Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 10.074
Filtrar
1.
Cancer Radiother ; 24(4): 345-353, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360094

RESUMO

Preoperative radiotherapy boosted by chemotherapy is a recommended treatment in locally advanced rectal cancers. This treatment is delivered by three dimensional conformal irradiation, which is usually well tolerated but can induce potential toxicity such as rectitis, cystitis and hematologic adverse effects. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy, widely available nowadays, allows optimization of volume covering and sparing of organs at risk such as bladder and bone marrow. This review presents relevant clinical situations and requirements for a beneficial and safe preoperative irradiation of rectal cancers by intensity-modulated technique. This technique is compared to three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy.


Assuntos
Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Humanos , Órgãos em Risco/efeitos da radiação , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Lesões por Radiação/prevenção & controle , Radioterapia Conformacional/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia
2.
Cancer Radiother ; 24(4): 335-339, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444284

RESUMO

Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a disease characterized by a high curability rate, and the treatment benefit-risk balance must be carefully addressed to achieve complete disease control with low risk of long-term toxicities. Most patients are treated with a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, after disease staging and response to treatment evaluated by FDG PET/CT. We report the case of a 28-year-old patient concomitantly diagnosed of a Hodgkin lymphoma and active tuberculosis. Initial staging was difficult due to pulmonary and abdominal tuberculosis localization that induced FDG PET/CT hypermetabolism. Anti-tuberculosis treatment was first started, allowing secondary an early accurate Hodgkin lymphoma staging by FDG PET/CT. The patient was then treated by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Helical TomoTherapy® was used with involved site (IS) irradiation volume was performed to decrease the high doses to organs-at-risk (OAR), especially lungs in this context of tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Doenças do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Hodgkin/terapia , Tuberculose Gastrointestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Bleomicina/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Colo/complicações , Doenças do Colo/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Colo/metabolismo , Dacarbazina/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Doença de Hodgkin/complicações , Doença de Hodgkin/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Hodgkin/metabolismo , Humanos , Pulmão , Linfonodos/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfonodos/metabolismo , Masculino , Órgãos em Risco , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Medição de Risco , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Tuberculose Gastrointestinal/complicações , Tuberculose Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Tuberculose Pulmonar/complicações , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Vimblastina/administração & dosagem
3.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1111): 20190464, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32391712

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyze survival outcomes in patients with oropharygeal cancer treated with primary intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using decision tree algorithms. METHODS: A total of 273 patients with newly diagnosed oropharyngeal cancer were identified between March 2010 and December 2016. The data set contained nine predictor variables and a dependent variable (overall survival (OS) status). The open-source R software was used. Survival outcomes were estimated by Kaplan-Meier method. Important explanatory variables were selected using the random forest approach. A classification tree that optimally partitioned patients with different OS rates was then built. RESULTS: The 5 year OS for the entire population was 78.1%. The top three important variables identified were HPV status, N stage and early complete response to treatment. Patients were partitioned in five groups on the basis of these explanatory variables. CONCLUSION: The proposed classification tree could help to guide future research in oropharyngeal cancer field. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Decision tree method seems to be an appropriate tool to partition oropharyngeal cancer patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/mortalidade , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Árvores de Decisões , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/radioterapia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/mortalidade , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1111): 20200023, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436787

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the impact of a restricted craniocaudal (CC) field length of <20 cm on the selection of head and neck cancer (HNC) patients who can be treated on the MR-Linac using a single isocentre technique. We also assess the effects of anthropometric factors and the neck position on the CC field length. METHODS: 110 HNC patients who underwent radical primary or adjuvant radiotherapy were retrospectively analysed. We assessed the proportion of treatment fields with a CC length of <20 cm and the effects of gender, height, hyo-sternal neck length (distance from superior surface of hyoid to sternal notch measured on the coronal reconstruction of the planning CT) and neck position on CC length. RESULTS: 95% of HNC patients had a CC field length <20 cm. Female patients showed a significantly shorter median CC length than male patients in both extended (p = 0.0003) and neutral (p = 0.008) neck positions. Neck position influenced the median CC length with neutral neck being significantly shorter than extended neck (p = 0.0119). Patient height and hyo-sternal neck length showed positive correlation with the CC length, with neck length in neutral position having the strongest correlation (r = 0.65, p = 0.0001 and r = 0.63, p < 0.0001, respectively for extended neck; r = 0.55, p = 0.0070 and r = 0.80, p < 0.0001, respectively for neutral neck). A hyo-sternal neck length of <14.6 cm predicted a CC length of <20 cm in neutral neck position. CONCLUSION: The majority of patients with HNC at the Royal Marsden Hospital have anthropometric features compatible with their being treated on the MR-Linac using a single isocentre technique. The absolute CC field size may vary according to primary tumour site, patient factors and neck position. A hyo-sternal neck length cut-off of 14.6 cm in the neutral neck position can be used as a surrogate marker for suitability of treatment on MR-Linac. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: This paper highlights the potential impact of a restricted CC field in HNC patient selection for the MR-Linac treatment. This is the first report to suggest the use of neck length as a surrogate marker for suitability of treatment on the MR-Linac.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antropometria , Estatura , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Posicionamento do Paciente , Seleção de Pacientes , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais
5.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1110): 20190351, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233939

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to compare regional node coverage and doses to the organ at risk (OAR) using conventional technique (CT) vs "AMAROS" (AT) vs intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques in patients receiving regional nodal irradiation (RNI) for breast cancer (BC). METHODS: We included 30 consecutive patients with BC who received RNI including axillary nodes. Two independent and blinded dosimetric RNI plans were generated for all patients. For target volume coverage, we analyzed the V95%, the D95%, the mean and the minimal dose within the nodal station. For hotspots within nodal target volume, we used the V105%, the V108% and the maximal doses. For OAR, lung V20, mean lung and heart doses, the maximal dose to the brachial plexus and the axillary-lateral thoracic vessel junction region were compared between the three techniques. RESULTS: Target volume coverage and hotspots: Mean V95% in stations I, II, III and IV were 35.8% and 75% respectively with CV, 22.59 and 59.9% respectively with AT technique and 45.58 and 99.6% respectively with IMRT with statistically significant differences (p < 0.001). Mean V105% (cc) in axillary and supraclavicular stations were 21.3 and 6.4 respectively with CV, 1.2 and 0.02 respectively with AT technique and 0.5 and 0.4 respectively with IMRT with statistically significant differences (p < 0.001)..OARs: The mean ipsilateral lung V20 was 16.9%, 16.4 and 13.3% with CT, AT and IMRT respectively. The mean heart dose (Gy) was 0.3, 0.2 and 0.2 with CT, AT and IMRT respectively. The maximal dose to the plexus brachial (Gy) was 50.3, 46.3 and 47.3 with CT, AT and IMRT respectively. The maximal dose to the axillary-lateral thoracic vessel junction (Gy) was 52.3, 47.3 and 47.6 with CT, AT and IMRT respectively. The differences were statistically significant for all OAR (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: AT is a valuable technique for RNI including axilla in patients with limited sentinel lymph node biopsy involvement without additional axillary lymph node dissection since it decreases hotspots in the target volume and lowers the radiation exposure of the OAR. For more advanced tumors or patients who did not respond to primary systemic therapy, CT or IMRT should be considered because of their better coverage of the potentially residual nodal disease. IMRT combines several advantages of offering high conformal plans, limited hotspots and protection of main OAR. The clinical impact of these dosimetric differences need to be addressed. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: This study is to our knowledge the first to compare conventional three-dimensional and IMRT techniques for regional nodal irradiation for each nodal station in breast cancer in a context of increasing utilization of axillary irradiation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Irradiação Linfática/métodos , Órgãos em Risco/efeitos da radiação , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise de Variância , Axila/irrigação sanguínea , Vasos Sanguíneos/efeitos da radiação , Plexo Braquial/efeitos da radiação , Feminino , Coração/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Pulmão/efeitos da radiação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Tórax/irrigação sanguínea , Adulto Jovem
7.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1110): 20200047, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187503

