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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21891, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871919

RESUMO

To analyze the relationship between aortic measures and biometric parameters in a large cohort of consecutive patients undergoing computed tomography coronary angiography.1170 patients (717 men/453 women) performing computed tomography coronary angiography for coronary evaluation were retrospectively evaluated. Aortic diameters and areas were measured at reproducible anatomic landmarks, perpendicular to the axis of vessel, at the level of the aortic root (AoR), the sinotubular junction (STJ), and the tubular ascending aorta (TAo). Biometric parameters and cardiovascular risk factors were recorded.The average values of AoR, STJ, and TAo were 35.63 ±â€Š5.00 mm, 30.56 ±â€Š4.82 mm, 35.07 ±â€Š5.84 mm. Hypertension was significantly associated with aortic dimensions.Aortic measures were significantly different between men and women (37.56 ±â€Š4.77 mm vs 32.58 ±â€Š3.68 mm for AoR, 31.88 ±â€Š4.84 mm vs 28.47 ±â€Š3.98 mm for STJ and 35.93 ±â€Š5.86 mm vs 33.70 ±â€Š5.54 mm for TAo) (P < .001) and linearly increased with age. Low Spearman correlation coefficients were found and the correlation of TAo diameters with age displayed the highest values (ρ = 0.372 for male and ρ = 0.373 for female, P < .001). Multiple linear regression analysis models were compared by R. The best model used body surface area (BSA) and age as independent variables and TAo diameter as dependent variable (R = 0.29 for AoR; R = 0.21 for STJ, and R = 0.20 for TAo).In conclusion, in our population low correlation between aortic dimensions and biometric parameters highlights the difficulty of identifying normal ranges, as well as issues related to normalization using conventional biometric parameters.


Assuntos
Aorta/anatomia & histologia , Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Biometria , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Angiografia Coronária , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Superfície Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
2.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(1): 315, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recognition is an essential function of human beings. Humans easily recognize a person using various inputs such as voice, face, or gesture. In this study, we mainly focus on DL model with multi-modality which has many benefits including noise reduction. We used ResNet-50 for extracting features from dataset with 2D data. RESULTS: This study proposes a novel multimodal and multitask model, which can both identify human ID and classify the gender in single step. At the feature level, the extracted features are concatenated as the input for the identification module. Additionally, in our model design, we can change the number of modalities used in a single model. To demonstrate our model, we generate 58 virtual subjects with public ECG, face and fingerprint dataset. Through the test with noisy input, using multimodal is more robust and better than using single modality. CONCLUSIONS: This paper presents an end-to-end approach for multimodal and multitask learning. The proposed model shows robustness on the spoof attack, which can be significant for bio-authentication device. Through results in this study, we suggest a new perspective for human identification task, which performs better than in previous approaches.


Assuntos
Biometria , Aprendizado Profundo , Algoritmos , Eletrocardiografia , Humanos
3.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235398, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726348

RESUMO

A huge amount of atomized biological data collected in various databases and the need for a description of their relation by theoretical methods causes the development of data integration methods. The omics data analysis by integration of biological knowledge with mathematical procedures implemented in the OmicsON R library is presented in the paper. OmicsON is a tool for the integration of two sets of data: transcriptomics and metabolomics. In the workflow of the library, the functional grouping and statistical analysis are applied. Subgroups among the transcriptomic and metabolomics sets are created based on the biological knowledge stored in Reactome and String databases. It gives the possibility to analyze such sets of data by multivariate statistical procedures like Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) or Partial Least Squares (PLS). The integration of metabolomic and transcriptomic data based on the methodology contained in OmicsON helps to easily obtain information on the connection of data from two different sets. This information can significantly help in assessing the relationship between gene expression and metabolite concentrations, which in turn facilitates the biological interpretation of the analyzed process.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/tendências , Metabolômica , Software , Transcriptoma/genética , Biometria , Bases de Dados Factuais , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Proteômica
4.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 31(4): 284-287, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487810

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Intraocular lens (IOL) calculations in patients with keratoconus and other keratoectatic disorders continues to be a challenge for today's cataract surgeon. In this article, we review data published over the past 18 months (June 2018 to January 2020). RECENT FINDINGS: Cataract surgery in keratoconus patients has the potential to greatly improve patients' vision. However, keratoconic eyes are notorious for unpredictable outcomes because of difficulty in obtaining proper preoperative biometry and lack of data and consensus on IOL calculation formulas that can reliable in providing the desired outcome. Recent studies suggest the Barrett II Universal calculation is the most accurate in mild-to-moderate keratoconic eyes. All studies note the level of predictability decreases with the steepness of keratometric readings. Historically, the SRK/T has been shown to provide the most reliable calculations. SUMMARY: There is still no consensus on which formula is best for IOL calculation in keratoconic eyes. On the basis of the most recent literature, we recommend using the Barrett II Universal in conjunction with the SRK/T formula for mild-to-moderate eyes. Preoperative counseling of expectations with the patient is the key to achieving a satisfied patient and avoiding an unpleasant situation in the result of refractive surprise.


Assuntos
Biometria/métodos , Extração de Catarata , Ceratocone/complicações , Lentes Intraoculares , Óptica e Fotônica , Humanos , Ceratocone/fisiopatologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
5.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 31(4): 253-260, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487811

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The subject of artificial intelligence has recently been responsible for the advancement of many industries including aspects of medicine and many of its subspecialties. Within ophthalmology, artificial intelligence technology has found ways of improving the diagnostic and therapeutic processes in cornea, glaucoma, retina, and cataract surgery. As demands on the modern ophthalmologist grow, artificial intelligence can be utilized to help address increased demands of modern medicine and ophthalmology by adding to the physician's clinical and surgical acumen. The purpose of this review is to highlight the integration of artificial intelligence into ophthalmology in recent years in the areas of cornea, refractive, and cataract surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: Within the realms of cornea, refractive, and cataract surgery, artificial intelligence has played a major role in identifying ways of improving diagnostic detection. In keratoconus, artificial intelligence algorithms may help with the early detection of keratoconus and other ectatic disorders. In cataract surgery, artificial intelligence may help improve the performance of intraocular lens (IOL) calculation formulas. Further, with its potential integration into automated refraction devices, artificial intelligence can help provide an improved framework for IOL formula optimization that is more accurate and customized to a specific cataract surgeon. SUMMARY: The future of artificial intelligence in ophthalmology is a promising prospect. With continued advancement of mathematical and computational algorithms, corneal disease processes can be diagnosed sooner and IOL calculations can be made more accurate.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Extração de Catarata , Doenças da Córnea/diagnóstico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Refrativos , Biometria/métodos , Humanos , Lentes Intraoculares , Óptica e Fotônica
6.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234330, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516331

RESUMO

Presbyopia and myopia research shows a growing interest in ciliary muscle biometry using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Until now, segmentation of the ciliary muscle is often performed manually using either custom-developed programs or image processing software. Here we present a novel software for semi-automatic segmentation of the ciliary muscle. It provides direct import of OCT images in DICOM format, a standardized procedure for segmentation, image distortion correction, the export of anatomical ciliary muscle landmarks, like ciliary muscle apex and scleral spur, as well as a continuous thickness profile of the ciliary muscle as a novel way of analysis. All processing steps are stored as XML files, fostering documentation and reproducibility of research through the possibility of replicating the analysis. Additionally, CilOCT supports batch processing for the automated analysis of large numbers of images and the respective data export to tabulated text files based on the stored XML files. CilOCT was successfully applied in several studies and their results will be summarized in this paper.


Assuntos
Corpo Ciliar/diagnóstico por imagem , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Algoritmos , Biometria/métodos , Humanos , Músculo Liso/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Esclera/diagnóstico por imagem , Software
7.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233080, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530965

RESUMO

In this paper, we produced a new family of distribution called Gull Alpha Power Family of distributions (GAPF). A Special case of GAPF is derived by considering the Weibull distribution as a baseline distribution called Gull Alpha Power Weibull distribution (GAPW). The suitability of the proposed distribution derives from its ability to model both the monotonic and non-monotonic hazard rate functions which are a common practice in survival analysis and reliability engineering. Various statistical properties were derived in addition to their special cases. The unknown parameters of the model are estimated using the maximum likelihood method. Moreover, the usefulness of the proposed distribution is supported by using two real lifetime data sets as well as simulated data.


Assuntos
Biometria/métodos , Teoria da Probabilidade , Distribuições Estatísticas , Algoritmos , Animais , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Modelos Estatísticos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 270: 1215-1216, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570586

RESUMO

Biostatistics is one of the transversal subjects that all future doctors must acquire and master. Nonetheless, it is a subject that has the reputation of being difficult, which has not been able to be corrected even with the application of new pedagogical methods such as blended learning. We address this problem with our acculturative and disruptive approach in the form of a serious game scenario in clinical research that integrates biostatistics with our R4Web adapted tools. Our approach was launched in 2008 for the second year of medical school. Here we describe this LOE scenario for serious game including the biostatistics disruptive acculturation task and present its new international version.


Assuntos
Bioestatística , Jogos de Vídeo , Aculturação , Biometria , Aprendizagem
9.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233920, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497132

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The run chart is one form of statistical process control chart that is particularly useful for detecting persistent shifts in data over time. The Anhøj rules test for shifts by looking for unusually long runs (L) of data points on the same side of the process centre (mean or median) and unusually few crossings (C) of the centre depending on the number of available data points (N). Critical values for C and L have mainly been studied in isolation. But what is really of interest is the joint distribution of C and L, which has so far only been studied using simulated data series. We recently released an R package, crossrun that calculates exact values for the joint probabilities of C and L that allowed us to study the diagnostic properties of the Anhøj rules in detail and to suggest minor adjustments to improve their diagnostic value. METHODS: Based on the crossrun R package we calculated exact values for the joint distribution of C and L for N = 10-100. Furthermore, we developed two functions, bestbox() and cutbox() that automatically seek to adjust the critical values for C and L to balance between sensitivity and specificity requirements. RESULTS: Based on exact values for the joint distribution of C and L for N = 10-100 we present measures of the diagnostic value of the Anhøj rules. The best box and cut box procedures improved the diagnostic value of the Anhøj rules by keeping the specificity and sensitivity close to pre-specified target values. CONCLUSIONS: Based on exact values for the joint distribution of longest run and number of crossings in random data series this study demonstrates that it is possible to obtain better diagnostic properties of run charts by making minor adjustment to the critical values for C and L.


Assuntos
Biometria , Biometria/métodos , Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Probabilidade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 270: 741-745, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570481

RESUMO

Sensors are used in many fields to measure physical phenomena, often on mobile persons. Paraplegia is a disease with a massive impact on the ability to move, so patients show changes in walking behaviour or are even wheelchair users. It is unclear how sensors can be used with paraplegics to generate valid data for research. In the ParaReg project, such data shall be integrated with a medical register. In this paper, we elaborate current approaches for sensor measurements that might serve as an additional data source for ParaReg with the help of a literature review. We queried IEEE Xplore and MEDLINE to find publications that describe the current use of sensors for patients with paraplegia. The retrieved publications were screened for eligibility by two reviewers independently. To ensure reproducibility, we conducted an initial alignment. All publications were assessed based on their abstract. Inclusions were analysed for their major topic, and we proposed categories, which were statistically described afterwards. We retrieved 685 publications in total and included 287 publications in our analysis. The categories we found are: "diagnostic sensor tools for clinical environments", "seating position analysis", "functional electrical stimulation (FES) / neuroprosthesis control", "seating position analysis", "control systems for devices" and "assessment of physical activity". "FES / neuroprosthesis control" shows most publications and the highest publication rate in history, followed by "assessment of physical activity".


Assuntos
Paraplegia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Biometria , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233960, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584812

RESUMO

The causal effect of an exposure on an outcome of interest in an observational study cannot be estimated directly if the confounding variables are not controlled. Many approaches are available for estimating the causal effect of an exposure. In this manuscript, we demonstrate the advantages associated with using inverse probability weighting (IPW) and doubly robust estimation of the odds ratio in terms of reduced bias. IPW approach can be used to adjust for confounding variables and provide unbiased estimates of the exposure's causal effect. For cluster-structured data, as is common in animal populations, inverse conditional probability weighting (ICPW) approach can provide a robust estimation of the causal effect. Doubly robust estimation can provide a robust method even when the specification of the model form is uncertain. In this paper, the usage of IPW, ICPW, and doubly robust approaches are illustrated with a subset of data with complete covariates from the Australian-based National Bovine Respiratory Disease Initiative as well as simulated data. We evaluate the causal effect of prior bovine viral diarrhea exposure on bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle. The results show that the IPW, ICPW and doubly robust approaches would provide a more accurate estimation of the exposure effect than the traditional outcome regression model, and doubly robust approaches are the most preferable overall.


Assuntos
Complexo Respiratório Bovino/epidemiologia , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/epidemiologia , Simulação por Computador , Modelos Estatísticos , Animais , Austrália , Viés , Biometria , Complexo Respiratório Bovino/complicações , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/etiologia , Bovinos , Fatores de Confusão Epidemiológicos , Razão de Chances
12.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 136(3): 100-105, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504484

RESUMO

Approximately 470 thousand cases of cataract surgery with implantation of intraocular lens (IOL) are performed annually in Russia. The distribution of IOL power in the Russian population has not been studied sufficiently, which makes the IOL procurement planning imperfect. PURPOSE: To analyze the distribution of implanted IOL power and optimize the IOL procurement system. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of cataract surgeries performed from 2014 to 2015 in the ophthalmic department of Volga District Medical Centre of the FMBA was conducted. Inclusion criteria: age from 20 to 99 years, no refractive surgery in patient's medical history, primary IOL implantation with an A-constant of 118.4, achievement of planned refraction. The studied parameters were IOL power, gender and age of patients. To assess the effectiveness of the procurement system, we analyzed the number of additional «unplanned¼ purchases and exchanges of IOLs over the course of 5 years (2014-2018). RESULTS: According to the inclusion criteria, 1009 medical records were selected, the age of the patients was 68.7±10.9 years. The distribution of IOL power was similar, but different from the normal, characterized by the mismatch of the median and the mean, left-sided asymmetry and peaked shape. Comparison of 2014 and 2015 samples showed no significant differences and low variability of IOL power. Regression analysis revealed a weak correlation between the IOL power and age and no correlation with gender, a trend was observed for IOL power to increase in patients after 50 years. The use of a procurement planning system based on a mathematical model of the IOL power distribution allows reduction of the additional purchases and exchanges of IOLs with the supplier from 5-7% to 1-2% of the total purchases. CONCLUSION: The specific features of the IOL power distribution are related to the distribution of biometry parameters in the population. The use of a scientifically based procurement system reduces staff time and laboring costs, releasing economical and time resources.


Assuntos
Implante de Lente Intraocular , Lentes Intraoculares , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biometria , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óptica e Fotônica , Refração Ocular , Estudos Retrospectivos , Federação Russa , Adulto Jovem
13.
Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol ; 27(1): 22-27, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549720

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The present study aimed to compare lower eyelid retraction (LER) in individuals with a positive orbital vector with that of individuals with a negative orbital vector. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 123 normal individuals including 64 men and 59 women aged 20-80 years. After the individuals underwent Hertel exophthalmometry, two side-view and front-view photos were taken using a camera. The orbital vector angle and the extent of scleral show were then measured in millimeter, using the Photoshop software. Eventually, the recorded data were analyzed through statistical software. RESULTS: The findings of this study showed that LER has a significant correlation with orbital vector angle and the extent of proptosis (P < 0.05). The mean value of orbital vector angle in individuals without LER was 9.76°, while this figure was calculated to be - 13.65° in individuals with LER. The mean protrusion value based on Hertel exophthalmometry was 14.08 mm in individuals without LER and 16.27 mm in individuals with LER. The extent of scleral show had a significant correlation with proptosis and orbital vector angle (P = 0.01), with a mean value of - 0.41 mm in individuals without LER and 0.94 mm in participants with LER. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of LER and scleral show is positively correlated with the extent of proptosis and negatively correlated with orbital vector angle.


Assuntos
Exoftalmia/diagnóstico , Doenças Palpebrais/diagnóstico , Órbita/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biometria , Estudos Transversais , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Oftalmológico/instrumentação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 136(2): 38-43, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366068

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To test a prediction algorithm for deflection of the optical part of IOL after uncomplicated phacoemulsification. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 226 patients (287 eyes) who underwent phacoemulsification with implantation of intracapsular AcrySof IOL. Preoperative examination included IOLMaster, Lenstar LS 900 biometry and Pentacam HR keratotopography. All measurement were repeated one month postoperatively. To determine the tilt and deflection of the IOL's optical part, anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed on Topcon 3DOCT-2000. RESULTS: OCT data analysis helps identify the slope and deflection of the IOL's optical part relative to the pupil plane. In the previous study we built logistic regression models for predicting the deflection of the IOL's optical part with high predictive quality based on the calculated IOL power and preoperative biometry measurements. When checked with new patient data, the areas under the ROC curves have changed slightly. Large area under the ROC curves with small deviation rates, as well as retention of the level of true positive responses with little increase in false negative responses verify the high quality of the models. CONCLUSION: Logistic regression models based on the optical power of the implanted IOL, as well as on a combination of preoperative biometry data from IOLMaster and Lenstar LS 900, make it possible to predict the probability of deflection of the optical part of IOL with high reliability and promptly correct the IOL power.


Assuntos
Lentes Intraoculares , Facoemulsificação , Algoritmos , Biometria , Humanos , Óptica e Fotônica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
16.
Expert Rev Med Devices ; 17(6): 591-597, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32425075

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the repeatability of ocular biometric parameters using a high-resolution imaging device. METHODS: 74 healthy right eyes were included in this study. Five-repeated measurements were taken with ANTERION high-resolution swept-source optical coherence tomographer (SS-OCT) to measure: corneal thickness (central and at 2, 4 and 6-mm diameters), aqueous depth (AD), lens thickness (LT), anterior chamber volume (ACV), axial length (AL), and pupil (diameter and position). The intrasubject standard deviation (Sw), coefficient of repeatability (CoR) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated. Bland-Altman method was applied to analyze the difference between the first and the last measurement. The average and the difference between both measurements were calculated for all parameters. RESULTS: We have not found statistically significant differences between repeated measurements (p > 0.05). The mean difference for corneal thickness was between -0.08 and 0.28 µm. For AD and LT was 0.004 and -0.004 µm, respectively. ACV mean difference was -0.03 mm3 and for AL was 0.001 mm. Pupil diameter and position mean differences ranged between -0.008 and 0.009 mm. Overall, most ocular parameters had a Sw <1 and a CoR <2 in their respective units, and an ICC >0.92. CONCLUSIONS: The ANTERION high-resolution SS-OCT device provides good repeatability for different ocular biometric measurements.


Assuntos
Biometria/instrumentação , Olho/anatomia & histologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/instrumentação , Adulto , Idoso , Câmara Anterior/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Humanos , Cristalino/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pupila/fisiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232822, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392233

RESUMO

Populations often show complex spatial and temporal dynamics, creating challenges in designing and implementing effective surveys. Inappropriate sampling designs can potentially lead to both under-sampling (reducing precision) and over-sampling (through the extensive and potentially expensive sampling of correlated metrics). These issues can be difficult to identify and avoid in sample surveys of fish populations as they tend to be costly and comprised of multiple levels of sampling. Population estimates are therefore affected by each level of sampling as well as the pathway taken to analyze such data. Though simulations are a useful tool for exploring the efficacy of specific sampling strategies and statistical methods, there are a limited number of tools that facilitate the simulation testing of a range of sampling and analytical pathways for multi-stage survey data. Here we introduce the R package SimSurvey, which has been designed to simplify the process of simulating surveys of age-structured and spatially-distributed populations. The package allows the user to simulate age-structured populations that vary in space and time and explore the efficacy of a range of built-in or user-defined sampling protocols to reproduce the population parameters of the known population. SimSurvey also includes a function for estimating the stratified mean and variance of the population from the simulated survey data. We demonstrate the use of this package using a case study and show that it can reveal unexpected sources of bias and be used to explore design-based solutions to such problems. In summary, SimSurvey can serve as a convenient, accessible and flexible platform for simulating a wide range of sampling strategies for fish stocks and other populations that show complex structuring. Various statistical approaches can then be applied to the results to test the efficacy of different analytical approaches.


Assuntos
Biometria/métodos , Modelos Estatísticos , População , Animais , Viés , Simulação por Computador , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232815, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392235

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the expected life expectancy in patients with diabetes in Bulgaria and to compare it to the expected life expectancy of the non-diabetic population in the country. METHODS: It is a retrospective observational population study on individuals diagnosed with diabetes, compared to the non-diabetic population in Bulgaria for the period 2012-2015. Data from the national diabetes register and national statistical institute were used to construct life-tables with probability of survival with t-test and Chi Square test. Confounder analysis was done by age, sex, and type of diabetes. All-cause mortality and deaths in diabetic patients were analyzed. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed for each age group and a log-rank analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Average life expectancy in the non-diabetic population, patients with Type 1 DM and with Type 2 DM is 74.8; 70.96 and 75.19 years, respectively. For 2012-2015 the mortality in the non-diabetic population remained constant and lower (average-1.48%) compared to type-1 DM (5.25%) and Type-2 (4.27%). Relative risk of death in diabetics was higher overall (12%), after the age of 70 before which the relative risk was higher for the non-diabetic population. This was observed as a trend in all analyzed years. CONCLUSION: Patients with type 2 DM have a longer life-expectancy than patients with type-1 DM and overall Diabetics life expectancy equals that of the non-diabetic population, which could suggest improved disease control and its associated complications in Bulgaria. Male diabetics show slightly longer life expectancy than their counterparts in the non-diabetic population, by a marginal gain of 0.6 years for the entire observed period. Life expectancy in diabetic women increased by 1.3 years, which was not observed in the non-diabetic population. Prevalence of diabetes was higher for women. Improved diabetes control may explain this gain in life; however other studies are needed to confirm this.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Expectativa de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biometria , Bulgária/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Tábuas de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 157(5): 619-630, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354435

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to examine the role of dentofacial morphology in discriminating semi-isolated indigenous groups. These populations present a similar pattern of dietary habits. Studies in human genetics have reported a large intertribal genetic distance and low intratribal variation. METHODS: This study was conducted following the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines. Face dimensions were measured through facial photogrammetry, and dental arches and tooth size were evaluated using plaster models. A total of 98 subjects in the permanent dentition and belonging to 4 indigenous groups were analyzed: Arara-Iriri (n = 20), Arara-Laranjal (n = 33), Assurini (n = 25), and Xicrin-Kayapó (n = 20). The random and systematic errors were verified using the Dahlberg formula and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), respectively. In order to evaluate the discrimination of the variables to identify the indigenous groups, a discriminant analysis was performed (P <0.05). RESULTS: A small causal error (Dahlberg, 0.13-1.81) and excellent replicability (ICC, 0.75-0.99) for face dimensions as well as for models (Dahlberg, 0.10-0.68; ICC, 0.94-0.99) were observed. The discriminant analysis allowed the identification of 4 populations by facial and dental arch dimensions and tooth size. Dentofacial biometry revealed an accuracy of 98% for females and 100% for males, which confirms a high intragroup homogeneity and considerable intergroup heterogeneity for dentofacial features. CONCLUSIONS: Biometric measurements of the human face added with tooth size and dental arch dimensions are very useful to identify remote indigenous populations with high accuracy. Supported by previous studies in human genetics, these findings reinforce the role of genetic variation in the determination of dentofacial features.


Assuntos
Biometria , Grupos Populacionais , Arco Dental/anatomia & histologia , Face/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos , Masculino , Fotogrametria
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