Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 19.625
Filtrar
1.
Med Probl Perform Art ; 35(3): 145-152, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870966

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To begin to establish normative data for shoulder range of motion (ROM) and strength in the circus acrobats and to compare these values based on age, sex, hand dominance, and acrobatic subgroup. METHODS: Active (AROM) and passive (PROM) of the full shoulder complex and PROM of the isolated glenohumeral joint were measured in 193 circus acrobats using standardized techniques for anterior elevation (flexion), posterior elevation (extension), lateral elevation (abduction), and external and internal rotation. Shoulder strength was measured using a hand-held dynamometer in all planes of motion. Measurements were taken twice and averaged. Mixed ANOVA were performed. One-sample t-tests were used to compare with general population. RESULTS: Several significant differences were noted between dominant and non-dominant sides, but not between the sex or age groups tested. Acrobats who did both aerial and ground acrobatics had significantly greater full shoulder complex flexion AROM than the aerial group, and AROM extension than the ground group. Circus acrobats had significantly greater AROM full shoulder complex extension, abduction, internal and external rotation, and shoulder strength than the general population. CONCLUSION: Overall, results from this cross-sectional study revealed that circus acrobats had greater shoulder strength and ROM than the general population, which could affect the way these patients should be treated in a clinical setting. Age and sex seemed to have minimal effects, but there was clearly an effect of hand dominance. Acrobats who train both aerial and ground acrobatics may have greater ROM in certain planes than those who train in only one type of discipline.


Assuntos
Ginástica , Articulação do Ombro , Ombro , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Força Muscular , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Rotação
2.
Nutrients ; 12(8)2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785021

RESUMO

Old age is associated with lower physical activity levels, suboptimal protein intake, and desensitization to anabolic stimuli, predisposing for age-related muscle loss (sarcopenia). Although resistance exercise (RE) and protein supplementation partially protect against sarcopenia under controlled conditions, the efficacy of home-based, unsupervised RE (HBRE) and multi-ingredient supplementation (MIS) is largely unknown. In this randomized, placebo-controlled and double-blind trial, we examined the effects of HBRE/MIS on muscle mass, strength, and function in free-living, older men. Thirty-two sedentary men underwent twelve weeks of home-based resistance band training (3 d/week), in combination with daily intake of a novel five-nutrient supplement ('Muscle5'; M5, n = 16, 77.4 ± 2.8 y) containing whey, micellar casein, creatine, vitamin D, and omega-3 fatty acids, or an isocaloric/isonitrogenous placebo (PLA; n = 16, 74.4 ± 1.3 y), containing collagen and sunflower oil. Appendicular and total lean mass (ASM; +3%, TLM; +2%), lean mass to fat ratios (ASM/% body fat; +6%, TLM/% body fat; +5%), maximal strength (grip; +8%, leg press; +17%), and function (5-Times Sit-to-Stand time; -9%) were significantly improved in the M5 group following HBRE/MIS therapy (pre vs. post tests; p < 0.05). Fast-twitch muscle fiber cross-sectional areas of the quadriceps muscle were also significantly increased in the M5 group post intervention (Type IIa; +30.9%, Type IIx, +28.5%, p < 0.05). Sub-group analysis indicated even greater gains in total lean mass in sarcopenic individuals following HBRE/MIS therapy (TLM; +1.65 kg/+3.4%, p < 0.05). We conclude that the Muscle5 supplement is a safe, well-tolerated, and effective complement to low-intensity, home-based resistance exercise and improves lean mass, strength, and overall muscle quality in old age.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Suplementos Nutricionais , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência , Sarcopenia/terapia , Idoso , Anabolizantes/uso terapêutico , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais , Caseínas/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , Creatina/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Exercício Físico , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Fibras Musculares de Contração Rápida , Proteínas Musculares , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Quadríceps , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia , Autocuidado , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/uso terapêutico
3.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(701): 1405-1411, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833355

RESUMO

Muscle injuries are one of the most common injuries in professional and recreational sports. Their impact on absence during the games is therefore major. There are many risk factors, the main ones being a previous muscle injury, a lack of strength in the muscle in question, and the age of the athlete. Preventive medicine in this field, although essential, remains perfectible and the various preventive measures are sometimes not fully studied, or present variable evidence. Stretching, neuro-muscular exercises, muscle strengthening, nutrition or genetics can all be part of the most comprehensive preventive possible approach.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Extremidade Inferior , Esportes , Traumatismos em Atletas/genética , Exercício Físico , Terapia por Exercício , Humanos , Força Muscular
4.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 47: e20202548, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844909

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: compare an accelerated physiotherapeutic protocol to a conventional physiotherapeutic protocol in total hip arthroplasty patients. METHODS: a randomized double blinded clinical trial performed from August 2013 to November 2014. Forty-eight patients diagnosed with hip osteoarthritis submitted to a total hip arthroplasty surgery. An accelerated rehabilitation physiotherapy applied three times a day and start gait training on the first day or standard physiotherapy applied once a day and start gait training on the second or third day of hospitalization. The Merle dAubigné and Postel score (mobility, pain and gait), muscle strength force, range of motion, in hospital stay and time to start of gait training, were the outcomes. RESULTS: the mean age was 64.46 years (10.37 years standard deviation). No differences were observed in age in different genders, and the two randomization groups were homogeneous. In hospital stay was lower in the intervention group compared to the control group, 3 (3-4) days [median (interquartile range)] versus 4 (4-5) days. Time to the start of gait training was early in the intervention group compared to the control group, 1 (1-1) days versus 2 (2-2) days. Higher muscle strength values were observed in the postoperative results in the intervention group compared to the control group for internal rotation, external rotation and abduction. CONCLUSIONS: an accelerated physiotherapeutic protocol should be encouraged, because it shows favourable results in gait, muscle strength and length of hospital stay, even upon hospital discharge.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/reabilitação , Marcha , Osteoartrite do Quadril/cirurgia , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e21030, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Single-row (SR) and double-row (DR) techniques are 2 kinds of widely used approaches for the arthroscopic repair of rotator cuff. This retrospective clinical trial was performed to address the question of whether a DR rotator cuff anchor repair gives results superior to a SR anchor repair in clinical outcome scores and complication rates. METHODS: This study was performed and reported in accordance with the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology checklist. We retrospectively reviewed our database, which was collected prospectively. From 2014 to 2017, 264 patients underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair by an experienced single shoulder surgeon with the SR and DR techniques. This study was approved by the institutional review board in our hospital and was registered in the Research Registry. Outcome measures included Constant-Murley score, muscle strength, patient satisfaction, passive range of motion, and retear rates. RESULTS: The hypothesis was that the DR technique would achieve better functional scores and fewer complications as compared to the SR technique in treatment of rotator cuff tears.


Assuntos
Artroscopia/métodos , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/cirurgia , Âncoras de Sutura , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Força Muscular , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Estudos Retrospectivos , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/reabilitação , Técnicas de Sutura
7.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 163, 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600344

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the influence of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) on lung function in early convalescence phase. METHODS: A retrospective study of COVID-19 patients at the Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University were conducted, with serial assessments including lung volumes (TLC), spirometry (FVC, FEV1), lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO),respiratory muscle strength, 6-min walking distance (6MWD) and high resolution CT being collected at 30 days after discharged. RESULTS: Fifty-seven patients completed the serial assessments. There were 40 non-severe cases and 17 severe cases. Thirty-one patients (54.3%) had abnormal CT findings. Abnormalities were detected in the pulmonary function tests in 43 (75.4%) of the patients. Six (10.5%), 5(8.7%), 25(43.8%) 7(12.3%), and 30 (52.6%) patients had FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio, TLC, and DLCO values less than 80% of predicted values, respectively. 28 (49.1%) and 13 (22.8%) patients had PImax and PEmax values less than 80% of the corresponding predicted values. Compared with non-severe cases, severe patients showed higher incidence of DLCO impairment (75.6%vs42.5%, p = 0.019), higher lung total severity score (TSS) and R20, and significantly lower percentage of predicted TLC and 6MWD. No significant correlation between TSS and pulmonary function parameters was found during follow-up visit. CONCLUSION: Impaired diffusing-capacity, lower respiratory muscle strength, and lung imaging abnormalities were detected in more than half of the COVID-19 patients in early convalescence phase. Compared with non-severe cases, severe patients had a higher incidence of DLCO impairment and encountered more TLC decrease and 6MWD decline.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Convalescença , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Seguimentos , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular , Pandemias , Alta do Paciente , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Testes de Função Respiratória , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Espirometria/métodos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235377, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603351

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a six-week, twice weekly resistance training (4 sets at 30% 1-RM until failure) with practical blood flow restriction (BFR) using 7cm wide cuffs with a twist lock placed below the patella is superior to training without BFR (NoBFR) concerning muscle mass and strength gains in calf muscles. A two-group (BFR n = 12, mean age 27.33 (7.0) years, training experience 7.3 (7.0) years; NoBFR n = 9, mean age 28.9 (7.4) years, training experience 7.1 (6.6) years) randomized matched pair design based on initial 1-RM was used to assess the effects on structural and functional adaptations in healthy males (Perometer calf volume [CV], gastrocnemius muscle thickness using ultrasound [MT], 7-maximal hopping test for leg stiffness [LS], 1-RM smith machine calf raise [1-RM], and visual analogue scale as a measure of pain intensity [VAS]). The mean number of repetitions completed per training session across the intervention period was higher in the NoBFR group compared to the BFR group (70 (16) vs. 52 (9), p = 0.002). VAS measured during the first session increased similarly in both groups from first to fourth set (p<0.001). No group effects or time×group interactions were found for CV, MT, LS, and 1-RM. However, there were significant time effects for MT (BFR +0.07 cm; NoBFR +0.04; p = 0.008), and 1-RM (BFR +40 kg; NoBFR +34 kg; p<0.001). LS and CV remained unchanged through training. VAS in both groups were similar, and BFR and NoBFR were equally effective for increasing 1-RM and MT in trained males. However, BFR was more time efficient, due to lesser repetition per training session.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235734, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667956

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this randomized controlled trial was to examine dynamic balance changes (reach distance) in middle-aged adults using the Y Balance Test (YBT) following 8 weeks of home-based exercise program adapted from the Otago Exercise Program (OEP). METHODS: Fifty-two healthy middle-aged adults with mean age of 54.4±5.4 years and body mass index of 27.7±5.7 kg/m2 were randomly assigned into either the exercise group (a modification of the Otago Exercise Program, that consisted of home-based balance and strength exercises) or the non-exercise group (continuation of usual lifestyle) by having the participants select a paper from a sealed envelope. The YBT was used to measure participants' dynamic balance in the right and left anterior (RA, LA), posteromedial (RPM, LPM), and posterolateral (RPL, LPL) directions. RESULTS: The outcome in this trial was reach distance (cm). There was a significant group by time interaction in terms of reach distance for all directions (p<0.05, η2 ranged from 0.06 to 0.20). In the exercise group, results of the repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant improvements in the reach distance in all the directions (p<0.001). In contrast, the non-exercise group had significant difference only in the left posterolateral direction (p = 0.009). Participants in the exercise group achieved significantly greater reach distance (cm) (95% confidence interval (CI)) for RA[(2.8, 0.4 to 5.2), p = 0.023]; LA[(3.2, 0.9 to 5.6), p = 0.008]; RPM[(4.0, 1.0 to 7.9), p = 0.046]; LPM[(5.8,1.3 to 10.3), p = 0.013]; RPL[(7.6, 2.6 to 12.6), p = 0.003]; and LPL[(4.2, 0.3 to 8.2), p = 0.035]. CONCLUSION: The modified version of OEP appears to be effective in improving parameters of dynamic balance in the middle-aged adult population. The improvements in YBT reach distance in the exercise group are indicative of the significance of performing balance and strength exercises regularly for this population.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(25): e20882, 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569237

RESUMO

Explosive power is a performance determinant in many sports activities. Vertical jump tests for assessing power output are widely employed. Accurate and reliable methods are needed to predict human power output using the widely employed vertical jump height.To determine vertical jump capacity by using force platform in high school-level girls and to develop an equation that predict vertical jump muscle power (MP) (watts) through body composition and vertical jump height.An experimental group consisting of 87 high school-level young sedentary girls (mean; age; 16.49 ±â€Š1.93, height;161.25 ±â€Š6.21, weight; 55.59 ±â€Š10.27) and a validation (control) group consisting of a similar population of 30 people (mean; age; 16.14 ±â€Š1.31, height; 163.30 ±â€Š6.28, weight; 56.65 ±â€Š9.59), participated in this study. A stepwise linear regression model, including fat free body mass, vertical jump height and fat percentage as independent parameters was applied to develop a new muscle power (MP) estimation equation. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were calculated between actual and predicted MP.The new prediction equation obtained from regression analysis for muscle power (MP) could explain 74.5% (R) of the variation. A strong and high correlation was observed between the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients of the actual and predicted MP (experimental; r = 0.863; P < .000) and (control; r = 0.898; P < .000).The direct measurements of muscle power (MP) require researchers to access costly and complex instruments. This need will be met by the MP estimation equations obtained from a simple vertical jump height and body composition measurement.


Assuntos
Movimento , Força Muscular , Adolescente , Composição Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 67(3): 48-55, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Falls are a very common problem in older adults. Improving lower extremity muscle strength is the primary objective of fall-prevention programs. PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of the Otago Exercise Program (OEP) on the lower extremity muscle strength of residents living in a long-term care institution. METHODS: In this repeated measurement study, participants were allocated into either the experimental group (EG) or the control group (CG). All of the participants maintained normal activities, and EG participants were additionally enrolled in a 6-month group OEP led by a physiotherapist. The OEP, comprising warm-up exercises, strength training, balance training, and walking training, requires about 45 minutes per session, 3 times a week. A total of 78 OEP sessions were performed during the 6-month intervention. A 30-Second Sit-to-Stand Test and lower extremity muscle strength measurements were performed at baseline, after 3 months, and after 6 months. RESULTS: The twenty participants in this study had a mean age over 80 years and were recruited from a long-term care institution in southern Taiwan. There were ten participants in each group, and the mean total OEP session attendance for EG participants was 92.8%. Although the EG had lower extremity muscle strength than the CG at baseline, the EG had achieved significant improvements in the muscle strength values for the knee extensor, knee flexor, ankle plantar flexors, and dorsiflexors after 6 months (group x time interaction, p < .05). In addition, the results of the 30-second sit-to-stand test for the EG were poor at baseline and significantly better after 6 months, while the results for the CG worsened between baseline and 6 months. CONCLUSIONS / IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The results of this study support that participating in a group-based OEP three times per week over 6 months effectively improves lower extremity muscle strength in older adults. Therefore, OEP should be incorporated into fall-prevention programs organized in long-term care institutions.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Instituições Residenciais , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Taiwan
12.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234458, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569264

RESUMO

We investigated the association of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with athlete status and power/speed performance in elite male youth soccer players (ESP) and control participants (CON) at different stages of maturity. ESP (n = 535; aged 8-23 years) and CON (n = 151; aged 9-26 years) were genotyped for 10 SNPs and grouped according to years from predicted peak-height-velocity (PHV), i.e. pre- or post-PHV, to determine maturity status. Participants performed bilateral vertical countermovement jumps, bilateral horizontal-forward countermovement jumps, 20m sprints and modified 505-agility tests. Compared to CON, pre-PHV ESP demonstrated a higher ACTN3 (rs1815739) XX ('endurance') genotype frequency distribution, while post-PHV ESP revealed a higher frequency distribution of the PPARA (rs4253778) C-allele, AGT (rs699) GG genotype and NOS3 (rs2070744) T-allele ('power' genotypes/alleles). BDNF (rs6265) CC, COL5A1 (rs12722) CC and NOS3 TT homozygotes sprinted quicker than A-allele carriers, CT heterozygotes and CC homozygotes, respectively. COL2A1 (rs2070739) CC and AMPD1 (rs17602729) GG homozygotes sprinted faster than their respective minor allele carrier counterparts in CON and pre-PHV ESP, respectively. BDNF CC homozygotes jumped further than T-allele carriers, while ESP COL5A1 CC homozygotes jumped higher than TT homozygotes. To conclude, we have shown for the first time that pre- and post-PHV ESP have distinct genetic profiles, with pre-PHV ESP more suited for endurance, and post-PHV ESP for power and speed (the latter phenotypes being crucial attributes for post-PHV ESP). We have also demonstrated that power, acceleration and sprint performance were associated with five SNPs, both individually and in combination, possibly by influencing muscle size and neuromuscular activation.


Assuntos
Atletas , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Perfil Genético , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia , Futebol , Aceleração , Actinina/genética , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Colágeno Tipo II/genética , Colágeno Tipo V/genética , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Corrida/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(7): 979-984, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plyometric exercises are often used to develop lower limb strength and performance-related biomechanics such as leg stiffness. However, the effectiveness of plyometric training may depend on participants' own training and performance demands. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of plyometric training on Reactive Strength Index (RSI) and leg stiffness (Kleg) on young athletes of different sports. METHODS: Forty eight female athletes (25 Taekwondo (TKD) and 23 rhythmic gymnastics (RG), mean±SD: age: 8.94±2.50 years; mass: 29.73±7.69 kg; height: 138.84±11.90 cm; training experience: 4.62±2.37 years) participated in this study. Participants were randomly assigned to experimental (PT, N.=24) and control (CG, N.=24) groups. The PT group followed a twice-weekly plyometric training program for 4 weeks. Plyometric drills lasted approximately 5-10 s, and at least 90 s rest was allowed after each set. To examine RSI, participants performed trials of five maximal CMJs. Submaximal hopping (20 hops) was performed in order to examine leg stiffness. RESULTS: Significant interaction effect was found for RSI and the post hoc analysis showed that RSI significantly increased by 35% (P=0.017) in RG athletes, whereas a significantly reduction by 28% (P=0.004) was revealed in TKD athletes. The interaction effect between time and group was statistically significant for Kleg (P<0.05) with Kleg significantly increasing by 31% (P=0.008) in TKD athletes, but remaining unchanged (P>0.05) in RG athletes. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the effect of a 4-week plyometric training program on RSI and leg stiffness is sport dependent. Further, the applied plyometric program was effective in reducing ground contact time and therefore increasing leg stiffness.


Assuntos
Ginástica/fisiologia , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Artes Marciais/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Exercício Pliométrico/métodos , Adolescente , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Movimento/fisiologia
14.
J Sports Sci ; 38(16): 1877-1885, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32508286

RESUMO

With potential implications for recovery and conditioning practices, the aim of this study was to assess the cumulative and residual response of angle specific eccentric knee flexor (eccKF) strength indices following soccer-specific activity. Thirteen semi-professional soccer players were therefore required to complete a 90-minute soccer-specific treadmill running. with eccKF isokinetic strength assessments completed pre-trial, immediately post-trial, and 48 hours post-trial. The strength assessments comprised the completion of 5 repetitions at angular velocities of 60 and 300 deg·s-1. Isokinetic data was analysed for measures of peak torque (PT), angle of peak torque (APT), functional range (FR), and angle specific torque (AST). Significant post-trial impairments were observed for measures of slow velocity PT60 (6.6%) and AST300 (12.5%). Further significant differences were observed 48 hours post-trial for PT300 (10.7%) and PT60 (12.8%) PT, APT60 (~15°), and AST300 (>13.6%). These data have implications for post exercise recovery monitoring and the prescription of recovery modalities and conditioning practices in the 2 days following match-play. The AST and APT responses highlight the importance of analysis of the entire strength-angle curve and at a range of angular velocities.


Assuntos
Joelho/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Dinamômetro de Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Torque , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Sports Sci ; 38(16): 1913-1923, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567491

RESUMO

We estimated international/national temporal trends in sit-ups performance for children and adolescents, and examined relationships between national trends in sit-ups performance and national trends in health-related/sociodemographic indicators. Data were obtained by systematically searching studies reporting on temporal trends in sit-ups performance for apparently healthy 9-17 year-olds, and by examining nationally representative fitness datasets. Trends at the country-sex-age level were estimated by sample-weighted regression models relating the testing year to mean sit-ups performance. International/national trends were estimated by a post-stratified population-weighting procedure. Pearson's correlations quantified relationships between national trends in sit-ups performance and national trends in health-related/sociodemographic indicators. A total of 9,939,289 children and adolescents from 31 countries/special administrative regions between 1964 and 2017 collectively showed a large improvement of 38.4% (95% CI: 36.8 to 40.0) or 7.1% per decade (95% CI: 6.8 to 7.4). Large international improvements were experienced by all age and sex groups, with the rate of improvement slowing from 1964 to 2000, stabilizing near zero until 2010, before declining. Trends differed between countries, with national trends in vigorous physical activity a strong, positive correlate of national trends in sit-ups performance. More sit-ups data are needed from low- and middle-income countries to better monitor trends in muscular fitness. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42013003657.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Saúde Global/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Vigilância da População , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(1): 84-95, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Protein intake recommendations advise ≥0.8 g/kg body weight (BW)/d, whereas experts propose a higher intake for older adults (1.0-1.2 g/kg BW/d). It is unknown whether optimal protein intake differs by sex or race. OBJECTIVES: We examined the shape of sex- and race-specific associations of dietary protein intake with 3- and 6-y changes in appendicular lean mass (aLM) and gait speed and also 6-y incidence of mobility limitation in community-dwelling older men and women. METHODS: We used data on men (n = 1163) and women (n = 1237) aged 70-81 y of the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. Protein intake was assessed using an FFQ (1998-1999). aLM and gait speed were measured at baseline and at 3 and 6 y. Difficulty walking one-quarter mile or climbing stairs was measured every 6 mo over 6 y. Prospective associations were evaluated with linear and Cox regression models, comparing fit of models with and without spline functions. All analyses were stratified by sex and additionally by race. RESULTS: Mean ± SD protein intake was 0.94 ± 0.36 g/kg adjusted body weight (aBW)/d in men and 0.95 ± 0.36 g/kg aBW/d in women. There were no strong indications of nonlinear associations. In women, higher protein intake was associated with less aLM loss over 3 y (adjusted B per 0.1 g/kg aBW/d: 39.4; 95% CI: 11.6, 67.2), specifically in black women, but not over 6 y or with gait speed decline. In men, protein intake was not associated with changes in aLM and gait speed. Higher protein intake was associated with a lower risk of mobility limitation in men (adjusted HR per 1.0 g/kg aBW/d: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.91) and women (adjusted HR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.33, 0.94), specifically white women. CONCLUSIONS: Associations between protein intake and physical outcomes may vary by sex and race. Therefore, it is important to consider sex and race in future studies regarding protein needs in older adults.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomassa , Composição Corporal , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Desenvolvimento Muscular , Força Muscular , Músculos/fisiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Sexuais
17.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235293, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Examining factors that may explain disparities in fitness levels among youth is a critical step in youth fitness promotion. The purpose of this study was twofold; 1) to examine the influence of school-level characteristics on fitness test performance; 2) to compare Irish adolescents' physical fitness to European norms. METHODS: Adolescents (n = 1215, girls = 609) aged 13.4 years (SD .41) from a randomised sample of 20 secondary schools, stratified for gender, location and educational (dis)advantage, completed a series of field-based tests to measure the components of health-related physical fitness. Tests included: body mass index; 20 metre shuttle run test (20 m SRT); handgrip strength; standing broad jump (SBJ); 4 x 10 metre shuttle run; and back-saver sit-and-reach (BSR). RESULTS: Overall, boys outperformed girls in all tests, aside from the BSR (p < 0.005, t-test, Bonferroni correction). Participants in designated disadvantaged schools had significantly higher body mass index levels (p < 0.001), and significantly lower cardiorespiratory endurance (20 m SRT) (p < 0.001) and muscular strength (handgrip strength) (p = 0.018) levels compared to participants in non-disadvantaged schools. When compared to European norms, girls in this study scored significantly higher in the 20 m SRT, 4 x 10 metre shuttle run and SBJ tests, while boys scored significantly higher in the BSR test (Cohen's d 0.2 to 0.6, p < 0.001). However, European adolescents had significantly higher handgrip strength scores (Cohen's d 0.6 to 0.8, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Irish adolescents compared favourably to European normative values across most components of HRPF, with the exception of muscular strength. School socioeconomic status was a strong determinant of performance among Irish adolescents. The contrasting findings for different fitness components reiterate the need for multi-component testing batteries for monitoring fitness in youth.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Exercício Físico , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
18.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 20(7): 697-703, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32489001

RESUMO

AIM: The present study investigated the effects of two types of lingual exercise (tongue-hold swallowing and tongue-pressure resistance training) on oral muscle strength, salivary flow rate and subjective oral health of the elderly. METHODS: We randomly assigned 74 elderly adults (≥65 years) to three groups (tongue-hold swallowing, tongue-pressure resistance training and control groups). Each group participated in 8 weeks of their appropriately prescribed intervention. We measured anterior tongue strength, posterior tongue strength, lip strength, salivary flow rate and Oral Health Impact Profile-14 score before and after 8 weeks. Differences before and after intervention were observed with a paired sample t-test. Moreover, analyses of covariance and variance were performed to determine the differences in the measured values between the groups. RESULTS: The tongue-hold swallowing group showed improvement in both anterior and posterior tongue strength, while the tongue-pressure resistance training group showed a significant increase in only anterior tongue strength. Both the tongue-hold swallowing and tongue-pressure resistance training groups showed increased salivary secretion, with the tongue-pressure resistance training group showing a higher level of salivary secretion. However, the difference in the subjective oral health scores before and after the intervention was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: The two lingual exercises strengthened some aspects of tongue muscles and increased the salivary flow rate, with more salivary secretion in the tongue-pressure resistance training group than in the tongue-hold swallowing group. Any evidence of the lingual exercises being able to enhance subjective oral health could not be found. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; ••: ••-••.


Assuntos
Deglutição/fisiologia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Saúde Bucal , Salivação/fisiologia , Língua/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular/fisiologia , República da Coreia
19.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234359, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520959

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Shear-wave elastography has been recognized a useful tool for quantifying muscle stiffness, commonly reported as shear modulus, however the reports on reliability are often limited to test-retest correlations. In this study, we explored the reliability of shear-wave elastography for assessment of the trapezius muscle stiffness and its relationship with low-level muscle activity. METHODS: Twenty participants were included in a two-session experiment. Measurements of shear modulus and muscle activity were performed at rest and during low-level activity, induced by shoulder abduction without additional external resistance. RESULTS: Good to excellent intra-session repeatability (ICC > 0.80) and moderate inter-rater and inter-session reproducibility (ICC = 0.66-0.74) were observed. Typical errors were acceptable (7.6% of the mean value) only for intra-session measurements in resting conditions, but not acceptable for all conditions with low-level muscle activity (10.2-16.6% of the mean value). Inverse relationships between shear modulus and muscle activity at 40° and 60° of shoulder abduction (r = -0.53 and -0.57) were observed on a group level. We also found higher shear modulus in males compared to females, for the parallel probe position compared to the perpendicular position (in relation to muscle fiber orientation), and for the dominant side of the body compared to the non-dominant side. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed an inverse relationship between muscle activity in low-level range and shear modulus on a group level, suggesting inherent passive stiffness could account for a larger portion of the variance (compared to muscle activity) in shear modulus when the muscle activity is low. Our results imply that shear-wave elastography can be used in research exploring muscle stiffness, however, caution is needed since only intra-session examination in resting conditions showed acceptable within-participant typical errors. The secondary analyses of the study showed higher shear modulus for males, for the non-dominant side of the body and for the parallel orientation of the ultrasound probe.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculos Superficiais do Dorso/fisiologia , Adulto , Módulo de Elasticidade/fisiologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ombro/fisiologia , Ultrassonografia/métodos
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234118, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492064

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer survivors (BCS) are often characterized by decreased pressure pain thresholds (PPT), range of motion (ROM) and strength in and around the shoulder affected by the treatment. This intra-rater reliability study was to establish the relative and absolute reliability of PPT's, active ROM and maximal isokinetic muscle strength (MIMS) of the affected shoulder in BCS with persistent pain after treatment. METHODS: Twenty-one BCS participated in the study. The PPTs of 17 locations and pain intensity were assessed using a pressure algometer and a numeric rating scale. The ROM was measured using a universal goniometer and MIMS was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Relative reliability was estimated using intra class correlation coefficient (ICC), and absolute reliability using standard error of measurement (SEM). Minimum detectable change (MDC) was calculated from SEM. RESULTS: The ICCs for PPTs ranged from 0.88-0.97, with SEM values ranging from 12.0 to 28.2 kPa and MDC ranging from 33.2 to 78.2 kPa. The ICCs for ROM ranged from 0.66-0.97, with SEM values ranging from 3.0 to 7.5° and MDC ranging from 8.4 to 20.8°. Finally, ICCs for MIMS ranged from 0.62-0.92, with SEM values ranging from 0.03 to 0.07 Nm/Kg FFM and MDC ranging from 0.09 to 0.19 Nm/kg FFM. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that PPTs, ROM and MIMS can be measured reliably on the affected shoulder in BCS with pain after treatment. This offer the possibility of using these measures to assess the effectiveness of interventions in this population.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Limiar da Dor , Dor/patologia , Ombro/fisiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Força Muscular , Dor/etiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Autorrelato , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA