). BMI and diastolic blood pressure did not differ between groups. In regression models adjusted for newborn weight and gestational age, current age and sex, and maternal height, BMI and socio-economic status, children of PE mothers had higher weight Z-score (0.27 SD [95%CI 0.06, 0.48] p = 0.01), height Z-score (0.28 SD [95%CI 0.09, 0.47] p = 0.005), and subscapular skinfold thickness (0.38 mm [95%CI 0.00, 0.76] p = 0.049). A trend for higher systolic blood pressure (1.59 mmHg [95%CI -0.02, 3.20] p = 0.053) in the children was also observed in the adjusted model. The difference in systolic blood pressure was attenuated after adjusting further for the child's weight and height (1.09 mmHg [95%CI -0.48, 2.67] p = 0.17). There was no evidence of differences in effects between boys and girls. CONCLUSION: Children of PE mothers were taller and heavier, and had higher systolic blood pressure, partly explained by their increased body size, than children of non-PE mothers. In utero exposure to preeclampsia may increase the risk of future cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Pressão Sanguínea , Estatura , Pré-Eclâmpsia/fisiopatologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Idade Materna , Gravidez , Medição de Risco
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(18): e20080, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies that examine the growth effects of massage at ages beyond infancy are rare. A recently developed massage chair (BEG-100) targets teenagers who want to increase their growth. The chair can stretch areas around the knee after fixating the knee and ankle areas. METHODS: This is a clinical study that included 38 children aged 11 years whose heights ranged from 145.0 to 155.0 cm. We aim to observe the potential of a 24-week massage for growth promotion. We will also evaluate the changes in height percentile, height, height standard deviation score, bone age, height standard deviation score for bone age, growth rate, predicted height estimated from bone age, seated height-to-standing height ratio, weight, and body mass index. To confirm safety, the associated adverse events will be investigated. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the growth-promoting effect of BEG-100 in children with average height. TRIAL REGISTRATION: KCT0004673 (Clinical Research Information Service).


Assuntos
Estatura , Transtornos do Crescimento/terapia , Massagem/instrumentação , Massagem/métodos , Determinação da Idade pelo Esqueleto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , República da Coreia
11.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1111): 20200023, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436787

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the impact of a restricted craniocaudal (CC) field length of <20 cm on the selection of head and neck cancer (HNC) patients who can be treated on the MR-Linac using a single isocentre technique. We also assess the effects of anthropometric factors and the neck position on the CC field length. METHODS: 110 HNC patients who underwent radical primary or adjuvant radiotherapy were retrospectively analysed. We assessed the proportion of treatment fields with a CC length of <20 cm and the effects of gender, height, hyo-sternal neck length (distance from superior surface of hyoid to sternal notch measured on the coronal reconstruction of the planning CT) and neck position on CC length. RESULTS: 95% of HNC patients had a CC field length <20 cm. Female patients showed a significantly shorter median CC length than male patients in both extended (p = 0.0003) and neutral (p = 0.008) neck positions. Neck position influenced the median CC length with neutral neck being significantly shorter than extended neck (p = 0.0119). Patient height and hyo-sternal neck length showed positive correlation with the CC length, with neck length in neutral position having the strongest correlation (r = 0.65, p = 0.0001 and r = 0.63, p < 0.0001, respectively for extended neck; r = 0.55, p = 0.0070 and r = 0.80, p < 0.0001, respectively for neutral neck). A hyo-sternal neck length of <14.6 cm predicted a CC length of <20 cm in neutral neck position. CONCLUSION: The majority of patients with HNC at the Royal Marsden Hospital have anthropometric features compatible with their being treated on the MR-Linac using a single isocentre technique. The absolute CC field size may vary according to primary tumour site, patient factors and neck position. A hyo-sternal neck length cut-off of 14.6 cm in the neutral neck position can be used as a surrogate marker for suitability of treatment on MR-Linac. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: This paper highlights the potential impact of a restricted CC field in HNC patient selection for the MR-Linac treatment. This is the first report to suggest the use of neck length as a surrogate marker for suitability of treatment on the MR-Linac.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antropometria , Estatura , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Posicionamento do Paciente , Seleção de Pacientes , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais
12.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232012, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about differences in the size and morphology of the right and left human tali. The present study demonstrates differences between right and left talar morphometric geometric profiles as fluctuating asymmetry in matched pairs of cadaveric specimens. METHODS: In total, 24 tali were collected in this study. All eligible tali were systematically measured with a Vernier caliper and three-dimensional laser scanner, which provided data for further analysis regarding the talar morphometric geometric profiles. Data were calculated to demonstrate differences between the right and left talar profiles using a matched-pair method, including the general size of the talus. RESULTS: The average talar length was 53.5 mm, the average talar dome height was 31.2 mm, and the average talar body width was 41.3 mm. The average anterior trochlear width, middle trochlear width, posterior trochlear width, and trochlear length were 31.8, 31.2, 28.3, and 30.7 mm, respectively. Eleven matched pairs of intact tali were eligible for the matched-pair study. Paired t-tests showed significant differences in the talar dome height (P = 0.019), middle trochlear width (P = 0.027), and posterior trochlear width (P = 0.016) between the right and left tali. However, there were no significant differences in the surface area or volume between the right and left tali. CONCLUSION: Significant differences in the morphometric profile were found between the right and left matched pairs of tali. This basic information indicates that the profile of the contralateral talus may not be used as a single reference to reconstruct or duplicate the talus of interest in certain conditions such as talar prosthesis implantation or customized total ankle replacement.


Assuntos
Tálus/anatomia & histologia , Tornozelo/anatomia & histologia , Estatura , Cadáver , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional
13.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231449, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human height is a simple measure with great applicability. Usually, stadiometers are used to measure height accurately. However, these may be impractical to transport and expensive. Therefore, we developed a portable and low-cost laser height metre (LHM). OBJECTIVE: We aimed to (1) determine intrarater and interrater reliability of our LHM and compare it to a wall-fixed stadiometer, (2) examine its agreement with the same stadiometer, and (3) determine the minimum number of recordings needed to obtain an accurate and reliable height measurement using the LHM. METHODS: We recruited 32 participants (18+ years)-both men and women. Two raters performed assessments on the same day blinded to each other and their reference standard measurements. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), coefficient of variation (CV), standard error of measurement (SEM), and Bland-Altman plots with limits of agreement (LOA). RESULTS: For both the LHM and stadiometer, we found ICC values of 0.99-1.00 (95% CI: 0.997-1.000) for both intrarater and interrater reliability. Regarding LHM intrarater reliability, SEM, CV, and LOA were 0.34 cm, 0.16%, and -1.07 to 0.73 cm, respectively. In terms of LHM interrater reliability, SEM, CV, and LOA were 0.27 cm, 0.12%, and -0.32 to 0.84 cm, respectively. As to agreement with stadiometers using one measurement, the mean difference was -0.14 cm and LOA ranged from -0.81 to 0.77 cm. CONCLUSION: A portable and low-cost LHM, for measuring body height once, showed an excellent reproducibility within and between raters along with an acceptable agreement with a stadiometer thereby representing a suitable alternative.


Assuntos
Estatura/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lasers , Masculino , Aplicativos Móveis , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230555, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275720

RESUMO

This study uses a Mendelian randomization approach to resolve the difficulties of identifying the causal relationship between height and earnings by using a unique sample of 3,427 respondents from mainland China with sociodemographic information linked to individual genotyping data. Exploiting genetic variations to create instrumental variables for observed height, we find that while OLS regressions yield that an additional centimeter in height is associated with a 10-13% increase in one's annual earnings, IV estimates reveal only an insubstantial causal effect of height. Further analyses suggest that the observed height premium is likely to pick up the impacts of several cognitive/noncognitive skills on earnings confounded in previous studies, such as mental health, risk preference, and personality factors. Our study is the first empirical study that employs genetic IVs in developing countries, and our results contribute to the recent debate on the mechanism of height premium.


Assuntos
Estatura/genética , Renda , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos
15.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230502, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271790

RESUMO

Early identification of children <5 years with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is a high priority to reduce child mortality and improved health outcomes. Current WHO guidelines for community screening for SAM recommend a Mid-Upper-Arm Circumference (MUAC) of less than 115 mm to identify children with SAM, but this cut-off does not identify a significant number of children with a weight-for-height Z-score <-3. To establish new specific MUAC cut-offs, pooled data was obtained for 25,755 children from 49 SMART recent surveys in Ethiopia (2016-2019). Sensitivity, proportion of false positive, and areas under receiver-operator characteristic curves (AUC) were calculated. MUAC below 115mm alone identified 55% of children with SAM identified with both methodologies. MUAC was worse in identifying older children (21%), those from a pastoral region (42%) and boys (41%). Using current WHO cut-offs, the sensitivity (Se) of MUAC below 115mm to identify the children severly malnourished screened through Weight-for-height below-3 was 16%. Analysing the ROC curve and Youden Index, Se and Specificity (Sp) were maximal at a MUAC < 133 mm cut-off to identify SAM (respectively Se 61.1%, Sp 81.4%). However, given the high proportion of false-positive children, according to gender, region and age groups, a cut-off around 125 mm to screen SAM could be the optimal one. In Ethiopia, implementation of a MUAC-only screening program for the identification of severe acute malnutrition with the actual cut-off of 115 mm would be unethical as it will lead to many children remaining undiagnosed and untreated. In addition, future study on implementation challenge on screening children with a higher cut-off or gender/age sensitive ones should be assessed with the collection of mortality and morbidity data to ensure that the most in need are being taking care of.


Assuntos
Braço/anatomia & histologia , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/métodos , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/diagnóstico , Fatores Etários , Viés , Estatura/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gráficos de Crescimento , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais
16.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(12): e91, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Routine blood pressure (BP) measurement is recommended to begin at 3 years of age, but there are no national BP reference values for Korean children less than 7 years of age. Therefore, we developed sex-, age-, and height-specific BP reference values for non-overweight children aged 3-9 years. METHODS: We analyzed the data of 416, 340, 321, 323, and 332 subjects aged 3, 5, 7, 8, and 9 years, respectively, who participated in the Ewha Birth and Growth Cohort Study. BP percentile curves were generated using generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape. Reference values for the 50th, 90th, and 95th percentiles of BP were determined according to sex, age, and height percentiles. RESULTS: In both boys and girls, a gradual increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP) with age was more pronounced than that in diastolic blood pressure (DBP). In boys, the reference values for 90th percentile of SBP/DBP at median height for children aged 3 and 9 years were 105/69 and 118/70, respectively. In girls, the reference values corresponding to the above conditions were 105/69 and 116/70, respectively. Among children aged 7-9 years of median height, the 90th percentile of SBP in the current study was lower and that of DBP was similar to the national reference values of Korea. For children aged < 7 years of median height, the reference value for SBP, but not that for DBP, was similar to that developed in the European study. CONCLUSION: Although further research is needed, our findings could be used to help identify high BP in children less than 10 years of age.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Estatura , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Valores de Referência , República da Coreia , Fatores Sexuais
17.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231229, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Height and weight are commonly used metrics in epidemiologic studies to calculate body mass index. Large cohort studies generally assess height and weight by self-report rather than by measurement. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of self-reported height and weight in the Cancer Prevention Study-3 (CPS-3), a large, nationwide cohort recruited by the American Cancer Society between 2006-2013. METHODS: In a subset of CPS-3 participants (n = 2,643), weight and height were assessed at the same time via self-report and in-person measurement. BMI was calculated and classified underweight (<18.5 kg/m2), normal (18.5-<25 kg/m2), overweight (25-<30 kg/m2), or obese (≥30 kg/m2). Self-reported and measured height, weight, and BMI were compared using mean differences and Bland-Altman plots and examined by sex, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, age group, and BMI category. RESULTS: Men and women slightly overreported height and underreported weight. BMI calculated from self-reported data was lower than for measured data for men and women. In analyses stratified by race/ethnicity, age, education, and marital status, older women and women with less than a college degree overreported height. Approximately 13% of men and 7% of women were misclassified into a lower self-reported BMI category, with misclassification of BMI being greatest in obese men and women. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, height, weight, and BMI were well-reported, and this study further suggests that BMI computed from self-reported weight and height is a valid measure in men and women across different socio-demographic groups.


Assuntos
Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
18.
Gac Med Mex ; 156(2): 117-123, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285859

RESUMO

Introduction: Children and adolescents weight and height are a reflection of the health status and socioeconomic development of a population. Objective: To evaluate height and weight progression patterns of Mexican children and compare them with Dr. Ramos-Galván growth charts 40 years later. Method: Cross-sectional survey conducted on the population of the National Physical Activation Program "Ponte al 100", which includes boys and girls aged six to 12 years. Results: 43,670 boys and 44,103 girls were assessed, stratified by gender and age. The height progression pattern between six and 12 years was 21 cm in males and 22 cm in females, whereas the weight progression pattern was 9.86 and 10.05 kg, respectively, for males and females. The proportion of six- and 12-year-old boys who were overweight was 11.2 and 9 %, while 14.7 and 15 % were obese. The proportion of six- and 12-year-old girls who were overweight was 8.2 and 9.1 %, whereas 21.7 and 13.3 %, respectively, were obese. When the obtained values were compared with those of Dr. Ramos Galván growth charts for boys and girls, the average difference was 2 cm. Conclusions: No secular height or weight increase within the last 40 years was documented.


Assuntos
Estatura , Peso Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gráficos de Crescimento , Humanos , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
19.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 27(3): 183-193, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170711

RESUMO

Children are defined as hypertensive when their blood pressure values equal or exceed the 95th percentile of the blood pressure value distribution in a pediatric population, according to gender, age and height. The population on which reference tables are based is of fundamental importance to establish the threshold values for the diagnosis of hypertension in pediatric age. Before 2017, both American and European guidelines used nomograms created in the same reference population which included children of all weight classes. Given the close and well-known association between hypertension and excess weight in childhood, the 2017 American guidelines proposed new reference nomograms excluding subjects with overweight and obesity from the "historical" reference population. Furthermore, the new American guidelines suggested a fixed cut-off of 130/80 mmHg, starting from 13 years and regardless of gender and height, to make the diagnosis of hypertension. In this document, the Italian Hypertension Society (SIIA) and the Italian Pediatric Society (SIP) jointly discuss a number of issues raised by the new American guidelines that involve the entire medical community, and also address the definition of arterial hypertension in the transition phase between childhood and adulthood.


Assuntos
Pressão Arterial , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/normas , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Estatura , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Nomogramas , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Valores de Referência , Fatores Sexuais
20.
J Physiol Anthropol ; 39(1): 5, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether or not the breakpoint (BP), at which the proportion of each of fat mass (FM) and fat-free soft tissue mass (FFSTM) to body mass (BM) alter, exists in male athletes. We examined the hypothesis that in male athletes, the regional FM and FFSTM-BM relationships have a BP, but the body mass at BP (BMBP) differs among the arms, trunk, and legs. METHODS: By using a dual X-ray absorptiometry, whole-body and regional FMs and FFSTMs in the arms, trunk, and legs were estimated in 198 male athletes (20.8 ± 2.1 years; 1.73 ± 0.07 m; 72.7 ± 14.8 kg). To detect the BP in the relationship between each of FM and FFSTM and BM, a piecewise linear regression analysis was used. If a BP was detected in the corresponding relationship, the significant difference between the regression slopes above and below the BP was examined. RESULTS: The regression analysis indicated that the BMBP existed in the FM- and FFSTM-BM relationships regardless of region and whole body. For the whole body, BMBP was 81.8 kg for FM and 82.2 kg for FFSTM. In regional FM-BM relationships, BMBP was 80.5 kg for arms, 82.6 kg for trunk, and 63.3 kg for legs, and the regression slopes above the BMBP became higher than those below the BP, and vice versa in regional FFSTM-BM relationships (BMBP 104.6 kg for arms, 80.9 kg for trunk, and 79.0 kg for legs). The relative differences in the slopes between below and above BMBP in the regional FM-BM relationships were higher in the arms and trunk than in the legs, and those in the regional FFSTM-BM relationships in the legs than in the trunk. CONCLUSION: Whole-body and regional FM- and FFSTM-BM relationships for male athletes have breakpoints at which the proportion of the tissue masses to BM alters. The BMBP and differences in the distribution of regional FM and FFSTM around the breakpoint are region specific.


Assuntos
Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adolescente , Adulto , Antropologia Física , Estatura/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Adulto Jovem
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