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1.
Stomatologiia (Mosk) ; 96(4): 20-22, 2017.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28858274

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of toothpaste Parodontax in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. The results showed that fixed orthodontic appliances deteriorated oral hygiene, increased the viscosity of saliva and reduced mineralizing capacity of saliva (MCS). Use of Parodontax toothpaste based on sodium bicarbonate improved OHI-S, reduced the viscosity of saliva, increased MCS and normalized oral microbiota.


Assuntos
Boca/microbiologia , Aparelhos Ortodônticos , Ortodontia Preventiva , Saliva/química , Bicarbonato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Cremes Dentais/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota , Higiene Bucal , Calcificação de Dente , Resultado do Tratamento , Viscosidade , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Egypt Public Health Assoc ; 91(2): 90-4, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27455087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preventing or intercepting a developing malocclusion in a public health program requires identifying or measuring the degree of malocclusion. The present study aimed to quantify the proportion of Syrian children in Damascus who would benefit from preventive and interceptive orthodontic treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 1096 children (431 boys and 665 girls) of grade 1 up to grade 3 from 16 government elementary schools in Damascus city were evaluated using the index for preventive and interceptive orthodontic need (IPION). On the basis of IPION, the overall scores of children were distributed into three groups - no treatment need, moderate treatment need, and definite treatment need. According to dental development, children were divided into two groups - IPION-6 and IPION-9. RESULTS: Of the enrolled children, 15.4% showed no treatment need, 26.7% showed moderate treatment need, and 57.9% showed definite treatment need. Comparison between male and female children indicated no significant effect on the overall treatment need distribution (P=0.439). The IPION groups had a significant effect on treatment distribution (6 vs. 9, P=0.038); the IPION-9 scores were significantly higher than the IPION-6 scores. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: The prevalence of preventive and interceptive orthodontic needs is unsatisfactorily high in Syrian children, which emphasizes the importance of including preventive and interceptive orthodontic treatment in the local dental healthcare program.


Assuntos
Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Má Oclusão/diagnóstico , Má Oclusão/prevenção & controle , Ortodontia Interceptora/estatística & dados numéricos , Ortodontia Preventiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Má Oclusão/epidemiologia , Áreas de Pobreza , Síria
3.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 116(4 Pt 2): 68-75, 2016.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27456724

RESUMO

Based on the results of the comprehensive examination of 120 patients, the necessity of development and introduction of rehabilitation complex of therapeutic and preventive measures with regard to the type and severity of cerebral paralysis and patient's age in practice was shown. The main purpose of treatment and preventive measures was a complete social adaptation of children with spastic forms of cerebral paralysis, which was dependent on the integrity of speech functions. Rehabilitation measures were implemented by single multidisciplinary team with clear functional responsibilities of each member. The study determined the efficacy of treatment, preventive and rehabilitation measures in children with spastic forms of cerebral paralysis. It has been shown that the complex of treatment-and-preventive and rehabilitation measures for children with spastic forms of cerebral paralysis is positive and should be carried out continuously, from the early age to the maximum achievable level of correction of lost functions.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral , Espasticidade Muscular , Ortodontia Preventiva , Criança , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Indian J Med Res ; 144(4): 580-586, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28256467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Fixed orthodontic treatment, an indispensable procedure in orthodontics, necessitates insertion of dental bands. Insertion of band material could also introduce a site of plaque retention. It was hypothesized that band materials with slow-release antimicrobial properties could help in sustained infection control, prevention of dental plaque formation and further associated health risks. Considering the known antimicrobial proprieties of silver, a coating of silver nanoparticle (SNP) onto the stainless steel bands was done and characterized for its beneficial properties in the prevention of plaque accumulation. METHODS: Coatings of SNPs on conventional stainless steel dental bands were prepared using thermal evaporation technology. The coated dental bands were characterized for their physicochemical properties and evaluated for antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility. The physiochemical characterization of band material both coated and uncoated was carried out using scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopyand contact angle test. Biocompatibility tests for coated band material were carried using L929 mouse fibroblast cell culture and MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay. Antimicrobial activity of coated band material against Gram-positive bacteria was tested. RESULTS: A stable and uniform coating of SNPs was obtained. The coated band materials were biocompatible as well as possessed distinct antimicrobial activity. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSIONS: The SNP coated dental bands could be potential antimicrobial dental bands for future clinical use. Further studies need to be done to validate the efficiency of coated band materials in oral environments.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Ortodontia Preventiva/métodos , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/química , Odontologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Camundongos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Prata/química , Prata/uso terapêutico , Espectrometria por Raios X , Aço Inoxidável/química
5.
Clin Oral Investig ; 19(9): 2255-65, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25855466

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A long-term evaluation to assess the transverse dental arch relationships at 9 and 12 years of age in unilateral cleft lip and palate treated with or without infant orthopedics (IO). The hypothesis is that IO has no effect on the transverse dental arch relationship. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective two-arm randomized controlled trial (DUTCHCLEFT) in three academic cleft palate centers (Amsterdam, Nijmegen and Rotterdam, the Netherlands). Fifty-four children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate and no other malformations were enrolled in this evaluation. One group wore passive maxillary plates (IO+) during the first year of life, and the other group did not (IO-). Until the age of 1.5, all other interventions were the same. Hard palate was closed simultaneously with bone grafting according to protocol of all teams. Orthodontic treatment was performed when indicated. The transverse dental arch relationship was assessed on dental casts using the modified Huddart/Bodenham score to measure the maxillary arch constriction at 9 and 12 years of age. RESULTS: No significant differences were found between the IO+ and IO- groups. Differences between the centers increased from 9 to 12 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: Transverse dental arch relationships at 9 and 12 years of age do not differ between children with UCLP treated with or without IO. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: There is no orthodontic need to perform IO as applied in this study in children with UCLP.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial/terapia , Fissura Palatina/terapia , Arco Dental/patologia , Ortodontia Preventiva , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 22(1): 172-7, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25780850

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances requires the application of adhesive systems to enable secure fastening of brackets and retainers to the surface of tooth enamel. The orthodontic bonding systems are similar in terms of chemical composition to dental filling materials, the chemical stability of which is not satisfactory. Particularly alarming is the release of bisphenol A and its derivatives to the external environment, which has been well-documented for materials used in conservative dentistry. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was an in vitro assessment of the release of biologically harmful bisphenol A and its derivatives from orthodontic adhesives available on the European market, as a potential health risk factor for orthodontic patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study assessed levels of BPA, BPA polymers and Bis-GMA resin in eluates of six commonly used orthodontic adhesives: Light Bond, Transbond XT, Resilence, Aspire, GrenGloo and ConTec LC, obtained after one hour, 24 hours, 7 days and 31 days of material sample storage in water. The presence and concentration of the studied chemicals in the obtained solutions were identified using the HPLC method. RESULTS: The highest (p≤0.05) concentration of BPA at 32.10µg/ml was observed in the Resilence material eluates. The highest concentration of poly-bisphenol A was found in solutions obtained after incubation of ConTec LC adhesive at 371.90µg/ml, whereas the highest amount of Bis-GMA resin (425.07µg/ml) was present in Aspire material eluates. CONCLUSIONS: 1) In conditions of the current experiment it was demonstrated that most of the assessed orthodontic adhesive resins available on the European market and released into the outside environment - biologically harmful bisphenol A or its derivatives, posing a potential threat to the patients' health. 2) Release of BPA and its derivatives into aqueous solutions is the highest in the early stages of sample incubation.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Cimentos Dentários/química , Ortodontia Corretiva/efeitos adversos , Ortodontia Preventiva/efeitos adversos , Fenóis/análise , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Cien Saude Colet ; 19(2): 449-60, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24863821

RESUMO

The scope of this exploratory study was to understand the viewpoint of the dental surgeons of the Primary Health Care (PHC) network in Florianópolis regarding the need, feasibility and interest in broadening preventive orthodontic services and in the implementation of interceptive orthodontics. A structured questionnaire was used to establish the viewpoint of all the primary care dental surgeons who perform clinical care in the network. The results indicate that: the majority are in favor provided that there is an appropriate structure to attend the needs of the population; the professionals consider themselves unqualified to perform the requisite procedures, so training would be necessary; there would be no need to deploy other orthodontic procedures in primary care than those analyzed; and the main difficulties that might be encountered were related to excess demand and the lack of human resources. Despite these obstacles, the majority of the professionals consider it positive and feasible to introduce this service, which could increase the comprehensiveness of health care and bolster primary care, thereby improving the health of the population.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Assistência à Saúde , Dentística Operatória , Ortodontia Interceptora , Ortodontia Preventiva , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração
10.
Int J Orthod Milwaukee ; 25(4): 45-50, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25745710

