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1.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229684, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160224

RESUMO

In this study, we shed light on the interdependency of child growth, morbidity and life expectancy in the fisher-hunter-gatherers of the Jabuticabeira II shell mound (1214-830 cal B.C.E. - 118-413 cal C.E.) located at the South Coast of Brazil. We test the underlying causes of heterogeneity in frailty and selective mortality in a population that inhabits a plentiful environment in sedentary settlements. We reconstruct osteobiographies of 41 individuals (23 adults and 18 subadults) using 8 variables, including age-at-death, stature, non-specific stress markers (cribra orbitalia, porotic hyperostosis, periosteal reactions, periapical lesions and linear enamel hypoplasia), as well as weaning patterns based on stable isotope data to examine how stress factors module growth and survival. Our results show that shorter adult statures were linked to higher morbidity around weaning age and higher chances of dying earlier (before 35 years) than taller adult statures. In addition, short juvenile stature was related to physiological stressors and mortality. The adult "survivors" experienced recurrent periods of morbidity during childhood and adulthood, possibly associated with the high parasite load of the ecosystem and dense settlement rather than to malnourishment. An association between early-stress exposure and premature death was not demonstrated in our sample. To explain our data, we propose a new model called "intermittent stress of low lethality". According to this model, individuals are exposed to recurrent stress during the juvenile and adult stages of life, and, nevertheless survive until reproductive age or later with relative success.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Expectativa de Vida/história , Estresse Fisiológico , Adulto , Antropologia Física , Estatura , Brasil , Criança , Hipoplasia do Esmalte Dentário/história , Dieta Paleolítica/história , Ecossistema , Feminino , Fragilidade , Transtornos do Crescimento/história , História Antiga , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/história , Modelos Biológicos , Morbidade
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(9): 4675-4681, 2020 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32071235

RESUMO

Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of collagen from bone and dentin have frequently been used for dietary reconstruction, but this method is limited by protein preservation. Isotopes of the trace element zinc (Zn) in bioapatite constitute a promising proxy to infer dietary information from extant and extinct vertebrates. The 66Zn/64Zn ratio (expressed as δ66Zn value) shows an enrichment of the heavy isotope in mammals along each trophic step. However, preservation of diet-related δ66Zn values in fossil teeth has not been assessed yet. Here, we analyzed enamel of fossil teeth from the Late Pleistocene (38.4-13.5 ka) mammalian assemblage of the Tam Hay Marklot (THM) cave in northeastern Laos, to reconstruct the food web and assess the preservation of original δ66Zn values. Distinct enamel δ66Zn values of the fossil taxa (δ66Zncarnivore < δ66Znomnivore < δ66Znherbivore) according to their expected feeding habits were observed, with a trophic carnivore-herbivore spacing of +0.60‰ and omnivores having intermediate values. Zn and trace element concentration profiles similar to those of modern teeth also indicate minimal impact of diagenesis on the enamel. While further work is needed to explore preservation for settings with different taphonomic conditions, the diet-related δ66Zn values in fossil enamel from THM cave suggest an excellent long-term preservation potential, even under tropical conditions that are well known to be adverse for collagen preservation. Zinc isotopes could thus provide a new tool to assess the diet of fossil hominins and associated fauna, as well as trophic relationships in past food webs.


Assuntos
Dieta Paleolítica , Fósseis , Hominidae/fisiologia , Dente/química , Isótopos de Zinco/análise , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Cavernas , Colágeno/química
3.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 182(4): 447-457, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069218

RESUMO

Context: Altered tissue-specific glucocorticoid metabolism has been described in uncomplicated obesity and type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that weight loss induced by diet and exercise, which has previously been shown to reverse abnormal cortisol metabolism in uncomplicated obesity, also normalizes cortisol metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes. Objective: Test the effects of a diet intervention with added exercise on glucocorticoid metabolism. Design: Two groups followed a Paleolithic diet (PD) for 12 weeks with added 180 min of structured aerobic and resistance exercise per week in one randomized group (PDEX). Setting: Umeå University Hospital. Participants: Men and women with type 2 diabetes treated with lifestyle modification ± metformin were included. Twenty-eight participants (PD, n = 15; PDEX, n = 13) completed measurements of glucocorticoid metabolism. Main outcome measures: Changes in glucocorticoid metabolite levels in 24-h urine samples, expression of HSD11B1 mRNA in s.c. adipose tissue and conversion of orally administered cortisone to cortisol measured in plasma. Body composition and insulin sensitivity were measured using a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, and liver fat was measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Results: Both groups lost weight and improved insulin sensitivity. Conversion of orally taken cortisone to plasma cortisol and the ratio of 5α-THF + 5ß-THF/THE in urine increased in both groups. Conclusions: These interventions caused weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity with concomitant increases in the conversion of cortisone to cortisol, which is an estimate of hepatic HSD11B1 activity. This suggests that dysregulation of liver glucocorticoid metabolism in these patients is a consequence rather than a cause of metabolic dysfunction.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Dieta Redutora/métodos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Dieta Paleolítica , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Feminino , Técnica Clamp de Glucose , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Fígado/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Science ; 367(6473): 87-91, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896717

RESUMO

Plant carbohydrates were undoubtedly consumed in antiquity, yet starchy geophytes were seldom preserved archaeologically. We report evidence for geophyte exploitation by early humans from at least 170,000 years ago. Charred rhizomes from Border Cave, South Africa, were identified to the genus Hypoxis L. by comparing the morphology and anatomy of ancient and modern rhizomes. Hypoxis angustifolia Lam., the likely taxon, proliferates in relatively well-watered areas of sub-Saharan Africa and in Yemen, Arabia. In those areas and possibly farther north during moist periods, Hypoxis rhizomes would have provided reliable and familiar carbohydrate sources for mobile groups.


Assuntos
Culinária/história , Dieta Paleolítica/história , Dieta Vegetariana/história , Hypoxis , Rizoma , Amido/história , Cavernas , História Antiga , Humanos
5.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227276, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968012

RESUMO

The earliest Neolithic of southwest Asia is generally perceived and portrayed as a period of emerging economic practices that anticipated full-fledged food-producing economies. This first Neolithic, however, can also be seen as the last gasp of an earlier way of life that remained fundamentally Epipaleolithic in character. While people at this time had begun to cultivate some of the plant foods gathered in preceding periods, and to live for lengthy periods in sites with substantial architecture, they also relied on hunting for a significant portion of their diet and logistical movement across landscapes to exploit diverse environments. The objective of our research on Nachcharini Cave, the only excavated early Neolithic site in the high mountains of northeastern Lebanon, is to evaluate its role in a form of logistical organization not well attested at other sites in the Levant during this period. On the basis of material that Bruce Schroeder excavated in the 1970s, we present here for the first time analyses of faunal and lithic evidence from Nachcharini Cave, along with new radiocarbon dates that place the major occupation layer of the site firmly in the earliest Neolithic. We conclude that Nachcharini was a short-term hunting camp that was periodically used over some two centuries.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Arqueologia , Dieta Paleolítica/história , Atividades Humanas/história , Ovinos , Altitude , Animais , Ecossistema , História Antiga , Humanos , Líbano
6.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(3): 503-514, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intermittent fasting (IF) and Paleolithic (Paleo) diets produce weight loss in controlled trials, but minimal evidence exists regarding long-term efficacy under free-living conditions without intense dietetic support. OBJECTIVES: This exploratory, observational analysis examined adherence, dietary intake, weight loss, and metabolic outcomes in overweight adults who could choose to follow Mediterranean, IF, or Paleo diets, and standard exercise or high-intensity interval training (HIIT) programs, as part of a 12-mo randomized controlled trial investigating how different monitoring strategies influenced weight loss (control, daily self-weighing, hunger training, diet/exercise app, brief support). METHODS: A total of 250 overweight [BMI (in kg/m2) ≥27] healthy adults attended an individualized dietary education session (30 min) relevant to their self-selected diet. Dietary intake (3-d weighed diet records), weight, body composition, blood pressure, physical activity (0, 6, and 12 mo), and blood indexes (0 and 12 mo) were assessed. Mean (95% CI) changes from baseline were estimated using regression models. No correction was made for multiple tests. RESULTS: Although 54.4% chose IF, 27.2% Mediterranean, and 18.4% Paleo diets originally, only 54% (IF), 57% (Mediterranean), and 35% (Paleo) participants were still following their chosen diet at 12 mo (self-reported). At 12 mo, weight loss was -4.0 kg (95% CI: -5.1, -2.8 kg) in IF, -2.8 kg (-4.4, -1.2 kg) in Mediterranean, and -1.8 kg (-4.0, 0.5 kg) in Paleo participants. Sensitivity analyses showed that, due to substantial dropout, these may be overestimated by ≤1.2 kg, whereas diet adherence increased mean weight loss by 1.1, 1.8, and 0.3 kg, respectively. Reduced systolic blood pressure was observed with IF (-4.9 mm Hg;  -7.2, -2.6 mm Hg) and Mediterranean (-5.9 mm Hg; -9.0, -2.7 mm Hg) diets, and reduced glycated hemoglobin with the Mediterranean diet (-0.8 mmol/mol; -1.2, -0.4 mmol/mol). However, the between-group differences in most outcomes were not significant and these comparisons may be confounded due to the nonrandomized design. CONCLUSIONS: Small differences in metabolic outcomes were apparent in participants following self-selected diets without intensive ongoing dietary support, even though dietary adherence declined rapidly. However, results should be interpreted with caution given the exploratory nature of analyses. This trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN12615000010594 at https://www.anzctr.org.au.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Dieta Paleolítica , Terapia por Exercício , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Adulto , Austrália , Pressão Sanguínea , Exercício Físico , Jejum/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Perda de Peso , Adulto Jovem
7.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 242: 7-11, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Paleolithic diet has recently gained popularity due to its presumed health benefits. The favorable metabolic effects of this diet were assessed in non-pregnant population but its impact during pregnancy remains to be evaluated. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study comparing two groups. Group A comprised of women with singleton low-risk pregnancy adherent to paleolithic diet throughout gestation (n = 37). Group B comprised low risk pregnant women on a regular diet (n = 39). Women were excluded if they had low adherence to diet, started paleolithic diet during pregnancy, and had pre-gestational diabetes mellitus or other types of metabolic syndrome such as pre gestational hyperlipidemia, hypertension or BMI > 35. Blood indices such as Glucose challenge test scores, hemoglobin, ferritin, and TSH levels were compared. Other pregnancy factors such as maternal weight gain, rest days during gestation and pregnancy complications such as IUGR, GDM or preeclampsia were compared. Lastly, obstetrical outcomes such as mode of delivery and complications such as high-grade tears, as well as neonatal factors such as birth weight and pH were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: General maternal characteristics such as age, BMI and parity were comparable between the two groups. Women who maintained a paleolithic diet had a significant decrease in glucose challenge test scores (95.8 mg/dL vs. 123.1 mg/dL, p < 0.01) and increase in hemoglobin levels (12.1 g/dL vs. 11.05 g/dL p < 0.01) and Ferritin (32.1 vs 21.3 mg/mL, p = 0.03) compared to women maintaining regular diet. Maternal pregnancy weight gain was also slightly decreased in group A (9.3Kg vs. 10.8 kg, p = 0.03). Birthweights were lower in group A (3098 g Vs.3275 g, p = 0.046) with no difference in adverse neonatal outcomes. We found no differences in other pregnancy complications or labor outcomes such as mode of delivery, shoulder dystocia or high grade perineal tears. CONCLUSION: Paleolithic diet maintained during pregnancy may have a beneficial effect on the glucose tolerance. It also may increase iron stores and hemoglobin levels. Neonates of women maintaining paleolithic diet are slightly lighter but appropriate for gestational age with no difference in neonatal outcomes.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Dieta Paleolítica , Gravidez/sangue , Adulto , Glicemia , Feminino , Ferritinas/sangue , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220619, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393934

RESUMO

The modern Paleolithic diet (MPD), featured by the consumption of vegetables, fruit, nuts, seeds, eggs, fish and lean meat, while excluding grains, dairy products, salt and refined sugar, has gained substantial public attention in recent years because of its potential multiple health benefits. However, to date little is known about the actual impact of this dietary pattern on the gut microbiome (GM) and its implications for human health. In the current scenario where Western diets, low in fiber while rich in industrialized and processed foods, are considered one of the leading causes of maladaptive GM changes along human evolution, likely contributing to the increasing incidence of chronic non-communicable diseases, we hypothesize that the MPD could modulate the Western GM towards a more "ancestral" configuration. In an attempt to shed light on this, here we profiled the GM structure of urban Italian subjects adhering to the MPD, and compared data with other urban Italians following a Mediterranean Diet (MD), as well as worldwide traditional hunter-gatherer populations from previous publications. Notwithstanding a strong geography effect on the GM structure, our results show an unexpectedly high degree of biodiversity in MPD subjects, which well approximates that of traditional populations. The GM of MPD individuals also shows some peculiarities, including a high relative abundance of bile-tolerant and fat-loving microorganisms. The consumption of plant-based foods-albeit with the exclusion of grains and pulses-along with the minimization of the intake of processed foods, both hallmarks of the MPD, could therefore contribute to partially rewild the GM but caution should be taken in adhering to this dietary pattern in the long term.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Dieta Paleolítica , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Bile/microbiologia , Dieta Ocidental , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Humanos , Estilo de Vida
9.
Nutr J ; 18(1): 41, 2019 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Paleolithic diet has been studied in the scope of prevention and control of chronic noncommunicable diseases (CNCD). The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of the Paleolithic diet on the prevention and control of CNCD in humans, specifically on anthropometric markers, through a systematic review with meta-analysis. METHODS: What is the effect of the Paleolithic diet on anthropometric parameters (weight, body mass index and waist circumference) compared to other control diets based on recommendations in adults? We included only randomized studies with humans that used the Paleolithic Diet in the prevention and control of CNCD published in Portuguese, English or Spanish. The search period was until March 2019, in the LILACS, PubMed, Scielo, Science Direct, Medline, Web of Science and Scopus databases. The abstracts were evaluated by two researchers. We found 1224 articles, of which 24 were selected and 11 were included in the meta-analysis. The effect of dietary use on body weight, body mass index and waist circumference was evaluated. RESULTS: The summary of the effect showed a loss of - 3.52 kg in the mean weight (CI 95%: - 5.26; - 1.79; p < 0,001; I2 = 24%) of people who adopted the Paleolithic diet compared to diets based on recommendations. The analysis showed a positive association of adopting the Paleolithic diet in relation to weight loss. The effect was significant on weight, body mass index and waist circumference. CONCLUSION: The Paleolithic diet may assist in controlling weight and waist circumference and in the management of chronic diseases. However, more randomized clinical studies with larger populations and duration are necessary to prove health benefits. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CRD42015027849 .


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Dieta Paleolítica , Biomarcadores , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Circunferência da Cintura
10.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217596, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188856

RESUMO

During the past decade, over 3000 shell middens or shell matrix deposits have been discovered on the Farasan Islands in the southern Red Sea, dating to the period c. 7,360 to 4,700 years ago. Many of the sites are distributed along a palaeoshoreline which is now 2-3 m above present sea level. Others form clusters with some sites on the shoreline and others located inland over distances of c. 30 m to 1 km. We refer to these inland sites as 'post-shore' sites. Following Meehan, who observed a similar spatial separation in shell deposition in her ethnographic study of Anbarra shellgathering in the Northern Territory of Australia, we hypothesise that the shoreline sites are specialised sites for the processing or immediate consumption of shell food, and the post-shore sites are habitation sites used for a variety of activities. We test this proposition through a systematic analysis of 55 radiocarbon dates and measurement of shell quantities from the excavation of 15 shell matrix sites in a variety of locations including shoreline and post-shore sites. Our results demonstrate large differences in rates of shell accumulation between these two types of sites and selective removal of shoreline sites by changes in sea level. We also discuss the wider implications for understanding the differential preservation and visibility of shell-matrix deposits in coastal settings in other parts of the world extending back into the later Pleistocene in association with periods of lowersea level. Our results highlight the importance of taphonomic factors of post-depositional degradation and destruction, rates of shell accumulation, the influence on site location of factors other than shell food supply, and the relative distance of deposits from their nearest palaeoshorelines as key variables in the interpretation of shell quantities. Failure to take these variables into account when investigating shells and shell-matrix deposits in late Pleistocene and early Holocene contexts is likely to compromise interpretations of the role and significance of shell food in human evolutionary and socio-cultural development.


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto/química , Dieta Paleolítica/história , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Moluscos/química , Exoesqueleto/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Arqueologia/métodos , História Antiga , Humanos , Oceano Índico , Ilhas , Moluscos/anatomia & histologia , Arábia Saudita
12.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 180(6): 417-427, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042670

RESUMO

Objective To investigate how weight loss by different diets impacts postprandial levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon. Methods In this single-centre, parallel group 2-year trial, 70 healthy postmenopausal obese women were randomised to the Paleolithic diet or a healthy control diet based on Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. Both diets were without calorie restriction. The primary outcome was the change in fat mass. Here, secondary analyses on GLP-1, GIP and glucagon measured during an OGTT are described. Results In the Paleolithic diet group, mean weight loss compared to baseline was 11% at 6 months and 10% at 24 months. In the control diet group, mean weight loss was 6% after 6 and 24 months (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.049 for the comparison between groups at 6 and 24 months respectively). Compared to baseline, the mean incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for GLP-1 increased by 34 and 45% after 6 and 24 months in the Paleolithic diet group and increased by 59% after 24 months in the control diet group. The mean iAUC for GIP increased only in the Paleolithic diet group. The area under the curve (AUC) for glucagon increased during the first 6 months in both groups. The fasting glucagon increase correlated with the ß-hydroxybutyrate increase. Conclusions Weight loss caused an increase in postprandial GLP-1 levels and a further rise occurred during weight maintenance. Postprandial GIP levels increased only after the Paleolithic diet. Reduced postprandial glucagon suppression may be caused by a catabolic state.


Assuntos
Dieta Paleolítica , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico/sangue , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Glucagon/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia
13.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(4)2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934960

RESUMO

: Diet is frequently considered as a food regimen focused on weight loss, while it is actually the sum of food consumed by the organism. Western diets, modern lifestyle, sedentary behaviors, smoking habits, and drug consumption have led to a significant reduction of gut microbial diversity, which is linked to many non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The latter kill 40 million people each year, equivalent to more than 70% of all deaths globally. Among NCDs, tumors play a major role, being responsible for 29% of deaths from NCDs. A link between diet, microbiota, and cancer prevention and treatment has recently been unveiled, underlining the importance of a new food culture based on limiting dietary surplus and on preferring healthier foods. Here, we review the effects of some of the most popular "cancer-specific" diets on microbiota composition and their potential impact on cancer prevention and treatment.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos/efeitos adversos , Dieta Cetogênica/efeitos adversos , Dieta Mediterrânea/efeitos adversos , Dieta Paleolítica/efeitos adversos , Jejum/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias/terapia
14.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 169(2): 356-367, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973975

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Studies of dental microwear of bioarchaeological assemblages and extant mammals from museum collections show that surface texture can provide a valuable proxy for reconstructing diets of past peoples and extinct species. However, no study to date has focused on occlusal surface microwear textures of living hunter-gatherers. Here we present the first such study of the Hadza foragers of Tanzania. METHODS: We took high-resolution dental impressions of occlusal surfaces for a total of 43 molds representing 25 men and women, 1-3 samples each, at different times during the rainy and dry seasons. Dental replicas were prepared and scanned by confocal profilometry and standard microwear texture parameters were calculated. Central tendencies and dispersions of variable scores were compared by season and by sex. RESULTS: We found no differences between sexes or seasons in texture attribute central tendency, but some for dispersion. Females had notably low microwear texture dispersion in the dry season while males had higher dispersion in some attributes, particularly in the dry season. These differences seem to be driven primarily by low variance among females in the dry season. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates microwear texture data can be generated for living foragers. Given caveats of small samples available and consideration of foraging groups in transition, this study hints at variation in microwear texture dispersion between sexes and seasons for the Hadza, suggesting that such analyses might be of value for assessing hunter-gatherer diet.


Assuntos
Dieta Paleolítica , Desgaste dos Dentes/patologia , Antropologia Física , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Tanzânia
15.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214372, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995254

RESUMO

Little is known about the types of social organization characterizing the pre-Roman Celtic populations of Italy. Here, we explore the funerary variability characterizing the late Iron Age site of Seminario Vescovile (SV: Verona, Italy, 3rd-1st c. BC), and test its possible correlation to diet and relative exposure to developmental stressors. Patterns on funerary treatment (N = 125), δ13C and δ15N (N = 90), and linear enamel hypoplasia (N = 47) from SV are compared, and their possible association with sex and age-at-death further discussed. Results point to the presence at SV of variable funerary customs while at the same time demonstrating a rather homogenous diet and exposure to developmental stressors: funerary treatment is mainly correlated to age-at-death but do not appear to be associated to either isotopic patterns or hypoplasia frequencies. Accordingly, even if some weak social differentiation may have characterized the individuals buried at SV, this was not reflected in markedly differing living conditions. Our study is the first to attempt an exploration of the links between age, sex, funerary variability, and diet in a pre-Roman Celtic community from Italy. While highlighting the potential of a multifaceted approach in bioarcheology, it also points to a series of analytical and theoretical issues relevant when trying to disentangle the cultural and biological dimensions of social differentiation in the past.


Assuntos
Arqueologia/tendências , Dieta Paleolítica , Fósseis , Animais , Antropologia , Cerâmica , Cultura , Feminino , Cavalos , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Paleontologia
16.
Nutrients ; 11(3)2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832289

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease that attacks the central nervous system. Evidence-based dietary guidelines do not exist for MS; the default advice is to follow the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA). A modified Paleolithic Wahls Elimination (WahlsElim) diet promoted for MS excludes grains and dairy and encourages 9+ cups fruits and vegetables (F/V) and saturated fat for cooking. This study evaluated the nutritional adequacy of seven-day menus and modeled them with varying amounts of F/V for comparison with the DGA Healthy US-Style Eating Pattern (HEP) for ages 31⁻50 years. WahlsElim menus had low added sugar and glycemic index. Nutritional adequacy of the menus and modeled versions were similar to HEP for 17 vitamins and minerals (mean adequacy ratio ≥92%). Nutrient shortfalls for the modeled diet with 60% F/V were identical to HEP for vitamin D, iron (females), magnesium (marginally males), choline and potassium; this modeled diet was also low in dietary fiber and calcium but met vitamin E requirements while HEP did not. WahlsElim-prescribed supplements corrected vitamin D and magnesium shortfalls; careful selection of foods are needed to meet requirements of other shortfall nutrients and reduce saturated fat and sodium. Doctors should monitor nutritional status, supplement doses, and possible contraindications to high vitamin K intake in individuals following the WahlsElim diet.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta Paleolítica , Esclerose Múltipla/dietoterapia , Nutrientes/análise , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Adulto , Cálcio na Dieta/análise , Dieta Saudável/métodos , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minerais/análise , Política Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Verduras , Vitaminas/análise
17.
Nutrients ; 11(2)2019 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30736445

RESUMO

The precise etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) is unknown but epidemiologic evidence suggests this immune-mediated, neurodegenerative condition is the result of a complex interaction between genes and lifetime environmental exposures. Diet choices are modifiable environmental factors that may influence MS disease activity. Two diets promoted for MS, low saturated fat Swank and modified Paleolithic Wahls Elimination (WahlsElim), are currently being investigated for their effect on MS-related fatigue and quality of life (NCT02914964). Dr. Swank theorized restriction of saturated fat would reduce vascular dysfunction in the central nervous system (CNS). Dr. Wahls initially theorized that detailed guidance to increase intake of specific foodstuffs would facilitate increased intake of nutrients key to neuronal health (Wahls™ diet). Dr. Wahls further theorized restriction of lectins would reduce intestinal permeability and CNS inflammation (WahlsElim version). The purpose of this paper is to review the published research of the low saturated fat (Swank) and the modified Paleolithic (Wahls™) diets and the rationale for the structure of the Swank diet and low lectin version of the Wahls™ diet (WahlsElim) being investigated in the clinical trial.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras/métodos , Dieta Paleolítica , Esclerose Múltipla/dietoterapia , Sistema Nervoso Central/fisiopatologia , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Lectinas/metabolismo , Esclerose Múltipla/fisiopatologia , Permeabilidade
18.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(2): e010634, 2019 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30652528

RESUMO

Background The accumulation of myocardial triglycerides and remodeling of the left ventricle are common features in type 2 diabetes mellitus and represent potential risk factors for the development of diastolic and systolic dysfunction. A few studies have investigated the separate effects of diet and exercise training on cardiac function, but none have investigated myocardial changes in response to a combined diet and exercise intervention. This 12-week randomized study assessed the effects of a Paleolithic diet, with and without additional supervised exercise training, on cardiac fat, structure, and function. Methods and Results Twenty-two overweight and obese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomized to either a Paleolithic diet and standard-care exercise recommendations ( PD ) or to a Paleolithic diet plus supervised exercise training 3 hours per week ( PD - EX ). This study includes secondary end points related to cardiac structure and function, ie, myocardial triglycerides levels, cardiac morphology, and strain were measured using cardiovascular magnetic resonance, including proton spectroscopy, at baseline and after 12 weeks. Both groups showed major favorable metabolic changes. The PD - EX group showed significant decreases in myocardial triglycerides levels (-45%, P=0.038) and left ventricle mass to end-diastolic volume ratio (-13%, P=0.008) while the left ventricle end-diastolic volume and stroke volume increased significantly (+14%, P=0.004 and +17%, P=0.008, respectively). These variables were unchanged in the PD group. Conclusions Exercise training plus a Paleolithic diet reduced myocardial triglycerides levels and improved left ventricle remodeling in overweight/obese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clinical Trial Registration URL : http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT 01513798.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/reabilitação , Dieta Paleolítica , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Remodelação Ventricular/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/reabilitação , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Triglicerídeos/sangue
19.
Genome Biol ; 20(1): 16, 2019 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30665461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota from individuals in rural, non-industrialized societies differ from those in individuals from industrialized societies. Here, we use 16S rRNA sequencing to survey the gut bacteria of seven non-industrialized populations from Tanzania and Botswana. These include populations practicing traditional hunter-gatherer, pastoralist, and agropastoralist subsistence lifestyles and a comparative urban cohort from the greater Philadelphia region. RESULTS: We find that bacterial diversity per individual and within-population phylogenetic dissimilarity differs between Botswanan and Tanzanian populations, with Tanzania generally having higher diversity per individual and lower dissimilarity between individuals. Among subsistence groups, the gut bacteria of hunter-gatherers are phylogenetically distinct from both agropastoralists and pastoralists, but that of agropastoralists and pastoralists were not significantly different from each other. Nearly half of the Bantu-speaking agropastoralists from Botswana have gut bacteria that are very similar to the Philadelphian cohort. Based on imputed metagenomic content, US samples have a relative enrichment of genes found in pathways for degradation of several common industrial pollutants. Within two African populations, we find evidence that bacterial composition correlates with the genetic relatedness between individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Across the cohort, similarity in bacterial presence/absence compositions between people increases with both geographic proximity and genetic relatedness, while abundance weighted bacterial composition varies more significantly with geographic proximity than with genetic relatedness.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Agricultura , Animais , Bacteroidaceae/isolamento & purificação , Botsuana , Bovinos , Clostridiales/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta Paleolítica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metagenoma , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Philadelphia , Grupos Populacionais , População Rural , Tanzânia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nurse Pract ; 44(2): 49-55, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30672867

RESUMO

Lifestyle changes that include adopting a healthy diet, such as the paleo diet, can help prevent prediabetes and T2DM. This article explores the potential benefits of replacing low-calorie diets with the paleo diet. As primary care providers, NPs are positioned to help inform patients, particularly those with prediabetes and T2DM, about healthy lifestyle choices and provide them with resources to achieve weight loss success.


Assuntos
Dieta Paleolítica , Resistência à Insulina , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/enfermagem , Humanos , Profissionais de Enfermagem , Estado Pré-Diabético/enfermagem
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