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1.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232288, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379779

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ethnobotanical studies that include participatory methods aim to engage residents in different steps to promote the strengthening and perpetuation of local culture, and empowerment in making decisions about the use of available environmental resources. Thus, the aim of this project was to perform an ethnobotanical survey based on traditional knowledge of medicinal plants with the active participation of residents living in Bairro do Cambury, Ubatuba, São Paulo State, Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During meetings held between the researchers and community members, locally used plants were regarded as an important means for preserving local knowledge for future generations. Some residents showed interest in participating as local partners, and training courses for collecting ethnobotanical data were offered. Local partners and researchers from São Paulo Federal University (Universidade Federal de São Paulo) utilized ethnobotanical methods to select and interview the specialists in medicinal plants for 80 days between 2016 and 2018. Data on plant use were recorded, and plants were collected and deposited in two herbaria. Furthermore, participant observation and fieldwork diaries were used by the researchers, aiding the data analysis. RESULTS: Three local partners participated in objective definitions, data collection, analysis and publication. Nine local specialists were interviewed by the local partners and indicated the use of 82 plant species in 90 recipes for 55 therapeutic uses. These uses were grouped into 12 categories. In addition, a video and booklet were created. CONCLUSIONS: Data obtained during participatory research show that training local communities in the registration of their own knowledge is feasible and necessary since they register knowledge based on local perceptions, as well as valuing knowledge and approaching the current discussion about intellectual property is a global concern.


Assuntos
Etnobotânica/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Brasil/etnologia , Prova Pericial/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Conhecimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plantas Medicinais , Registros , Participação dos Interessados/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0231602, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469877

RESUMO

Reversible Data Hiding (RDH) techniques have gained popularity over the last two decades, where data is embedded in an image in such a way that the original image can be restored. Earlier works on RDH was based on the Image Histogram Modification that uses the peak point to embed data in the image. More recent works focus on the Difference Image Histogram Modification that exploits the fact that the neighbouring pixels of an image are highly correlated and therefore the difference of image makes more space to embed large amount of data. In this paper we propose a framework to increase the embedding capacity of reversible data hiding techniques that use a difference of image to embed data. The main idea is that, instead of taking the difference of the neighboring pixels, we rearrange the columns (or rows) of the image in a way that enhances the smooth regions of an image. Any difference based technique to embed data can then be used in the transformed image. The proposed method is applied on different types of images including textures, patterns and publicly available images. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method not only increases the message embedding capacity of a given image by more than 50% but also the visual quality of the marked image containing the message is more than the visual quality obtained by existing state-of-the-art reversible data hiding technique. The proposed technique is also verified by Pixel Difference Histogram (PDH) Stegoanalysis and results demonstrate that marked images generated by proposed method is undetectable by PDH analysis.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Segurança Computacional/normas , Simulação por Computador , Bases de Dados Factuais , Técnicas Histológicas/métodos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Humanos , Registros
3.
Pediatrics ; 145(5)2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A previous single-county study found that retail stores usually asked young-looking tobacco customers to show proof-of-age identification, but a large proportion of illegal tobacco sales to minors occurred after the customers had shown identification proving they were too young to purchase tobacco. We sought to investigate these findings on a larger scale. METHODS: We obtained state reports for federal fiscal years 2017 and 2018 from a federal agency that tracks tobacco sales to supervised minors conducting compliance checks in retail stores. We used descriptive and multivariable logistic regression methods to determine (1) how often stores in 17 states requested identifications, (2) what proportion of violations occurred after identification requests, and (3) if violation rates differed when minors were required versus forbidden to carry identification. RESULTS: Stores asked minors for identification in 79.6% (95% confidence interval: 79.3%-80.8%) of compliance checks (N = 17 276). Violations after identification requests constituted 22.8% (95% confidence interval: 20.0%-25.6%; interstate range, 1.7%-66.2%) of all violations and were nearly 3 times as likely when minors were required to carry identification in compliance checks. Violations were 42% more likely when minors asked for a vaping product versus cigarettes. CONCLUSIONS: Stores that sell tobacco to underage customers are more likely to be detected and penalized when youth inspectors carry identification during undercover tobacco sales compliance checks. The new age-21 tobacco sales requirement presents an opportunity to require identifications be carried and address other long-standing weaknesses in compliance-check protocols to help combat the current adolescent vaping epidemic.


Assuntos
Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Menores de Idade/psicologia , Registros/legislação & jurisprudência , Produtos do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Comércio/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Registros/normas , Produtos do Tabaco/normas , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Zootaxa ; 4731(2): zootaxa.4731.2.8, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229820

RESUMO

This paper supplements earlier revisions and descriptions of the subfamily Pantheinae (Behounek et al. 2012a, 2012b, 2015a, 2015b; Behounek and Kononenko 2012a, 2012b. It contains the description of Donda hunana sp. n., description of the male of Anabelcia thai Behounek Kononenko, 2012 which was described from a small series of females, and new data on distribution of Xizanga mysterica Behounek, Han Kononenko, 2012b and Pantheaforma ihlei Behounek, Han Kononenko, 2015a.


Assuntos
Lepidópteros , Mariposas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Feminino , Masculino , Registros
5.
Zootaxa ; 4729(2): zootaxa.4729.2.6, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229863

RESUMO

Two new species of the gekkonid genus Hemiphyllodactylus are described from mountains of the Western Ghats in Tamil Nadu, southern India. Hemiphyllodactylus nilgiriensis sp. nov. and H. peninsularis sp. nov. are > 5 % divergent in the mitochondrial ND2 gene from each other and members of the H. aurantiacus complex and differ from each other and members of the H. aurantiacus complex in several meristic characters and colouration. The description of these two new species takes the number of Indian Hemiphyllodactylus to six and the number of endemic geckos from Tamil Nadu to 15.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Genes Mitocondriais , Índia , Filogenia , Registros
6.
Zootaxa ; 4731(4): zootaxa.4731.4.5, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230284

RESUMO

Megadrypta mirabilis n. gen. n. sp. from Guangdong (China) is described. The new genus is distinguished from all known genera by a combination of large body size, pronotal bead well marked, sloping shoulders, reduced hind wings, smooth claws and stylomeres, and a large number (7-8) of periscutellar pores. Some remarks are made upon the relationships with the other genera of Dryptini, raising to the genus rank the taxa Nesiodrypta Jeannel, 1949 and Prionodrypta Jeannel, 1949, formerly regarded as subgenera of Drypta Latreille, 1796. A new key to all the genera of this tribe is proposed.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , China , Registros
7.
Zootaxa ; 4751(2): zootaxa.4751.2.12, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230426

RESUMO

The lace bug genus Heissiella Péricart, 1984 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Tingidae) is recorded from Japan for the first time, and a new species, which has been recorded as 'Tingis (Tropidocheila) sp.' or 'Tingis (Tropidocheila) shaowuana Drake Maa, 1953' (misidentification) by previous authors, is described under the name of H. donguri sp. nov. This new species was found on the leaves of Quercus gilva Blume (Fagaceae) in the laurilignosa ecosystem of Honshu and Kyushu, extending the known distribution range of the genus into the Palaearctic Region. The distribution range and the host plant relationship of the new species are discussed. A key to all described species of the genus and a photograph of a living individual for the new species are also presented.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Heterópteros , Quercus , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Ecossistema , Japão , Registros
8.
Zootaxa ; 4751(1): zootaxa.4751.1.11, 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230439

RESUMO

A new species of Hemiodus is described from the Rio Xingu basin, Pará, Brazil. It is distinguished from congeners by the combination of presence of a dark longitudinal stripe extending from head to tip of lower caudal-fin lobe, an oblique blotch on dorsal-fin, 9-11 scale rows above lateral line, 58-66 perforated lateral line scales, and 17-20 circumpeduncular scales. Comments on the conservation status of the new species, as well as its relationships among Hemiodus species, are made.


Assuntos
Caraciformes , Animais , Brasil , Registros , Rios
9.
Zootaxa ; 4750(3): zootaxa.4750.3.14, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230469

RESUMO

The genus Proceratophrys Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920, frogs from the family Odontophrynidae Lynch, currently contains 41 nominal species with poorly resolved phylogenetic relationships (Frost 2019; Mângia et al. 2018). Molecular data from 15 and 18 Proceratophrys species support the monophyletic hypothesis of the genus (Teixeira-Jr et al. 2012; Dias et al. 2013; respectively) but do not fully resolve the phylogenetic relationship among the species. Currently, there are advertisement call parameters provided for 31 species of Proceratophrys in the literature (Ferreira et al. 2016; Andrade et al. 2018; Mângia et al. 2018; Nascimento et al. 2019). The Proceratophrys advertisement call is composed of pulsed notes, amplitude modulation, short to medium duration calls (0.05-4 s) and only one note in almost all species (see Nascimento et al. 2019 for details). Considering the importance of bioacoustics for taxonomy (Köhler et al. 2017), further descriptions of advertisement calls for the genus could also improve our understanding of the species' relationships.


Assuntos
Anuros , Animais , Brasil , Filogenia , Registros , Vocalização Animal
12.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230049, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168354

RESUMO

Antimicrobial Resistance is a global crisis that veterinarians contribute to through their use of antimicrobials in animals. Antimicrobial stewardship has been shown to be an effective means to reduce antimicrobial resistance in hospital environments. Effective monitoring of antimicrobial usage patterns is an essential part of antimicrobial stewardship and is critical in reducing the development of antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this study is to describe how frequently antimicrobials were used in veterinary consultations and identify the most frequently used antimicrobials. Using VetCompass Australia, Natural Language Processing techniques, and the Australian Strategic Technical Advisory Group's (ASTAG) Rating system to classify the importance of antimicrobials, descriptive analysis was performed on the antimicrobials prescribed in consultations from 137 companion animal veterinary clinics in Australia between 2013 and 2017 (inclusive). Of the 4,400,519 consultations downloaded there were 595,089 consultations where antimicrobials were prescribed to dogs or cats. Antimicrobials were dispensed in 145 of every 1000 canine consultations; and 38 per 1000 consultations involved high importance rated antimicrobials. Similarly with cats, 108 per 1000 consultations had antimicrobials dispensed, and in 47 per 1000 consultations an antimicrobial of high importance rating was administered. The most common antimicrobials given to cats and dogs were cefovecin and amoxycillin clavulanate, respectively. The most common topical antimicrobial and high-rated topical antimicrobial given to dogs and cats was polymyxin B. This study provides a descriptive analysis of the antimicrobial usage patterns in Australia using methods that can be automated to inform antimicrobial use surveillance programs and promote antimicrobial stewardship.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos Veterinários/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Registros , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Inquéritos e Questionários , Envio de Mensagens de Texto
13.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0228561, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130216

RESUMO

Despite more than 250 years of taxonomic research, we still have only a vague idea about the true size and composition of the faunas and floras of the planet. Many biodiversity inventories provide limited insight because they focus on a small taxonomic subsample or a tiny geographic area. Here, we report on the size and composition of the Swedish insect fauna, thought to represent roughly half of the diversity of multicellular life in one of the largest European countries. Our results are based on more than a decade of data from the Swedish Taxonomy Initiative and its massive inventory of the country's insect fauna, the Swedish Malaise Trap Project The fauna is considered one of the best known in the world, but the initiative has nevertheless revealed a surprising amount of hidden diversity: more than 3,000 new species (301 new to science) have been documented so far. Here, we use three independent methods to analyze the true size and composition of the fauna at the family or subfamily level: (1) assessments by experts who have been working on the most poorly known groups in the fauna; (2) estimates based on the proportion of new species discovered in the Malaise trap inventory; and (3) extrapolations based on species abundance and incidence data from the inventory. For the last method, we develop a new estimator, the combined non-parametric estimator, which we show is less sensitive to poor coverage of the species pool than other popular estimators. The three methods converge on similar estimates of the size and composition of the fauna, suggesting that it comprises around 33,000 species. Of those, 8,600 (26%) were unknown at the start of the inventory and 5,000 (15%) still await discovery. We analyze the taxonomic and ecological composition of the estimated fauna, and show that most of the new species belong to Hymenoptera and Diptera groups that are decomposers or parasitoids. Thus, current knowledge of the Swedish insect fauna is strongly biased taxonomically and ecologically, and we show that similar but even stronger biases have distorted our understanding of the fauna in the past. We analyze latitudinal gradients in the size and composition of known European insect faunas and show that several of the patterns contradict the Swedish data, presumably due to similar knowledge biases. Addressing these biases is critical in understanding insect biomes and the ecosystem services they provide. Our results emphasize the need to broaden the taxonomic scope of current insect monitoring efforts, a task that is all the more urgent as recent studies indicate a possible worldwide decline in insect faunas.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Censos , Extinção Biológica , Insetos/classificação , Animais , Dípteros/classificação , Ecossistema , Europa (Continente) , Filogenia , Registros , Suécia
14.
Dental Press J Orthod ; 25(1): 80-88, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215482

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aesthetic analysis of a smile may be facilitated by the use of a template that provides several dental aesthetic references and support for the diagnosis, simplifying it and defining guidelines for the aesthetic planning of orthodontic and integrated treatments. OBJECTIVE: To describe a simple and objective procedure for the evaluation of smile aesthetics using the SmileCurves digital template (SCT), based on the superimposition of intraoral photographic images and close-up views of a smile. CONCLUSION: SCT is a simple and objective tool for the aesthetic analysis of a smile.


Assuntos
Estética Dentária , Dente , Registros , Sorriso
15.
J Appl Meas ; 21(1): 17-37, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129767

RESUMO

AIM: To explore the psychometric properties of the general movements optimality score (GMOS) by examining its dimensionality, rating scale functioning, and item hierarchies using Rasch measurement. METHODS: Secondary data analysis of the GMOS data for video-recording of 383 infants with uni-, multidimensional, and mixed Rasch partial credit models. Videos were scored based on the global General Movement Assessment categories, and on the amplitude, speed, spatial range, proximal and distal rotations, onset and offset, tremulous and cramped components of the upper and lower extremities (21 items), resulting in the GMOS. RESULTS: The GMOS data fits best to a unidimensional mixed Rasch model with three different classes of infants, with all but two items contributing to the infants' separation. Rating scales functioned well for 19 items. Item difficulty hierarchies varied depending on infants' class. No floor effect and no substantive gaps between item difficulty estimates were found. CONCLUSION: The GMOS has strong psychometric properties to distinguish infants with different functional motor performance and provides a quantitative measure of quality of movement. INTERPRETATION: The GMOS can be confidently used to assist with early diagnosis, grade motor performance, and provide a solid base to study individual general movement developmental trajectories.


Assuntos
Movimento , Psicometria , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Registros , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
J Appl Meas ; 21(1): 68-90, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129770

RESUMO

The purpose of the present report was to assess congruence between a language-based national examination (termed English placement test - EPT) and the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) levels. To this end, a series of methodological steps were put forth to accumulate evidence suggesting that language performance based on the EPT instrument can be split onto meaningful subgroups based on theoretical (expert judgement on difficulty level and CEFR correspondence) and empirical considerations (i.e., how well these levels and subgroups emerged). Participants were 2642 high school graduates who took on the EPT instrument as part of their entry criteria to the university and for the purposes of the present study only the structure subscale is presented. Items were classified as reflecting specific CEFR levels and a person-based analysis attempted to classify individuals sharing the same behavioral patterns. Results using a latent class analysis (LCA) indicated that a Pre-A1, an A1 an A2 a B1 and a B2 levels were present with regard to the structure domain of language. Results showed a strong alignment between the EPT structure domain and CEFR guidelines using various methodological approaches.


Assuntos
Idioma , Psicometria , Humanos , Registros
17.
18.
Sr Care Pharm ; 35(2): 68-74, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the 2015 and 2019 AGS Beers Criteria® of potentially inappropriate medications in the elderly.
DATA SOURCES: American Geriatrics Society 2015 and 2019 Updated AGS Beers Criteria® for Potentially Inappropriate Medication (PIM) Use in Older Adults published literature.
STUDY SELECTION/DATA EXTRACTION: The literature was reviewed, compared, and summarized to identify pertinent changes and updates to the AGS Beers Criteria of PIMs in the elderly.
DATA SYNTHESIS: The AGS Beers Criteria® contains a list of potentially inappropriate medications that should be used with caution, avoided, notable drug-drug interactions, and drugs that should be dose-adjusted based on kidney function in the older adult. The updated AGS Beers Criteria® also includes removal of medications that are no longer sold in the United States, have a low usage rate, provide low evidence of harm, and/or the potential harm is not unique to the older adult.
CONCLUSION: The AGS Beers Criteria® is intended to improve and optimize the care of the geriatric population. It serves as a guide to minimize older adults' exposure to PIMs whenever possible. As with previously published updates to the AGS Beers Criteria®, the 2019 update outlines the following: recommendations, rationale, and quality of the recommendations, as well as the strength of the recommendations.


Assuntos
Lista de Medicamentos Potencialmente Inapropriados , Idoso , Interações Medicamentosas , Geriatria , Humanos , Registros , Estados Unidos
19.
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