RESUMO

The contemporary orthodontics should highlight the periodical control of growth and dental development in order to intercept possible disorders in facial growth and tooth eruption. This may allow avoidance or simplification of corrective orthodontic treatment, making it faster and less aggressive. Tooth transposition, a genetically determined eruptive disturbance, presents a relatively low prevalence in the world population and primarily affects maxillary canines and premolars. This paper presents an option for interceptive treatment of bilateral transposition of maxillary canine and premolar diagnosed early in a young individual. Longitudinal follow-up of RME performed in adequate timing to redirect the eruption pathway of permanent maxillary canines is presented.


Assuntos
Dente Pré-Molar/patologia , Dente Canino/patologia , Ortodontia Preventiva/métodos , Erupção Ectópica de Dente/prevenção & controle , Dente Pré-Molar/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Dente Canino/diagnóstico por imagem , Dentição Mista , Diagnóstico Precoce , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Maxila/diagnóstico por imagem , Maxila/patologia , Ortodontia Interceptora/métodos , Técnica de Expansão Palatina , Radiografia Interproximal , Radiografia Panorâmica , Tomografia por Raios X , Erupção Dentária/fisiologia , Dente não Erupcionado/diagnóstico por imagem
12.
Rural Remote Health ; 12: 2069, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22834709

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Of children aged 0-17 years in the USA, an estimated 11 203 616 (15.1%; 95% CI: 14.8, 15.3) are Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN). The state of West Virginia, the heart of Appalachia, has a land mass which is 97.65% rural with previously identified high overall dental need and oral health disparities. It is home to an estimated 70 609 CSHCN, or 18.5% (95% CI: 17.0, 19.9) of the state's children in 2009-2010. The purpose of this study was to determine the parent/guardian's perceived unmet dental care need of CSHCN in West Virginia. METHODS: Data from the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs was used to determine prevalence. A telephone survey of 59 941 parents/guardians of CSHCN (1149 from West Virginia) for the dental interview was conducted in 2009-2010. RESULTS: Nationwide, 26.7% (25.9, 27.5) of parents/guardians reported their CSHCN had dental care or orthodontia needs other than preventive care. In West Virginia, the perceived dental care or orthodontia needs other than preventive dental care need was 26.5% (22.2, 30.0). Unmet national dental care need other than preventive dental care was 5.4% (5.0, 5.9) and in West Virginia 5.0% (2.4, 7.5). CONCLUSIONS: CSHCN have significant unmet dental needs. Parents/guardians in West Virginia reported similar unmet need compared with national reporting. Policies to address the health care of CSHCN should include dental needs. The clinical implications are that CSHCN have a variety of needs, including orthodontia. The benefits of orthodontic referrals should be considered in treatment planning options for CSHCN.


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica para Crianças , Crianças com Deficiência , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/normas , Ortodontia Preventiva , Pais/psicologia , Adolescente , Região dos Apalaches , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Índice CPO , Assistência Odontológica para Crianças/psicologia , Inquéritos de Saúde Bucal , Crianças com Deficiência/psicologia , Crianças com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Entrevistas como Assunto , Tutores Legais/psicologia , Masculino , Ortodontia Preventiva/psicologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Percepção Social , West Virginia
13.
Fogorv Sz ; 105(4): 161-5, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23387131

RESUMO

Our study is aimed to focus on severe hypodontia, the absence of multiple teeth in permanent dentition. Examining the variation of the number of teeth agenesis of permanent teeth is relatively common but real oligodontia is rarely encountered during our daily work. At a number of patients recently attending the Pedodontics and Orthodontics Department of the Dental Faculty of Semmelweis University oligodontia, the absence of at least six or more permanent teeth was found. Examining the aetiology of oligodontia it can be determined that both endogen and exogenous environmental factors may contribute to the cause of the anomaly. In its pathology genetics is considered as the dominant factor what is also proved by familiar inheritance aggregation however it is hard to determine the aetiology in most cases. Severe oligodontia most often is part of certain syndromes. The anomaly causes not only aesthetical and functional problems but also may lead to several complications so early recognition and referral is considered essential. Therapy often involves multidisciplinary approach with individual assessment and planning. We would like to present the possibilities of orthodontic pre-treatment for prosthetic and implant replacement through our cases.


Assuntos
Anodontia/patologia , Anodontia/terapia , Dentição Permanente , Mandíbula/anormalidades , Maxila/anormalidades , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Aparelhos Ortodônticos , Ortodontia Preventiva , Radiografia Panorâmica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Mantenedor de Espaço em Ortodontia
14.
Angle Orthod ; 82(1): 3-7, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21787198

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the null hypothesis that there is no difference in mandibular growth between growing rats with posterior functional mandibular displacement and growing rats without functional mandibular displacement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty female Wistar rats (5 weeks old) were randomized into two groups: (1) control and (2) mandible posterior displacement in the occluded condition induced by an occlusal guiding appliance. After 8 weeks all animals were sacrificed, cone beam computed tomography scan images of the heads were taken using the classic I-CAT, and acrylic rapid-prototyped templates of the mandibles were constructed. Mandibular length, ramus height, and intercondylar distance were measured. Mandibular length and ramus height were submitted to the two-way analysis of variance, while intercondylar distance was analyzed by nonpaired Student's t-test. RESULTS: Mandibular length was bigger (P < .0001) in the control than in the experimental group, but no significant difference was found between the left and right sides (P  =  .9380). No significant differences were observed for ramus height and intercondylar distance. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrated that functional posterior displacement of the mandible in growing rats resulted in shorter mandibular length.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão/fisiopatologia , Mandíbula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Maxilofacial/fisiologia , Articulação Temporomandibular/fisiopatologia , Animais , Cefalometria , Feminino , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Placas Oclusais , Tamanho do Órgão , Ortodontia Preventiva , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Estresse Mecânico , Articulação Temporomandibular/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
15.
Refuat Hapeh Vehashinayim (1993) ; 28(2): 8-18, 72, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21848027

RESUMO

hree orthodontic procedures are described that are used to prevent, intercept, and correct malocclusions at three distinct stages of dental development. Each stage of development (5 to 7 years, 8 to 12 years, and 12 years through adulthood) uses an appliance selected from a series of several preformed sizes. All have predicted socket dimensions to receive unerupted, erupting or fully erupted teeth. These sockets are prearranged in a perfect Class I occlusion. In the first group of appliances, specifically designed for the 5 to 7 year-old (called Nite-Guide), one selects a single size that is large enough to accommodate the teeth after they become straight. This appliance is worn passively while sleeping and simply guides the incoming incisors to straighten themselves using only their own force of eruption. Once straight, the adult collagenous fibers form and thereby prevent most future relapse from occurring. At the same time, the incoming incisors are prevented from over-erupting into a deep overbite and the mandible is advanced to correct any excess overjet. Similarly-designed appliances are also used to correct malocclusions in the mixed and adult dentitions. To obtain optimum results at these ages, active wear of about two hours per day is required. The treatment time is very fast (1 to 12 months in most cases) and the same appliance is also used as the retainer of choice. Most malocclusion problems such as crowding, rotations, overbite, overjet and TMD are 80 to 95% corrected in those wearing the appliance as directed.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão/prevenção & controle , Aparelhos Ortodônticos Removíveis , Ortodontia Interceptora/métodos , Ortodontia Preventiva/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desenho de Aparelho Ortodôntico , Ortodontia Interceptora/instrumentação , Ortodontia Preventiva/instrumentação , Sono , Fatores de Tempo , Erupção Dentária
16.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 110(6): 397-400, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21741008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Isolation of teeth with rubber dams is an important procedure for infection control in dentistry, especially in endodontic treatment. This study surveyed the prevalence of rubber dam usage in nonsurgical root canal treatment (RCT) by dentists under the National Health Insurance system in Taiwan. METHODS: A total of 1,332 completed RCT cases were randomly selected from a large database from the Bureau of National Health Insurance in Taiwan in 2004. The radiographs and dental charts of the selected cases were evaluated for the prevalence of rubber dam usage in RCT. The frequencies of rubber dam usage for RCT by dentists were compared between hospitals and private dental clinics and among six different regions in Taiwan. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of rubber dam usage for RCT by dentists under the National Health Insurance system in Taiwan was 16.5%. The frequency of rubber dam usage for RCT by dentists in hospitals (32.8%) was significantly higher than that (10.3%) in private dental clinics (p < 0.0001). However, there was no significant difference in the frequency of rubber dam usage for RCT by dentists among six different geographic regions in Taiwan. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of rubber dam usage for RCT by dentists in Taiwan is relatively low. Because rubber dam isolation of an endodontically-treated tooth can provide better infection control, increase patient protection, and improve treatment efficiency, there is an urgent need to advise dentists in Taiwan to use rubber dams for every RCT case.


Assuntos
Unidade Hospitalar de Odontologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Infecções Dentárias/estatística & dados numéricos , Prática Privada/estatística & dados numéricos , Tratamento do Canal Radicular , Diques de Borracha , Doenças Dentárias/terapia , Cavidade Pulpar/diagnóstico por imagem , Unidade Hospitalar de Odontologia/normas , Humanos , Ortodontia Preventiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Odontológica/normas , Prevalência , Prática Privada/normas , Melhoria de Qualidade , Radiografia , Tratamento do Canal Radicular/instrumentação , Tratamento do Canal Radicular/estatística & dados numéricos , Diques de Borracha/estatística & dados numéricos , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Doenças Dentárias/diagnóstico , Doenças Dentárias/epidemiologia
17.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 141(10): 1202-12, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20884922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients enrolled in Medicaid have limited access to orthodontic services in the United States. No studies are available, to the authors' knowledge, regarding the clinical and psychosocial burdens of malocclusion on these patients from an economic perspective. METHODS: The authors conducted a systematic review of the relevant economic literature. They identified issues from the perspectives of the various stakeholders (dentists, patients and parents, Medicaid programs) and developed a conceptual model for studying decision making focused on the strategy of providing early interceptive and preventive treatment rather than, or in addition to, comprehensive care in the patient's permanent dentition. RESULTS: Medicaid coverage and reimbursement amounts vary nationwide, and decision making associated with obtaining care can be complex. The perspectives of all relevant stakeholders deserve assessment. A conceptual framework of the cost-effectiveness of interceptive orthodontic treatment compared with comprehensive treatment illustrates the issues to be considered when evaluating these strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Policymakers and the dental community should identify creative solutions to addressing low-income families' limited access to orthodontic services and compare them from various perspectives with regard to their relative cost-effectiveness. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Dentists should be aware of the multiple problems faced by low-income families in obtaining orthodontic services and the impact of stakeholder issues on access to care; they also should be proactive in helping low-income patients obtain needed orthodontic services.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Má Oclusão/economia , Medicaid , Qualidade de Vida , Assistência Odontológica Integral/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Má Oclusão/psicologia , Medicaid/economia , Ortodontia Corretiva/economia , Ortodontia Interceptora/economia , Ortodontia Preventiva/economia , Estados Unidos
19.
Todays FDA ; 22(2): 43-7, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20443530

RESUMO

Dentists need to play a bigger role in managing airway development and craniofacial formation even though the relationship between the airway, breathing and malocclusion remains quite controversial. Certainly the airway, the mode of breathing and craniofacial formation are so interrelated during growth and development that form can follow function and function can follow form. So, it is imperative to normalize form and function as early as possible so that function is optimized for life.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão/prevenção & controle , Ortodontia Preventiva , Respiração , Sistema Respiratório/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/complicações , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Resistência das Vias Respiratórias/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Precoce , Ossos Faciais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Má Oclusão/diagnóstico , Desenvolvimento Maxilofacial/fisiologia , Respiração Bucal/complicações , Respiração Bucal/prevenção & controle , Óxido Nítrico/fisiologia , Nariz/fisiologia
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