Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 13.040
Filtrar
1.
J Bras Nefrol ; 42(2 suppl 1): 32-35, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877496

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The impact of the new coronavirus (SARS-COV-2) and its worldwide clinical manifestations (COVID-19) imposed specific regional recommendations for populations in need of specialized care, such as children and adolescents with kidney diseases, particularly in renal replacement therapies (RRT). We present the recommendations of the Brazilian Society of Nephrology regarding the treatment of pediatric patients with kidney diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Articles and documents from medical societies and government agencies on specific recommendations for children on RRT in relation to COVID-19 as well as those focused on epidemiological aspects of this condition in Brazil Were evaluated and analyzed. RESULTS: We present recommendations on outpatient care, transportation to dialysis centers, peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis, and kidney transplantation in children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. DISCUSSION: Despite initial observations of higher mortality rates in specific age groups (the elderly) and with comorbidities (obese, diabetics, and those with cardiovascular diseases), patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on RRT are particularly prone to develop COVID-19. Specific measures must be taken to reduce the risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2 and developing COVID-19, especially during transport to dialysis facilities, as well as on arrival and in contact with other patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Nefropatias/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Terapia de Substituição Renal/normas , Adolescente , Assistência Ambulatorial , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Higiene/normas , Transplante de Rim , Máscaras , Nefrologia/normas , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Isolamento de Pacientes , Pediatria , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Terapia de Substituição Renal/métodos , Sociedades Médicas , Avaliação de Sintomas , Transporte de Pacientes
2.
Rev Prat ; 70(3): 305-309, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877066

RESUMO

Complications related to tattoo practice. Tattooing can result in a wide variety of complications, whose prevalence and incidence remain still unclear. Hypersensitivity reactions (or allergies) to tattoo pigments are currently the most common complication on a tattoo, however are not predictable. Infections are nowadays directly related to the lack of asepsis and hygiene during the tattooing procedure or during the healing phase. Patients with a known cutaneous disease should be warned of a potential risk of localization of their disease to the tattoo. Patients with chronic conditions and/or impaired immunity should discuss with their physician about the possibility and when to have a tattoo. Laser removal is the gold standard for tattoo removal and include Q-switched, picoseconds and CO2 lasers. However, a complete disappearance of the tattoo is not always possible.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade , Dermatopatias , Tatuagem , Humanos , Higiene , Tatuagem/efeitos adversos
3.
Ig Sanita Pubbl ; 76(2): 119-129, 2020.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877396

RESUMO

The Authors present the results of an experience carried out in a University General Hospital, for the assessment of the sanitation of surfaces and instruments in the context of hospital refection. A specific procedure has been quarterly implemented in order to verify the correct execution of the sanitization procedures. In the time-period September 2016 - March 2020 Petri dishes and tampons were used in order to determine the following microbiological parameters and indicators: total bacterial load at 30 degrees C, Coliforms, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and mycetic load. Only 7 out of 82 sanitized surfaces (8.5% of the total) were found to be not complying, only for total bacterial load at 30 degrees C, mycetic load and Coliforms. The systematic application of this procedure and the results of the survey conducted, comforting as a whole, confirm the attention reserved to the hygienic level of surfaces, tools, equipment and utensils, in the context of the centralized catering service of the hospital, in which the Health Department, sharing with the UOC Hospital Hygiene the specific hygienic procedure, has always been at the forefront of the proposal of interventions, considering the increased susceptibility and vulnerability of the hospitalized patients.


Assuntos
Hospitais Universitários/normas , Higiene/normas , Saneamento/normas , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes
4.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 24(5): 358-364, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886632

RESUMO

When using ventilators in the management of the coronavirus disease 2019 patient, dense and abundant mucous secretions are formed, obstructing the endotracheal tube and making its aspiration difficult. This situation is worsened if in order to minimize the risk of infection of the medical personnel, the humidifier is disconnected. This circumstance forces the tube to be removed, cleaned, or changed, increasing the workload of the intensive care unit staff. Other therapies tested until now, like mesna, acetylcysteine, or hypertonic saline solution, are valid alternatives, although they have not shown great efficacy for this specific procedure in the past. The sanitary emergency forced the collaboration between a pharmacist and an otorhinolaryngologist to develop the cocamidopropyl betaine surfactant formula, after several tests with different concentrations of the surfactant. The objective of this compounding formula was to resolve a mechanical problem and avoid reintubation due to obstruction of the ventilator tube. The cocamidopropyl betaine surfactant solution 0.075% in saline 0.9% (physiological serum) solution demonstrated to be a well-tolerated formula, using inexpensive materials, was simple to prepare, and was easy to use in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Betaína/análogos & derivados , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Contaminação de Equipamentos/prevenção & controle , Intubação Intratraqueal , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Tensoativos/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus , Betaína/farmacologia , Humanos , Higiene , Pandemias , Ventiladores Mecânicos
5.
Rev Infirm ; 69(262): 39-41, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32838866

RESUMO

In the current context of the health crisis brought about by the Covid-19 epidemic, the implementation of good practices in terms of preventing contagion and the respect of good hygiene practices is vital. The hospital hygiene teams must be involved in raising awareness of these good practices. They rely notably on hygiene resource paramedical practitioners to share these practices with the nursing teams, notably in the area of the prevention of care-related infections and the spread of emerging highly drug-resistant bacteria. A focus group study conducted in 2019 in a military health facility in Brittany provides interesting insight into their practice.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Higiene , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Epidemias , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Equipe de Enfermagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
8.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736388

RESUMO

The true incidence of infectious complications related to regional anaesthesia and analgesia is not known but like any invasive procedure is has the potential for severe sequelae. This article gives an overview on hygiene requirements based on the S1-guideline "Hygiene recommendations on regional anaesthesia", current recommendations of the Robert Koch-Institute and current scientific insights. Basic hygienic standards (removal of jewellery, accurate hand disinfection, clean environment) are to be applied. A face mask to cover nose and mouth, a surgical hair cap and sterile gloves are essential parts of any block. For catheter placements a sterile gown with long arms is recommended and also a sterile cover for the ultrasound probe (including the cable when catheters are placed). Skin disinfectant should be alcohol-based and contain a remanent ingredient (chlorhexidine or octenidine). Catheter tunneling may be protective when thoracic epidural catheters are used. When patient related factors (diabetes, obesity, immune suppression) and procedural factors (intended catheter use > 4 days, catheter site) are carefully weighed, an antibiotic prophylaxis may be taken into consideration.


Assuntos
Analgesia , Anestesia por Condução , Anestesia Epidural , Cateterismo , Humanos , Higiene
10.
Ann Ig ; 32(5): 472-520, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744582

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The health emergency caused by the spread of SARS-COV-2 virus has required the adoption of passive measures against contagion, such as social distancing. The use of filtering masks, of the different types available on the market, such as surgical and facial filtering masks (FFP1, FFP2 and FFP3), is also recommended. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper, within the Italian and European regulatory reference framework, is to suggest a rational application of existing methodologies that enable to know and assess the features and/or make a face mask intended to be used by the community. In addition to this, the study aims to provide a correct regulatory framework and useful information for a correct use and disposal of face masks. Another purpose is the assessment of the hygienic, sanitary and regulatory aspects related to the use and disposal of face masks. METHODS: The analysis of filtering masks is based on the review of scientific literature, the state of art of technology and the filtering means/materials available. Reference is made to filtering mechanisms and devices, the testing methods, the technical, manufacturing and performance features, and to the Italian and European regulatory reference framework. Reference is also made to the hygienic, sanitary and regulatory aspects related to the use and disposal of face masks. RESULTS: Surgical masks or, alternatively, filtering masks with a filtration efficiency between 90% and 95% for 3-µm particles, are the most practicable choice with minor contraindications. The reusable type of mask is conceptually superior compared to single-use masks, but cleaning procedures to be followed are quite complex and not always described in a clear way. CONCLUSIONS: The definition of rigorous and repeatable tests on mask filtration capacity, breathability, wearability, duration of use, regeneration, as well as safe disposal methods, are the main way to provide users with correct selection and use criteria. The results must be disclosed and disseminated quickly.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Filtração/instrumentação , Higiene/normas , Máscaras/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Têxteis/normas , Desenho de Equipamento , Europa (Continente) , França , Humanos , Higiene/legislação & jurisprudência , Itália , Máscaras/classificação , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/normas
11.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 17: E82, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790606

RESUMO

Populations disproportionately affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are also at higher risk for oral diseases and experience oral health and oral health care disparities at higher rates. COVID-19 has led to closure and reduced hours of dental practices except for emergency and urgent services, limiting routine care and prevention. Dental care includes aerosol-generating procedures that can increase viral transmission. The pandemic offers an opportunity for the dental profession to shift more toward nonaerosolizing, prevention-centric approaches to care and away from surgical interventions. Regulatory barrier changes to oral health care access during the pandemic could have a favorable impact if sustained into the future.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Higiene/normas , Saúde Bucal/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
12.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 28(Special Issue): 840-850, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856836

RESUMO

The article presents an overview of the problem of strategies for hygienic expertise in education. The purpose of the article is to identify special formats of strategies for hygienic expertise in education from the perspective of modern practices of cross-cultural analysis based on a review of a sample of sources in the WoS and Scopus databases of domestic and foreign science. The research is based on the methodology of cross-cultural approach; the research used methods of analytical review of publications (WoS, Scopus, RSCI databases), interpretation, contextual analysis, statistical methods, which made it possible to study special formats of strategies for hygienic expertise in education and identify the specifics of the interpretation of hygienic expertise in modern domestic and foreign studies. Based on a scientific review of a sample of sources, the main approaches to the interpretation and definition of hygienic expertise are defined. The content and subject of research is established, taking into account cross-cultural characteristics, geographical distribution of publications. Based on the existing knowledge, the main types of strategies for hygienic expertise are identified: medical-physiological, psychological-biological, socio-pedagogical, cultural-humanitarian, which are the methodological basis for preparing and making decisions in education. In conclusion, the article summarizes the features of research on hygiene expertise strategies in education from the perspective of modern practices of cross-cultural analysis in domestic and foreign science.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Higiene
14.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(8)2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764128

RESUMO

While large-scale changes in population behaviour are required to reduce the transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus, the emergency context is not conducive to the sort of careful communications planning that would normally be required to meet such a task. Rapid strategic communications planning in a pandemic by governments is, however, possible and necessary. Steps include setting up a dedicated communications task force, mobilising partners and resources, developing a creative brief and theory of change and overseeing the creation, testing, roll out and revision of content. In this short guide, we argue that a minimum of strategic planning can be undertaken rapidly, and that good use can be made of simple principles of behaviour change, even during pandemics. Our aim here is to provide a blueprint that governments and their partners, especially in low-income settings, can follow to design, coordinate and resource national communications efforts to combat the COVID-19 pandemic immediately and for the longer term.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Higiene , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 607, 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During an evolving outbreak or pandemic, non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) including physical distancing, isolation, and mask use may flatten the peak in communities. However, these strategies rely on community understanding and motivation to engage to ensure appropriate compliance and impact. To support current activities for COVID-19, the objectives of this narrative review was to identify the key determinants impacting on engagement. METHODS: An integrative narrative literature review focused on NPIs. We aimed to identify published peer-reviewed articles that focused on the general community (excluding healthcare workers), NPIs (including school closure, quarantine, isolation, physical distancing and hygiene behaviours), and factors/characteristics (including social, physical, psychological, capacity, motivation, economic and demographic) that impact on engagement. RESULTS: The results revealed that there are a range of demographic, social and psychological factors underpinning engagement with quarantine, school closures, and personal protective behaviours. Aside from the factors impacting on acceptance and compliance, there are several key community concerns about their use that need to be addressed including the potential for economic consequences. CONCLUSION: It is important that we acknowledge that these strategies will have an impact on an individual and the community. By understanding the barriers, we can identify what strategies need to be adopted to motivate individuals and improve community compliance. Using a behavioural framework to plan interventions based on these key barriers, will also ensure countries implement appropriate and targeted responses.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Higiene , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/métodos , Isolamento Social , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas
16.
Rev Mal Respir ; 37(7): 608-612, 2020 09.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600900
18.
Rev Med Chil ; 148(3): 387-392, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730384

RESUMO

This article analyzes some publications of Ernestina Pérez Barahona (1865-1951), the second Chilean and Latin American female physician. It exposes her concern for the public health and, more precisely, for the problem of the Chilean race. She constantly refers to hygiene in her conferences, articles and books published between 1887 and 1920. Thus, the aim of this review is to recover her production and to inform the readers about her intervention as a medical professional.


Assuntos
Higiene , Médicas , Livros , Chile , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Médicas/história , Saúde Pública
19.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 20(9): e238-e244, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628905

RESUMO

The objective of this Personal View is to compare transmissibility, hospitalisation, and mortality rates for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with those of other epidemic coronaviruses, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and pandemic influenza viruses. The basic reproductive rate (R0) for SARS-CoV-2 is estimated to be 2·5 (range 1·8-3·6) compared with 2·0-3·0 for SARS-CoV and the 1918 influenza pandemic, 0·9 for MERS-CoV, and 1·5 for the 2009 influenza pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 causes mild or asymptomatic disease in most cases; however, severe to critical illness occurs in a small proportion of infected individuals, with the highest rate seen in people older than 70 years. The measured case fatality rate varies between countries, probably because of differences in testing strategies. Population-based mortality estimates vary widely across Europe, ranging from zero to high. Numbers from the first affected region in Italy, Lombardy, show an all age mortality rate of 154 per 100 000 population. Differences are most likely due to varying demographic structures, among other factors. However, this new virus has a focal dissemination; therefore, some areas have a higher disease burden and are affected more than others for reasons that are still not understood. Nevertheless, early introduction of strict physical distancing and hygiene measures have proven effective in sharply reducing R0 and associated mortality and could in part explain the geographical differences.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Epidemias , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Higiene , Influenza Humana/mortalidade , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Influenza Humana/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/mortalidade , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/transmissão , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Distância Social
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA