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1.
Nutrients ; 12(8)2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785021

RESUMO

Old age is associated with lower physical activity levels, suboptimal protein intake, and desensitization to anabolic stimuli, predisposing for age-related muscle loss (sarcopenia). Although resistance exercise (RE) and protein supplementation partially protect against sarcopenia under controlled conditions, the efficacy of home-based, unsupervised RE (HBRE) and multi-ingredient supplementation (MIS) is largely unknown. In this randomized, placebo-controlled and double-blind trial, we examined the effects of HBRE/MIS on muscle mass, strength, and function in free-living, older men. Thirty-two sedentary men underwent twelve weeks of home-based resistance band training (3 d/week), in combination with daily intake of a novel five-nutrient supplement ('Muscle5'; M5, n = 16, 77.4 ± 2.8 y) containing whey, micellar casein, creatine, vitamin D, and omega-3 fatty acids, or an isocaloric/isonitrogenous placebo (PLA; n = 16, 74.4 ± 1.3 y), containing collagen and sunflower oil. Appendicular and total lean mass (ASM; +3%, TLM; +2%), lean mass to fat ratios (ASM/% body fat; +6%, TLM/% body fat; +5%), maximal strength (grip; +8%, leg press; +17%), and function (5-Times Sit-to-Stand time; -9%) were significantly improved in the M5 group following HBRE/MIS therapy (pre vs. post tests; p < 0.05). Fast-twitch muscle fiber cross-sectional areas of the quadriceps muscle were also significantly increased in the M5 group post intervention (Type IIa; +30.9%, Type IIx, +28.5%, p < 0.05). Sub-group analysis indicated even greater gains in total lean mass in sarcopenic individuals following HBRE/MIS therapy (TLM; +1.65 kg/+3.4%, p < 0.05). We conclude that the Muscle5 supplement is a safe, well-tolerated, and effective complement to low-intensity, home-based resistance exercise and improves lean mass, strength, and overall muscle quality in old age.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Suplementos Nutricionais , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência , Sarcopenia/terapia , Idoso , Anabolizantes/uso terapêutico , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais , Caseínas/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , Creatina/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Exercício Físico , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Fibras Musculares de Contração Rápida , Proteínas Musculares , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Quadríceps , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia , Autocuidado , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/uso terapêutico
2.
Codas ; 32(4): e20180285, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756852

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the impact of isokinetic exercise (tongue suction on the palate) in the cervical region of Class I and Class II / 2nd Division participants, considering the average and the symmetry of Root Means Square (RMS) of suprahyoid and suboccipital muscles and cervical sensory reports. METHOD: 11 participants Class I and 19 Class II / 2nd Division, both genders, mean age 33.4 ± 14.1 years. For the analysis of RMS average and symmetry, electromyography was performed in the suboccipital and suprahyoid muscles, bilaterally, at rest and suction of water in the initial, intermediate and final phases. The cervical sensation was evaluated qualitatively during the exercises. RESULTS: the mean RMS did not differ between Classes (p=0.7), but showed an increase in the intermediate phase in the suboccipital musculature (p=0.0001) and decrease in the suprahyoid musculature. In symmetry, the suprahyoid musculature showed a significant difference between classes (p=0.0001) during the intermediate phase. In the Class I participant the symmetry was reestablished in the final phase, a fact that did not occur in Class II / 2nd Division. Regarding the cervical sensation, only the Class II / 2nd Division had expressive complaints. CONCLUSION: The Isokinetic suctioning exercise of the tongue against the palate, had an expressive repercussion with reports of discomfort and neck pain in the Class II / 2nd Division participants. On average RMS, there was no difference between the classes, but in the intermediate phase, the suboccipital muscles showed a significant increase in the activity. Symmetry in the suprahyoid musculature had a significant difference between the classes and asymmetry in the intermediate phase.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Músculos do Pescoço/fisiologia , Língua , Adulto , Eletromiografia , Terapia por Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Língua/fisiologia , Língua/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Sports Sci ; 38(16): 1897-1912, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602418

RESUMO

To date, little is known about overreaching (OR) and the overtraining syndrome (OTS) in strength sports and resistance training (RT) populations. However, the available literature may elucidate the occurrence of both conditions in these populations. A scoping review was conducted. SPORTDiscus, Scopus and Web of Science were searched in a robust and systematic manner, with relevant articles analysed. 1170 records were retrieved during an initial search, with a total of 47 included in the review. Two broad themes were identified during data extraction: 1) overreaching in strength sports; 2) overreaching and overtraining syndrome in RT. Short-term periods of OR achieved with either high-volume or high-intensity RT can elicit functional OR (FOR) but there is also evidence that chronic high-volume and/or intensity RT can lead to non-functional overreaching (NFOR). There is minimal evidence to suggest that true OTS has occurred in strength sports or RT based on the studies entered during this review. More research is needed to develop robust guiding principles for practitioners. Additionally, due to the heterogeneous nature of the existing literature, future research would benefit from the development of practical tools to identify and diagnose the transition from FOR to NFOR, and subsequently OTS in strength athletes and RT populations. ABBREVIATIONS: RT: Resistance training; OR: Overreaching; FOR: Functional overreaching; NFOR: Non-functional overreaching; OTS: Overtraining syndrome; WP: Weightlifting performance.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/etiologia , Transtornos Traumáticos Cumulativos/etiologia , Fadiga/etiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/efeitos adversos , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doença Crônica , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235156, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Single repetition, contraction-phase specific and total time-under-tension (TUT) are crucial mechano-biological descriptors associated with distinct morphological, molecular and metabolic muscular adaptations in response to exercise, rehabilitation and/or fighting sarcopenia. However, to date, no simple, reliable and valid method has been developed to measure these descriptors. OBJECTIVE: In this study we aimed to test whether accelerometer data obtained from a standard smartphone placed on the weight stack can be used to extract single repetition, contraction-phase specific and total TUT. METHODS: Twenty-two participants performed two sets of ten repetitions of their 60% one repetition maximum with a self-paced velocity on nine commonly used resistance exercise machines. Two identical smartphones were attached on the resistance exercise weight stacks and recorded all user-exerted accelerations. An algorithm extracted the number of repetitions, single repetition, contraction-phase specific and total TUT. All exercises were video-recorded. The TUT determined from the algorithmically-derived mechano-biological descriptors was compared with the video recordings that served as the gold standard. The agreement between the methods was examined using Limits of Agreement (LoA). The association was calculated using the Pearson correlation coefficients and interrater reliability was determined using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC 2.1). RESULTS: The error rate of the algorithmic detection of single repetitions derived from two smartphones accelerometers was 0.16%. Comparing algorithmically-derived, contraction-phase specific TUT against video, showed a high degree of correlation (r>0.93) for all exercise machines. Agreement between the two methods was high on all exercise machines as follows: LoA ranged from -0.3 to 0.3 seconds for single repetition TUT (0.1% of mean TUT), from -0.6 to 0.3 seconds for concentric contraction TUT (7.1% of mean TUT), from -0.3 to 0.5 seconds for eccentric contraction TUT (4.1% of mean TUT) and from -1.9 to 1.1 seconds for total TUT (0.5% of mean TUT). Interrater reliability for single repetition, contraction-phase specific TUT was high (ICC > 0.99). CONCLUSION: Data from smartphone accelerometer derived resistance exercise can be used to validly and reliably extract crucial mechano-biological descriptors. Moreover, the presented multi-analytical algorithmic approach enables researchers and clinicians to reliably and validly report missing mechano-biological descriptors.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/instrumentação , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência , Smartphone , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235377, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603351

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a six-week, twice weekly resistance training (4 sets at 30% 1-RM until failure) with practical blood flow restriction (BFR) using 7cm wide cuffs with a twist lock placed below the patella is superior to training without BFR (NoBFR) concerning muscle mass and strength gains in calf muscles. A two-group (BFR n = 12, mean age 27.33 (7.0) years, training experience 7.3 (7.0) years; NoBFR n = 9, mean age 28.9 (7.4) years, training experience 7.1 (6.6) years) randomized matched pair design based on initial 1-RM was used to assess the effects on structural and functional adaptations in healthy males (Perometer calf volume [CV], gastrocnemius muscle thickness using ultrasound [MT], 7-maximal hopping test for leg stiffness [LS], 1-RM smith machine calf raise [1-RM], and visual analogue scale as a measure of pain intensity [VAS]). The mean number of repetitions completed per training session across the intervention period was higher in the NoBFR group compared to the BFR group (70 (16) vs. 52 (9), p = 0.002). VAS measured during the first session increased similarly in both groups from first to fourth set (p<0.001). No group effects or time×group interactions were found for CV, MT, LS, and 1-RM. However, there were significant time effects for MT (BFR +0.07 cm; NoBFR +0.04; p = 0.008), and 1-RM (BFR +40 kg; NoBFR +34 kg; p<0.001). LS and CV remained unchanged through training. VAS in both groups were similar, and BFR and NoBFR were equally effective for increasing 1-RM and MT in trained males. However, BFR was more time efficient, due to lesser repetition per training session.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235555, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645111

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to compare the effects of a 10-week chest-press resistance training on lifting regions in a trained exercise and a none-trained exercise; the barbell bench press (BBP). Thirty-five resistance trained men with 4.2 (± 2.3) years of resistance training experience were recruited. The participants were randomized to attend a resistance program, performing the chest-press, twice per week using either, Smith machine, dumbbells or laying on Swiss ball using a barbell. A six-repetitions maximum (6RM) test was conducted pre- and post-training in the trained chest-press exercise and non-trained BBP to examine lifting velocity, load displacement and the time of the pre-sticking, sticking and post-sticking regions. Additionally, the muscle activity in pectoralis major, triceps brachii, biceps brachii and deltoid anterior was examined. In the post-test, all three chest-press groups decreased lifting velocity and increased the time to reach the sticking- and post-sticking region. Independent of the type of chest-press exercise trained, no differences were observed in vertical displacement or in the muscle activity for the three lifting regions. In general, similar changes in kinematics in trained exercise and those observed in the BBP were observed for all three groups. This indicates that none of the three chest-press exercises (Swiss ball, Smith machine or dumbbells) were specific regarding the lifting regions but displaced a transferability towards the non-trained BBP. However, improved strength altered the sticking region among resistance trained men.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Masculino , Tronco/fisiologia , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e21187, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the effects of supervised and home-based exercise programs on older people with frailty or pre-frailty. METHODS: A total of 146 community-dwelling participants aged 65 and older who were prefrail or frail were randomly allocated into supervised exercise (N = 74) and home exercise (N = 72) groups. The 3-month supervised exercise training consisted of 3 exercise sessions per week, was performed at a hospital and supervised by a physical therapist. Home exercise participants took instructions on exercise and illustrated exercise handouts. The baseline and 3-month follow-up measurements included body composition, strength of selected upper and lower limb muscle groups, grip and leg press strengths, and five physical performance tests. Mixed-model repeated-measures analysis was applied to determine whether two groups differ in terms of changes before and after the intervention and to compare within-group improvements. RESULTS: After 3 months of supervised or home-based exercise, the average number of frailty criteria met and fat percentage decreased significantly. Strength of knee extensors, knee flexors and leg press improved significantly in supervised exercise group. In home-based exercise group, the strength of all muscle groups tested improved significantly, except for leg press strength. Walking speed improved in both groups, and timed-up-and-go and timed chair rise tests improved significantly only in supervised exercise group. CONCLUSIONS: Three-month supervised or home-based exercise improved walking speed and strength of the limb muscles. Supervised group showed more improvements in the physical performance tests compared with home-based exercise group.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Fragilidade/fisiopatologia , Treinamento de Resistência/normas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Composição Corporal , Feminino , Fragilidade/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Treinamento de Resistência/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(7): 992-998, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rest interval between sets can affect the responses to resistance training. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of different rest intervals (RI) on volume, density, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) when adopting a crescent pyramid (CP) system. METHODS: Twenty young women (21.1±2.6 years, 1.59±0.06 m, 58.5±9.3 kg) participated in this study. All participants performed three experimental sessions of the leg press exercise in 5 sets until voluntary muscular failure at 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, and 80% of one-repetition maximum (1RM). A randomized and crossover design was used so that in each session one of three RI (RI-1 = 1 min, RI-2 = 2 min, and RI-3 = 3 min) was tested. RESULTS: The participants performed a significantly larger volume in the RI-3 (12820±3134 kg) when compared to RI-1 (10367±3053 kg) condition (P<0.05). The volume did not differ between RI-2 and RI-3 (P>0.05). The density was higher (P<0.05) in RI-1 (43.1±12.7 kg/s) when compared RI-2 (25.6±5.8 kg/s) and RI-3 (17.7±4.3 kg/s). The RI-2 presented higher density compared to RI-3 condition (P<0.05). The RPE was not different between the three conditions (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The use of 2 minutes of rest between sets allowed the performance of a high volume-load and density of the session in young women. In addition, the three experimental sessions provided a high perception of effort.


Assuntos
Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Perna (Membro)/fisiologia , Descanso/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(7): 1034-1039, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Creatine represents a natural supplement and ergogenic aid for sport performance, but there are several concerns regarding its safety for health. The present double-blind placebo-controlled study evaluated the effect of creatine monohydrate supplementation on a panel of blood and urine health indicators in resistance training practitioners. METHODS: Eighteen males performing resistance training three times per week were supplemented with 0.3 g/kg per day creatine monohydrate for 7 days and compared with matched controls supplemented with dextrosol. Blood and urine samples were collected pre- and 30 days post-supplementation to evaluate 41 biochemical parameters and renal function. RESULTS: Creatine monohydrate supplementation did not cause adverse events and, as expected, promoted an increase of the performance and body weight. No modification of red blood cells parameters, white blood cells profile, blood lipid profile, metabolic and urine markers, hepatic and renal function were observed in the supplemented group. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the expected weight increase, the creatine monohydrate supplementation is safe for health and no detrimental effects on different organs and physiological systems were observed in our cohort of volunteers.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Creatina/administração & dosagem , Creatina/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/administração & dosagem , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/efeitos adversos , Treinamento de Resistência , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Método Duplo-Cego , Testes Hematológicos , Humanos , Rim/fisiologia , Contagem de Leucócitos , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/fisiologia , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso , Adulto Jovem
11.
Life Sci ; 256: 118008, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593709

RESUMO

AIMS: We investigate the effects of RT on the mechanical function, gene, and protein expression of key factors involved in bone remodeling during aging. MAIN METHODS: Male rats of 3 and 21 months of age were randomly allocated into four groups (8 per group): young sedentary (YS), young trained (YT), old sedentary (OS), and old trained (OT). RT was performed three times per week (12 weeks). Bone tenacity and stiffness were measured by biomechanical tests and mRNA levels of COL1A1, MEPE, SOST, OPG, BMP-2, PPAR-y, MMP-2-9-13, and TIMP-1 were evaluated by quantitative PCR. COL1A1 protein and MMP-2 activity were detected by western blotting and zymography assays. KEY FINDINGS: Aging increased stiffness, while BMP-2, OPG, COL1A1 and MMP-2 mRNA levels reduced (OS vs YS; p ≤ 0.05). RT increased the tenacity of the femur and reduced PPAR-γ regardless of age (YT vs. YS; OT vs. OS; p ≤ 0.05). RT downregulated SOST mRNA levels only in the OT group (vs. OS group, p ≤ 0.05). RT mitigated the age-associated increase in MMP-9 mRNA levels (p ≤ 0.05). In young animals, upregulation in MEPE, MMP-13, TIMP-1 were observed after RT, as well an increase in COL1A1 protein and MMP-2 activity (p ≤ 0.05). SIGNIFICANCE: RT improved bone tenacity independent of aging, which is relevant for mechanical function, while, at protein levels, RT upregulated MMP-2 activity and collagen 1 only in young rats. This study highlights the importance of exercise on bone health and identifies specific molecular changes in response to RT. Our findings provide insights into the mechanisms involved in age-related changes.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Remodelação Óssea/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Fatores Etários , Animais , Remodelação Óssea/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
12.
Phys Ther ; 100(9): 1632-1644, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525975

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Strength training is recommended for people with hemophilia; however, published data are anecdotal and have methodological limitations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of progressive moderate-to-vigorous intensity elastic resistance training on physical function and pain in this patient population. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted in a university laboratory setting where 20 patients (17 with severe, 1 with moderate, and 2 with mild hemophilia) aged 21 to 53 years received evaluations at baseline and 8-week follow-up. Participants were allocated to intervention (progressive strength training) or control (usual daily activities) groups. The intervention group trained 2 days per week during 8 weeks with elastic resistance. Intensity during the first 2 weeks was a 20-repetition maximum and increased progressively toward 15, 12, and finally 10 repetition maximum. The primary outcome was muscle strength. Secondary outcomes were the Timed "Up and Go" Test score, sit-to-stand, range of motion, Haemophilia Joint Health Score, kinesiophobia score, global impression of pain change, general self-rated health status, and desire to exercise. RESULTS: The intervention group showed greater strength improvements than the control group in almost all of the joints, with moderate to high effect sizes. The intervention group also showed better Timed "Up and Go" and sit-to-stand scores than the control group (moderate effect size), greater range of motion at the knee flexion with the right leg (trivial effect size), and better Haemophilia Joint Health Score at the left knee (small effect size). The intervention group showed greater overall pain reduction, self-rated overall status, and desire to exercise than the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Progressive strength training with elastic resistance performed twice a week during 8 weeks is safe and effective in people with hemophilia to improve muscle strength and functional capacity, reduce general pain, and improve self-rated health status and desire to exercise. IMPACT: This study provides evidence for the use of a specific strength training regimen for people with hemophilia. LAY SUMMARY: People with hemophilia of differing levels of severity, with adequate coverage with clotting factor, can safely engage in progressive strength training and can improve their functioning.


Assuntos
Hemofilia A/reabilitação , Hemofilia B/reabilitação , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Segurança , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Treinamento de Resistência/instrumentação , Tamanho da Amostra , Adulto Jovem
13.
Phys Ther ; 100(9): 1603-1631, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542403

RESUMO

A clinical practice guideline on total knee arthroplasty was developed by an American Physical Therapy (APTA) volunteer guideline development group that consisted of physical therapists, an orthopedic surgeon, a nurse, and a consumer. The guideline was based on systematic reviews of current scientific and clinical information and accepted approaches to management of total knee arthroplasty.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/normas , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Fisioterapeutas , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/normas , Crioterapia/normas , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/normas , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Terapia Passiva Contínua de Movimento/normas , Movimento , Osteoartrite do Joelho/etiologia , Alta do Paciente , Revisão por Pares , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Prognóstico , Melhoria de Qualidade , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Treinamento de Resistência/normas , Fatores de Risco
14.
Sports Health ; 12(4): 395-400, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the optimal exercise intensity and the effects of arm position on elastic resistance exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate scapular muscle activity in different arm positions utilized during standing elastic resistance exercise. HYPOTHESIS: Lower trapezius (LT), serratus anterior (SA), and infraspinatus (IS) muscle activity will vary across arm positions above shoulder level. Also, oscillation resistance exercise will result in increased muscle activity compared with isometric contraction. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 4. METHODS: A total of 19 uninjured male collegiate baseball players volunteered to participate in this study. The electromyography (EMG) activity of the LT, upper trapezius (UT), middle deltoid (MD), SA, and IS muscles was determined using surface EMG in 3 arm positions: diagonal pattern 1 (D1), 120° of shoulder abduction (120), and 90° shoulder abduction with external rotation and elbow flexion (90/90) during both isometric contraction and oscillation resistance exercise. RESULTS: No difference in EMG activity of the LT muscle was found between the 120 and 90/90 position. However, the 120 position increased UT and MD muscle activity significantly more than those of the 90/90 position. The D1 arm position significantly increased SA muscle activity more than the 120 and 90/90 positions while the LT muscle activity was nearly silent. CONCLUSION: The standing 90/90 position effectively generated both LT and IS muscle EMG activity while minimizing both UT and MD muscle activity. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The use of oscillation movements under elastic loading can create high muscle activation in the LT muscle without an adverse effect of the humeral head position and scapular rotation.


Assuntos
Braço/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Manguito Rotador/fisiologia , Músculos Superficiais do Dorso/fisiologia , Músculo Deltoide/fisiologia , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Masculino , Escápula , Adulto Jovem
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(22): e20399, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481431

RESUMO

Cytokeratin 18 (CK18) and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) are elevated in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and are useful markers for identifying or monitoring outcomes. Exercise therapy is one of the established treatments for NAFLD; however, few studies have investigated the effectiveness of exercise therapy on CK18 and FGF21 levels. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of 12 weeks of simple resistance exercise on CK18 and FGF21 levels in patients with NAFLD.Fifty patients with NAFLD were assigned to a resistance exercise group (n = 23) or a control group (n = 27) for a trial period of 12 weeks. During the study, the resistance exercise group performed two exercises (push-ups and squats) three times a week on nonconsecutive days, whereas the control group proceeded with regular physical activities under a restricted diet. We then compared serum levels of CK18 fragments (M65) and FGF21 between groups just before and after the 12-week period.Serum M65 levels (880.0 ±â€Š503.6 vs 648.9 ±â€Š450.2 U/L; P < .01) were significantly decreased in the exercise group. However, no significant differences were observed in body mass index or skeletal muscle. The decreases in serum M65 (-231.1 ±â€Š354.7 vs 56.2 ±â€Š375.0 U/L; P = .02), and FGF21 levels (-41.7 ±â€Š98.2 vs. 33.2 ±â€Š127.6 pg/mL; P = .03) were significantly greater in the exercise than in the control group. Changes in M65 levels in the exercise group were significantly correlated with changes in alanine aminotransferase levels (r = 0.618, P < .01).Simple resistance exercise reduced CK18 and FGF21 levels in patients with NAFLD. These findings suggest that resistance exercise consisting of push-ups and squats helps prevent the progression of NAFLD.


Assuntos
Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/sangue , Queratina-18/sangue , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(21): e20418, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Isokinetic training (IKT) and core stabilization training (CST) are commonly used for balance training in musculoskeletal conditions. The knowledge about the effective implementation of these training protocols on sports performances in university football players with chronic low back pain (LBP) is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To find and compare the effects of IKT and CST on sports performances in university football players with chronic LBP. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blinded controlled study. SETTING: University hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty LBP participants divided into isokinetic group (IKT; n = 20), core stabilization group (CST; n = 20), and the control group (n = 20) and received respected exercises for 4 weeks. OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical (pain intensity and player wellness) and sports performances (40 m sprint, 4 × 5 m sprint, submaximal shuttle running, counter movement jump, and squat jump) scores were measured at baseline, after 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 3 months. RESULTS: Four weeks following training IKT group shows more significant changes in pain intensity and player wellness scores than CST and control groups (P ≤ .001). Sports performance variables (40 m sprint, 4 × 5 m sprint, submaximal shuttle running, counter movement jump and squat jump) scores also show significant improvement in IKT group than the other 2 groups (P ≤ .001). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that training through IKT improves pain intensity and sports performances than CST in university football players with chronic LBP.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/normas , Dor Lombar/terapia , Dor/classificação , Modalidades de Fisioterapia/normas , Desempenho Atlético/estatística & dados numéricos , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Dor Crônica/terapia , Método Duplo-Cego , Hospitais Universitários/organização & administração , Hospitais Universitários/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Dor Lombar/psicologia , Masculino , Dor/prevenção & controle , Modalidades de Fisioterapia/psicologia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Treinamento de Resistência/normas , Treinamento de Resistência/estatística & dados numéricos , Futebol/lesões , Futebol/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0232465, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520952

RESUMO

This study investigated the inter- and intra-device agreement of four new devices marketed for barbell velocity measurement. Mean, mean propulsive and peak velocity outcomes were obtained for bench press and full squat exercises along the whole load-velocity spectrum (from light to heavy loads). Measurements were simultaneously registered by two linear velocity transducers T-Force, two linear position transducers Speed4Lifts, two smartphone video-based systems My Lift, and one 3D motion analysis system STT. Calculations included infraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Bland-Altman Limits of Agreement (LoA), standard error of measurement (SEM), smallest detectable change (SDC) and maximum errors (MaxError). Results were reported in absolute (m/s) and relative terms (%1RM). Three velocity segments were differentiated according to the velocity-load relationships for each exercise: heavy (≥ 80% 1RM), medium (50% < 1RM < 80%) and light loads (≤ 50% 1RM). Criteria for acceptable reliability were ICC > 0.990 and SDC < 0.07 m/s (~5% 1RM). The T-Force device shown the best intra-device agreement (SDC = 0.01-0.02 m/s, LoA <0.01m/s, MaxError = 1.3-2.2%1RM). The Speed4Lifts and STT were found as highly reliable, especially against lifting velocities ≤1.0 m/s (Speed4Lifts, SDC = 0.01-0.05 m/s; STT, SDC = 0.02-0.04 m/s), whereas the My Lift app showed the worst results with errors well above the acceptable levels (SDC = 0.26-0.34 m/s, MaxError = 18.9-24.8%1RM). T-Force stands as the preferable option to assess barbell velocity and to identify technical errors of measurement for emerging monitoring technologies. Both the Speed4Lifts and STT are fine alternatives to T-Force for measuring velocity against high-medium loads (velocities ≤ 1.0 m/s), while the excessive errors of the newly updated My Lift app advise against the use of this tool for velocity-based resistance training.


Assuntos
Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Treinamento de Resistência , Levantamento de Peso , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Smartphone , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Sports Sci ; 38(14): 1635-1649, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32397898

RESUMO

The systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the effect of aerobic, resistance and combined exercise on RMR (kCal·day-1) and performed a methodological assessment of indirect calorimetry protocols within the included studies. Subgroup analyses included energy/diet restriction and body composition changes. Randomized control trials (RCTs), quasi - RCTs and cohort trials featuring a physical activity intervention of any form and duration excluding single exercise bouts were included. Participant exclusions included medical conditions impacting upon RMR, the elderly (≥65 years of age) or pregnant, lactating or post-menopausal women. The review was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD 42,017,058,503). 1669 articles were identified; 22 were included in the qualitative analysis and 18 were meta-analysed. Exercise interventions (aerobic and resistance exercise combined) did not increase resting metabolic rate (mean difference (MD): 74.6 kCal·day-1[95% CI: -13.01, 161.33], P = 0.10). While there was no effect of aerobic exercise on RMR (MD: 81.65 kCal·day-1[95% CI: -57.81, 221.10], P = 0.25), resistance exercise increased RMR compared to controls (MD: 96.17 kCal·day-1[95% CI: 45.17, 147.16], P = 0.0002). This systematic review effectively synthesises the effect of exercise interventions on RMR in comparison to controls; despite heterogenous methodologies and high risk of bias within included studies.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Basal/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Calorimetria Indireta , Humanos , Treinamento de Resistência
19.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 177, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurodegeneration, rather than inflammation, plays a key role in the progressive phase of multiple sclerosis (MS). Current disease modifying treatment options for people with progressive MS (PMS) do not specifically target neurodegeneration. Preliminary evidence suggests that exercise therapy might have neuroprotective effects. However, neuroprotective effect studies of exercise interventions in PMS are scarce and the possible mode of action underlying neuroprotective effects of exercise are unknown and need to be elucidated. The main aim of this phase II trial is to assess whether progressive resistance training (PRT) and high intensity interval training (HIIT), can slow down neurodegeneration in people with PMS. METHODS: In a single-blinded phase II clinical trial with an extended baseline period, 60 people with PMS will be randomly assigned to PRT or HIIT. The participants should have had a relapse onset of MS with confirmed disease progression, however still ambulatory. The duration of the study is 48 weeks, consisting of 16 weeks baseline period (no intervention), 16 weeks intervention and 16 weeks follow-up. Patient-tailored training will be performed 3 times per week for one hour in groups, led by an experienced physiotherapist. The primary outcome measure is neurodegeneration, measured as whole brain atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Secondary outcome parameters will include other biomarkers associated with neurodegeneration (i.e. regional brain atrophy, lesion load, white matter integrity, resting state functional connectivity, blood biomarkers (brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and serum neurofilament light (sNFL)), patient functioning (physical and cognitive) and cardiovascular risk factors. DISCUSSION: Besides the primary outcome measures, this study will examine a large variety of biomarkers associated with neurodegeneration after an exercise intervention. Combining outcome parameters may help to elucidate the mode of action underlying neuroprotective effects of exercise. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial is prospectively registered at the Dutch Trial Registry (number NL8265, date 06-01-2020).


Assuntos
Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Esclerose Múltipla/reabilitação , Neuroproteção , Treinamento de Resistência , Biomarcadores/sangue , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Progressão da Doença , Exercício Físico , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Método Simples-Cego
20.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD011189, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexual dysfunction following stroke is common but often is poorly managed. As awareness of sexual dysfunction following stroke increases as an important issue, a clearer evidence base for interventions for sexual dysfunction is needed to optimise management. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to reduce sexual dysfunction following stroke, and to assess adverse events associated with interventions for sexual dysfunction following stroke. SEARCH METHODS: We conducted the search on 27 November 2019. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; from June 2014), in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE (from 1950); Embase (from 1980); the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; from 1982); the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED; from 1985); PsycINFO (from 1806); the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro; from 1999); and 10 additional bibliographic databases and ongoing trial registers. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared pharmacological treatments, mechanical devices, or complementary medicine interventions versus placebo. We also included other non-pharmacological interventions (such as education or therapy), which were compared against usual care or different forms of intervention (such as different intensities) for treating sexual dysfunction in stroke survivors. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected eligible studies, extracted data, and assessed study quality. We determined the risk of bias for each study and performed a 'best evidence' synthesis using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We identified three RCTs with a total of 212 participants. We noted significant heterogeneity in interventions (one pharmacological, one physiotherapy-based, and one psycho-educational), and all RCTs were small and of 'low' or 'very low' quality. Based on these RCTs, data are insufficient to provide any reliable indication of benefit or risk to guide clinical practice in terms of the use of sertraline, specific pelvic floor muscle training, or individualised sexual rehabilitation. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Use of sertraline to treat premature ejaculation needs to be tested in further RCTs. The lack of benefit with structured sexual rehabilitation and pelvic floor physiotherapy should not be interpreted as proof of ineffectiveness. Well-designed, randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trials of long-term duration are needed to determine the effectiveness of various types of interventions for sexual dysfunction. It should be noted, however, that it may not be possible to double-blind trials of complex interventions.


Assuntos
Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/terapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antidepressivos/efeitos adversos , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orgasmo , Diafragma da Pelve , Ejaculação Precoce/tratamento farmacológico , Ejaculação Precoce/etiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Sertralina/efeitos adversos , Sertralina/uso terapêutico , Educação Sexual/métodos , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/etiologia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/reabilitação , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Vitamina B 12/análogos & derivados , Vitamina B 12/uso terapêutico , Complexo Vitamínico B/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
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