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of intra- and interfractional motion during breast intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) by calculating dose distribution based on four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT). METHODS: 20 patients diagnosed with left breast cancer were enrolled. Three-dimensional CT (3DCT) along with 10 phases of 4DCT were collected for each patient, with target volumes independently delineated on both 3DCT and all phases of 4DCT. IMRT plans were generated based on 3DCT (43.2 Gy in 16 fractions). The plan parameters for each segment were split into phases based on time duration estimates for each respiratory phase, with phase-specific dose distributions calculated and summated (4D-calculated dose). The procedure is repeated for 16 fractionations by randomly allocating starting phase using random-number generation to simulate interfractional discrepancy caused by different starting phase. Comparisons of plan quality between the original and 4D-calculated doses were analyzed. RESULTS: There was a significant distortion in 4D-calculated dose induced by respiratory motion in terms of conformity and homogeneity index compared to those of the original 3D plan. Mean doses of the heart and the ipsilateral lung were significantly higher in the 4D-calculated doses compared to those of the original 3D plan (0.34 Gy, p = 0.010 and 0.59 Gy, p < 0.001), respectively). The mean internal mammary lymph node (IMN) dose was significantly greater in the 4D-calculated plan, compared to the original 3D plan (1.42 Gy, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: IMN doses should be optimized during the dose-calculation for the free-breathing left breast IMRT. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: The interplay effect between respiratory motion and multileaf collimator modulation caused discrepancies in dose distribution, particularly in IMN.


Assuntos
Tomografia Computadorizada Quadridimensional , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Neoplasias Unilaterais da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Unilaterais da Mama/radioterapia , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Feminino , Coração , Humanos , Pulmão , Irradiação Linfática/métodos , Movimentos dos Órgãos , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador , Radioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Respiração , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Neoplasias Unilaterais da Mama/cirurgia
8.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1109): 20191027, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125893

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the suitability of the new diameter-based subgroupings of the eighth edition Tumor Node Metastasis (TNM) classification system regarding radiotherapy treatment for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we retrospectively re-analyzed the clinical data of patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy using non-coplanar beams (ncIMRT) for Stage I NSCLC. METHODS: Between March 2011 and March 2018, 92 patients with 94 tumors who were diagnosed with Stage I NSCLC according to the seventh edition TNM classification system were enrolled and underwent ncIMRT of 75 Gy in 30 fractions. Local control (LC), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were retrospectively investigated according to the T-classification subdivisions of the eighth edition and maximal solid tumor component diameter. RESULTS: The median follow-up period was 32.5 months. The median maximum tumor and solid tumor component diameters were 22 mm and 18 mm, respectively. 3-year LC, PFS, and OS rates were 84.1%, 69.4%, and 85.3%, respectively. The 3-year LC rates were 91.0 and 76.8% in the groups with tumor diameter ≤2 cm and >2 cm, corresponding to the T1c and T1b subdivisions of the eighth edition, respectively (p = 0.24). In the ≤2 cm and >2 cm solid tumor component groups, the 3 year LC rates were 93.6 and 63.2%, respectively, which were significantly different (p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: LC rates after radiotherapy in patients with Stage I NSCLC were correlated with solid tumor component diameter. High LC rates in patients with solid tumor components <2 cm in diameter were associated with high PFS and OS rates. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: This study suggests that the eighth edition TNM classification system, which focuses on solid tumor components rather than tumor diameter, can be applied to radiotherapy.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/radioterapia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 42(2): 133-138, 2020 Feb 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135648

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the long-term effect and safety of chrono-chemotherapy combined with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: 160 patients with locally advanced NPC were randomly divided into a chrono group and conventional group according to random number table. In the first stage, all patients underwent two cycles of induced chemotherapy, consisting of docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-Fu every 21 days. Notably, patients received chrono-moduated chemotherapy according to circadian rhythm in the chrono group, and conventional chemotherapy in the conventional group. Then, 21 days after the completion of first stage, three cycles of concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy every 21 days were given to all patients during IMRT. The median follow-up after the completion of radiotherapy was 31 months. Long-term side effects and the survival of patients were observed. Results: Patients in the chrono group had significantly lower rates of hearing loss (22.72%), dysphagia (0) and neck fibrosis (4.54%) compared with those in the conventional group (39.13%、8.69%, 15.94%, respectively, all P<0.05). Meanwhile, the 1- year overall survival rates (97.0% vs 92.8%), 3-year overall survival rates (80.3% vs 81.2%), 1-year progression free survival rates (95.5% vs 87.0%), 3-year progression free survival rates (71.2% vs 73.9%), 1-year locoregional relapse-free survival rates (97.0% vs 95.7%), 1-year locoregional relapse-free survival rates (92.4% vs 92.8%), 1-year distant metastasis-free survival rates (97.0% vs 98.6%) and 3-year distant metastasis-free survival rates (90.9% vs 91.3%) between the chrono group and the conventional group were not statistically significant (all P>0.05). Conclusions: Compared with conventional chemotherapy, chrono-chemotherapy combined with IMRT didn't affect long-term survival, but reducing the incidence of adverse events in patients with locally advanced NPC.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/radioterapia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/radioterapia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Terapia Combinada , Docetaxel/administração & dosagem , Cronoterapia Farmacológica , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Seguimentos , Humanos , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/patologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patologia , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 42(2): 139-144, 2020 Feb 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135649

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the prognostic factors of T1-2N0M0 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) treated with definitive radiotherapy. Methods: The clinical data of 196 patients with T1-2N0M0 ESCC who were treated with definitive radiotherapy in 10 hospitals were retrospectively analyzed. All sites were members of Jing-Jin-Ji Esophageal and Esophagogastric Cancer Radiotherapy Oncology Group (3JECROG). Radiochemotherapy were applied to 78 patients, while the other 118 patients received radiotherapy only. 96 patients were treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and 100 treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The median dose of plan target volume(PTV) and gross target volume(GTV) were both 60 Gy. The median follow-up time was 59.2 months. Log rank test and Cox regression analysis were used for univariat and multivariate analysis, respectively. Results: The percentage of normal lung receiving at least 20 Gy (V(20)) was (18.65±7.20)%, with average dose of (10.81±42.05) Gy. The percentage of normal heart receiving at least 30 Gy (V(30)) was (14.21±12.28)%. The maximum dose of exposure in spinal cord was (39.65±8.13) Gy. The incidence of radiation pneumonia and radiation esophagitis were 14.80%(29/196) and 65.82%(129/196), respectively. The adverse events were mostly grade 1-2, without grade 4 toxicity. Median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 70.1 months and 62.3 months, respectively. The 1-, 3- and 5-year OS rates of all patients were 75.1%、57.4% and 53.2%, respectively. The 1-, 3- and 5-year PFS rates were 75.1%、57.4% and 53.2%, respectively. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that patients'age (HR=1.023, P=0.038) and tumor diameter (HR=1.243, P=0.028)were the independent prognostic factors for OS, while tumor volume were the independent prognostic factor for PFS. Conclusions: Definitive radiotherapy is a promising therapeutic method in patients with T1-2N0M0 ESCC. Patients' age, tumor diameter and tumor volume may impact patients' prognosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/radioterapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/radioterapia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Quimiorradioterapia , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/patologia , Humanos , Prognóstico , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Radioterapia Conformacional , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Cancer Radiother ; 24(2): 88-92, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156457

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The optimal dose in esophageal cancer patients treated with definitive chemoradiation (CRT) remains debated. We herein report on the dosimetric results, treatment-related toxicities and long-term outcomes of escalated dose up to 60Gy delivered with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: All consecutive patients that received a definitive CRT>50Gy for an unresectable esophageal carcinoma between 2010 and 2015 were retrospectively evaluated for this study. Methodology included data base search, delayed toxicity grading, statistical testing including frequency analysis and survival analysis. RESULTS: A total of 51 patients were irradiated for a squamous cell carcinoma (86.3%) or an adenocarcinoma (13.7%). The median age at diagnosis was 62 years. Seven patients were simultaneously irradiated for another synchronous primary tumor. Forty-six patients (90.2%) received concurrent platin-based chemotherapy. The median prescribed doses were 60Gy (54-66) and 48Gy (44.8-56) delivered in 30 (27-35) fractions to the high and the low risks PTV respectively. The mean dose delivered to the lungs was 11.4Gy (IC 95%: 4.8-19.8), the median volumes receiving up to 20Gy (V20) and 30Gy (V30) were 13.5% (3.0-46.0) and 4.6% (0.7-19.8) respectively. The mean dose delivered to the heart was 13.9Gy (IC 95%:0.3-31.3) with a median V40 of 3.3% (0.0-25.0). One treatment-related death occurred within days after RT completion (neutropenic aplasia). After a median follow-up of 2.7 years (95% CI: 1.9-4.3), the 2-year overall survival, disease free survival and loco-regional control rates were 53.6%, 42.0% and 72.8% respectively. Delayed treatment related-toxicities ≤grade 3 occurred among 25 patients (62.5%) mostly esophageal stricture (79.2%). CONCLUSION: We demonstrated in this study that dose escalation using IMRT in combination with platin-based chemotherapy as a definitive treatment for esophageal carcinoma is safe and results in higher loco-regional and control survival when compared to previously reported data.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/terapia , Tolerância a Radiação , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Neoplasias Esofágicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Estenose Esofágica/etiologia , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Coração/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Pulmão/efeitos da radiação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos Organoplatínicos/administração & dosagem , Órgãos em Risco/efeitos da radiação , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Cancer Radiother ; 24(2): 120-127, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The main complication after hypofractionated radiotherapy for lung carcinoma is radiation-induced lung toxicity, which can be divided into radiation pneumonitis (acute toxicity, occurring within 6 months) and lung fibrosis (late toxicity, occurring after 6 months). The literature describes several predictive factors related to the patient, to the tumor (volume, central location), to the dosimetry and to biological factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study is a retrospective analysis of 90 patients treated with stereotactic body irradiation for stage I non-small-cell lung carcinoma between December 2010 and May 2015. RESULTS: Radiation pneumonitis was observed in 61.5% of the patients who were mainly asymptomatic (34%). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was not predictive of radiation pneumonitis, whereas active smoking was protective. Centrally located tumors were not more likely to result in this complication if the radiation schedule utilized adapted fractionation. In our study, no predictive factor was identified. Whereas the mean lung dose was a predictive factor in 3D radiotherapy, the lung volume irradiated at high doses seemed to be involved in the pathogenesis after hypofractionated radiotherapy. CONCLUSION: The discovery of predictive factors for radiation pneumonitis is difficult due to the rarity of this complication, especially with an 8×7.5Gy schedule. Radiation pneumonitis seems to be correlated with the volume irradiated at high doses, which is in contrast to the known knowledge about the organs in parallel. This finding leads us to raise the hypothesis that vessel damage, organs in series, occurring during hypofractionated radiotherapy could be responsible for this toxicity.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Pulmão/efeitos da radiação , Pneumonite por Radiação/etiologia , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise de Variância , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Fibrose Pulmonar/etiologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Pneumonite por Radiação/prevenção & controle , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumar
13.
Cancer Radiother ; 24(2): 99-105, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32201058

RESUMO

PURPOSE: During radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer (PCa), interfraction and intrafraction movements can lead to decreased target dose coverage and unnecessary over-exposure of organs at risk. New image-guided RT techniques accuracy allows planning target volume (PTV) margins reduction. We aim to assess the feasibility of a kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring (KIM) to track the prostate during RT. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between November 2017 and April 2018, 44 consecutive patients with PCa were included in an intrafraction prostate motion study using the Truebeam Auto Beam Hold® tracking system (Varian Medical Systems, United State) triggered by gold fiducials localization on kilovoltage (kV) imaging. A 5-mm PTV was considered. A significant gating event (SGE) was defined as the occurrence of an automatic beam interruption requiring patient repositioning following the detection of one fiducial outside a 5-mm target area around the marker during more than 45seconds. RESULTS: Six patients could not benefit from the KIM because of technical issues (loss of one fiducial marker=1, hip prosthesis=4, morbid obesity causing table movements=1). The mean rate of SGE per patient was 14±19%, and the fraction average delivery time was increased by 146±86seconds. For a plan of 39 fractions of 2Gy, the additional radiation dose increased by 0.13±0.09Gy. The mean rates of SGE were 2% and 18% (P=0.002) in patients with planned fraction<90 and>90seconds respectively, showing that duration of the session strongly interfered with prostate intrafraction movements. No other significant clinical and technical parameter was correlated with the occurrence of SGE. CONCLUSION: Automated intrafraction kV imaging can effectively perform autobeam holds due to intrafraction movement of the prostate in the large majority of patients. The additional radiation dose and delivery time are acceptable. This technique may be a cost-effective alternative to electromagnetic transponder guidance.


Assuntos
Movimentos dos Órgãos , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Estudos de Viabilidade , Marcadores Fiduciais , Ouro , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Posicionamento do Paciente , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Glândulas Seminais , Fatores de Tempo , Incerteza
14.
Semin Oncol ; 47(1): 8-22, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139101

RESUMO

Proton radiotherapy has promised an advantage in safely treating pediatric malignancies with an increased capability to spare normal tissues, reducing the risk of both acute and late toxicity. The past decade has seen the proliferation of more than 30 proton facilities in the United States, with increased capacity to provide access to approximately 3,000 children per year who will require radiotherapy for their disease. We provide a review of the initial efforts to describe outcomes after proton therapy across the common pediatric disease sites. We discuss the main attempts to assess comparative efficacy between proton and photon radiotherapy concerning toxicity. We also discuss recent efforts of multi-institutional registries aimed at accelerating research to better define the optimal treatment paradigm for children requiring radiotherapy for cure.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/radioterapia , Terapia com Prótons , Fatores Etários , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Terapia com Prótons/métodos , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Radiol Med ; 125(5): 491-499, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077006

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate tolerance and biochemical control rates of salvage external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in patients with local relapse from prostate cancer (PC) after high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) as primary treatment. METHODS: Twenty-four patients presented biochemical failure of PC. Salvage EBRT to the residual prostate was performed with moderate hypofractionation schedule (MHRT) in 28 fractions (n = 16) or with extreme hypofractionation schedule (SBRT) in 5 fractions (n = 8) by means of image-guided volumetric modulation arc therapy. In case of MHRT, the median dose was 71.4 Gy, whereas in case of SBRT it was 32.5 Gy. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 28 months. The median PSA nadir was 0.26 ng/mL. In case of MHRT, the median PSA nadir was 0.15 ng/mL and occurred within a median time of 19 months. In case of SBRT, the median PSA nadir was 0.64 ng/mL and occurred within a median time of 8 months. No G3 higher acute or late toxicity after EBRT was observed. Only three patients presented with G2 acute GI toxicity (actinic proctitis). Twelve patients experienced acute G1 GU toxicity: 8/16 of men treated with MHRT and 4/8 of men treated with SBRT. Complete local control of disease was achieved in 23/24 patients (96%). CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirm the feasibility and the low toxicity of salvage EBRT with both schedules of treatment after HIFU failure. The findings of low acute toxicity and good biochemical control rates are encouraging, but a larger number of patients and a longer follow-up are needed to confirm these results.


Assuntos
Ablação por Ultrassom Focalizado de Alta Intensidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Terapia de Salvação/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/sangue , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Hipofracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Salvação/efeitos adversos
16.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229266, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, the role of adjuvant irradiation in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients with N1-lymph node status is not clarified. OBJECTIVES: To assess the population-based effect of recent developments in radiotherapy such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in relation to overall survival (OS) together with surgery in N1 HNC patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used 9,318 HNC cases with pT1/2 N0/1 disease from German cancer registries. Time of diagnosis ranged from January 2000 to December 2014, which we divided into three periods: (low [LIA] vs intermediate [IA] vs high [HIA] IMRT availability period) based on usage of IMRT in Germany. For each period, we examined a possible association between treatment (surgery vs. surgery and radiotherapy) in terms of OS. Statistical analyses included Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox regression (models adjusted for HPV-related cancer site). RESULTS: Temporal analysis revealed increasing usage of IMRT in Germany. In patients with N1 tumours, a comparison of patients treated with and without radiotherapy during the HIA period showed a superiority of the combined treatment as opposed to surgery alone (HR 0.54, 95%CI: 0.35-0.85, p = 0.003). The survival analyses related to treatments in terms of period underlined the superiority of surgery plus radiotherapy between periods IA and HIA (p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: The advent of IMRT, additional radiotherapy may present a survival advantage in patients with N1 HNC when combined with surgery.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/mortalidade , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/radioterapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
18.
Cancer Radiother ; 24(1): 21-27, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001131

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Radiotherapy is the main treatment method for patients with locally advanced, unresectable esophageal cancer. The aim of this study is to compare overall survival (OS) using 3D radiotherapy (3DRT) alone with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in 296 non-surgical esophageal carcinoma patients. PATENTS AND METHODS: Over 10 years, of the 480 patients with esophageal carcinoma treated with 3DRT with or without chemotherapy, 148 patients each comprised 3DRT and CCRT groups after propensity score matching. RESULTS: The 5- and 10-year OS (P=0.337) and PFS (P=0.715) rates for 3DRT alone were 22.0%, 14.4% and 26.1%, 23.2%, respectively, compared with 28.8%, 18.6% and 34.7%, 29.1% for CCRT, respectively. CCRT did not improve 5-year and 10-year OS or PFS in 60-70Gy group (OS: 27.5% and 25.2%; 17.9% and 17.0%, P=0.938; PFS: 38.3% and 31.8%; 31.9% and 27.8%, P=0.890) nor reduce 10-year hematogenous metastasis (31.7% and 28.3%, P=0.698). CCRT improved 5-year OS and PFS of 50.0-59.9Gy group (OS: 33.3% and 12.0%, P=0.029; PFS: 33.1% and 10.6%, P=0.081). For 3DRT, the 5-year OS and PFS rates were significantly better in the 60-70Gy group (P=0.017) compared with 50.0-59.9Gy group (P=0.002). For CCRT group, 5-year OS and PFS favored the 50.0-59.9Gy group, but the difference was insignificant. Major toxicities were greater with CCRT compared with 3DRT. CONCLUSION: For non-surgical esophageal carcinoma patients, 3DRT combined with CCRT was effective in prolonging both OS and PFS.


Assuntos
Quimiorradioterapia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Esofágicas/radioterapia , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/radioterapia , China/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Dosagem Radioterapêutica
19.
Cancer Radiother ; 24(1): 28-37, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007370

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To guide parotid gland (PG) sparing at the dose planning step, a specific model based on overlap between PTV and organ at risk (Moore et al.) was developed and evaluated for VMAT in head-and-neck (H&N) cancer radiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and sixty patients treated for locally advanced H&N cancer were included. A model optimization was first performed (20 patients) before a model evaluation (110 patients). Thirty cases were planned with and without the model to quantify the PG dose sparing. The inter-operator variability was evaluated on one case, planned by 12 operators with and without the model. The endpoints were PG mean dose (Dmean), PTV homogeneity and number of monitor units (MU). RESULTS: The PG Dmean predicted by the model was reached in 89% of cases. Using the model significantly reduced the PG Dmean: -6.1±4.3Gy. Plans with the model showed lower PTV dose homogeneity and more MUs (+10.5% on average). For the inter-operator variability, PG dose volume histograms without the optimized model were significantly different compared to those with the model; the Dmean standard deviation for the ipsilateral PG decreased from 2.2Gy to 1.2Gy. For the contralateral PG, this value decreased from 2.9Gy to 0.8Gy. CONCLUSION: During the H&N inverse planning, the optimized model guides to the lowest PG achievable mean dose, allowing a significant PG mean dose reduction of -6.1Gy. Integrating this method at the treatment-planning step significantly reduced the inter-patient and inter-operator variabilities.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Órgãos em Risco , Glândula Parótida , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/radioterapia , Humanos , Glândula Parótida/efeitos da radiação , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos
20.
Cancer Radiother ; 24(1): 53-59, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046915

RESUMO

PUPOSE: To compare dosimetric plans for the treatments of oligobrains metastases (2-6) using mono-isocentric arc therapy and multi-isocentric volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of sixteen patients with multiple brain metastases were selected. Prescription dose was between 24 and 15Gy depending on the tumor size. For every patient,arctherapy and VMAT plans were generated respectively, with Elements Multiple Brain Mets SRS version 2.0 (BrainLab) and Eclipse SRS Treatment Planning Systeme version 15.5. The conformity index (CI), homogeinity index (HI), gradient index (GI), dose volume histogram for each organs at risk, total Monitor Units were evaluated. RESULTS: For coverage of the PTV, mono-isocentric plans showed a better CI and a better GI than multi-isocentric plans, respectively CI of 1.18±0.11 vs 1.41±0.20 (P<0.01), and GI of 3.55±0.59 vs 4.03±1.20 (P<0.01). Homogeneity index was not better with mono-isocentric plans, with respectively HI 24.32±3.87 vs 14.05±4.46 (P=1). For organs at risk, there were no statistical differences between mono and multi-isocentric plans for both eyes, both lenses, both optic nerves, chiasma, brainstem, and hippocampi.V12Gy and V10Gy of normal brain were statistically lower with mono-isocentric plans than with multi-isocentric plans, respectivellyV12Gy of 3.06Gy 95%CI [2.25;3.86]vs 5.18Gy 95%CI [3.43;6.93] (P<0,01) and V10Gy 4.66Gy 95%CI [3.33;5.98] vs7.30Gy 95%CI [4.73;9.87] (P<0.03). Total number of MU was significantly lower with mono-isocentric plans than with multi-isocentric plans, respectively 6668±1463 vs 12403±4941 (P<0.01), then treatment time was lower with mono-isocentric plans. CONCLUSION: Mono-isocentric plans had a better conformity index and gradient index than multi-isocentric plans for the treatment of multiple brain metastases. Moreover, mono-isocentric techniques gave fewer doses to normal brain and used less monitor units than multi-isocentric techniques.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Encéfalo/efeitos da radiação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA