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2.
S Afr Med J ; 110(2): 145-153, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The intersection of violence exposure and mental health problems is a public health crisis for South African (SA) adolescents. Understanding the impact of community violence on adolescent mental health can inform future interventions. OBJECTIVES: To assess pathways between community violence exposure and internalising and externalising problems in SA adolescents receiving mental healthcare, and the roles of parent and peer relationships in these associations. METHODS: Participants (N=120 parent-adolescent pairs) were recruited from four mental health clinics in Western Cape Province to participate in a pilot test of a family-based HIV prevention study. Adolescents reported on their exposure to community violence, parental attachment, peer support of risk behaviour, and mental health. Parents reported on adolescents' internalising and externalising mental health problems. Participants received transport money (ZAR30 = USD3) and a shopping voucher or cash (ZAR50 = USD5) for their time. RESULTS: Adolescents were 12 - 18 years old (mean (standard deviation) 14.39 (1.82) years), 53% were male, and 67% and 33% reported black African and mixed-race ethnicity, respectively. Parents were 94% female and reported an average monthly income of ZAR3 973 (USD397). Boys reported significantly higher rates of witnessing community violence than girls. Among boys, significant paths emerged from community violence and low parent attachment to externalising symptoms and from community violence to peer support of risky behaviour. For girls, the only significant path was from low parent attachment to peer support of risky behaviour. CONCLUSIONS: This cross-sectional study sheds new light on the possible pathways from witnessing community violence to mental health problems among SA adolescents. Identifying factors that drive and mitigate psychological distress in the context of persistent community violence is critical to SA's future and can inform the selection and delivery of appropriate and targeted evidence-based interventions.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Violência/psicologia , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Projetos Piloto , Assunção de Riscos , Fatores Sexuais , África do Sul
3.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560550

RESUMO

Confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemic can influence dietary profiles, especially those of adolescents, who are highly susceptible to acquiring bad eating habits. Adolescents' poor dietary habits increase their subsequent risk of degenerative diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular pathologies, etc. Our aim was to study nutritional modifications during COVID-19 confinement in adolescents aged 10 to 19 years, compare them with their usual diet and dietary guidelines, and identify variables that may have influenced changes. Data were collected by an anonymous online questionnaire on food intake among 820 adolescents from Spain, Italy, Brazil, Colombia, and Chile. The results show that COVID-19 confinement did influence their dietary habits. In particular, we recorded modified consumption of fried food, sweet food, legumes, vegetables, and fruits. Moreover, gender, family members at home, watching TV during mealtime, country of residence, and maternal education were diversely correlated with adequate nutrition during COVID-19 confinement. Understanding the adolescents' nutrition behavior during COVID-19 lockdown will help public health authorities reshape future policies on their nutritional recommendations, in preparation for future pandemics.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus , Brasil/epidemiologia , Chile/epidemiologia , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Dieta/psicologia , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Sedentário , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(2-3): 117-131, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early puberty is associated with higher than average risk of antisocial behaviour, both in girls and boys. Most studies of such association, however, have focused on psychosocial mediating and moderating factors. Few refer to coterminous hormonal measures. AIM: The aim of this review is to consider the role of hormonal markers as potential mediating or moderating factors between puberty timing and antisocial behaviour. METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted searching Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, Psycinfo, Cochrane and Google Scholar. RESULTS: Just eight studies were found to fit criteria, all cross-sectional. Measurements were too heterogeneous to allow meta-analysis. The most consistent associations found were between adrenal hormones-both androgens and cortisol-which were associated with early adrenarche and antisocial behaviours in girls and later adrenarche and antisocial behaviour in boys. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from our review suggest that longitudinal studies to test bidirectional hormone-behaviour associations with early or late puberty would be worthwhile. In view of the interactive processes between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes, integrated consideration of the hormonal end products is recommended.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Adrenarca/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/etiologia , Hormônios/sangue , Menarca/fisiologia , Puberdade/fisiologia , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Adrenarca/fisiologia , Androgênios , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/metabolismo , Criança , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Gonadotropinas Hipofisárias/sangue , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 59, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491109

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To identify and evaluate the effects of community-based interventions on the sedentary behavior (SB) of Latin American children and adolescents. METHODS A systematic review on community-based trials to reduce and/or control SB in Latin American countries (Prospero: CRD42017072157). Five databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO and Lilacs) and a reference lists were searched. RESULTS Ten intervention studies met the eligibility criteria and composed the descriptive synthesis. These studies were conducted in Brazil (n=5), Mexico (n=3), Ecuador (n=1) and Colombia (n=1). Most interventions were implemented in schools (n=8) by educational components, such as meetings, lessons, and seminars, on health-related subjects (n=6). Only two studies adopted specific strategies to reduce/control SB; others focused on increasing physical activity and/or improving diet. Only one study used an accelerometer to measure SB. Seven studies investigated recreational screen time. Eight studies showed statistically significant effects on SB reduction (80%). CONCLUSIONS Latin America community-based interventions reduced children and adolescents' SB. Further studies should: define SB as a primary outcome and implement strategies to reduce such behaviour; focus in different SBs and settings, other than recreational screen time or at-home sitting time; and use objective tools together with questionnaires to measure sedentary behaviour in.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamento Infantil , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Comportamento Sedentário , Adolescente , Criança , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , América Latina , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Z Psychosom Med Psychother ; 66(2): 193-207, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552592

RESUMO

Is sexual activity during adolescence good for future romantic relationships? Objectives: The study examines the effects of different forms of sexual activity at the age of 16 on sexuality and the quality of romantic relationships at the age of 23. Methods: In a multimodal longitudinal study (diaries, questionnaires), 144 16-year-old adolescents (59.7 % female) reported on their sexual activities and their relationship status. At the age of 23, they reported on their romantic and sexual experiences in the past two years and the quality of their current romantic relationship. Regressions analyzed the predictive power of adolescent predictors for future sexuality and relationship quality. Results: For men and women, frequent non-committed sexual activities at the age of 16 consistently predicted a higher probability of participating in different patterns of non-committed sexual encounters and short relationship duration at the age of 23 years. Adolescents who were more satisfied in their romantic relationships had more stable, longer-lasting partner relationships at young adulthood. Discussion: The special role that non-committed sexual activities compared to sexual activities within a romantic relationship play in future sexual and romantic activities became clear. Parental influences were negligible.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Características da Família , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Poder Familiar , Pais/psicologia , Sexualidade/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Braz Oral Res ; 34: e049, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578759

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate adolescents' aesthetic perceptions and their social judgments regarding different enamel opacities. Sample size was calculated and resulted in the inclusion of 100 adolescents (aged 10 to 15 years) from a public school in Jequié, Bahia, Brazil. Images of enamel opacities were manipulated to create aesthetic enamel defects, such as enamel color changes (unilateral and bilateral white opacity, unilateral and bilateral yellowish opacity, and unilateral and bilateral yellowish opacity with loss of structure). The images of the opacities were based on Fédération Dentaire Internationale's Developmental Defects of Enamel (DDE) Index. Aesthetic perception and social judgments were evaluated using a validated questionnaire with 12 questions (six positive and six negative points) on social aspects, considering the six manipulated images and the control. The photographic analyses were projected one-by-one by computer to adolescents individually in a classroom. Participants had one minute to observe each image and answer the questionnaire. The data were analyzed by descriptions, and the Friedman Wilcoxon test (p < 0.05). The results indicate that all opacities negatively impacted social judgment (p < 0.001). The enamel aesthetic defects most affecting an individual's perception were bilateral yellow opacity with or without loss of structure (p < 0.001). Regarding social judgment, all participants showed a negative perception of all the tested opacity types (p < 0.001). In conclusion, even opacities presenting only a color change caused aesthetic dissatisfaction to the individuals and changes in their social judgment toward others. Color changes in dental enamel have several aesthetic consequences.


Assuntos
Esmalte Dentário , Estética Dentária/psicologia , Julgamento , Percepção Social , Descoloração de Dente/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Braz Oral Res ; 34: e057, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578800

RESUMO

Poor oral hygiene seems to be the norm in children and teenagers with Down Syndrome (DS). Advances in design and types of toothbrushes may improve biofilm control. This randomized, single-blind, crossover clinical trial evaluated the effectiveness of electric toothbrushes regarding mechanical control of biofilm in children and teenagers with DS and their cooperation. Twenty-nine participants with DS, aged 6 to 14 years, used both types of toothbrushes: electric (ET) and manual (MT). The order of use of the different types of toothbrushes was randomly defined, including a 7-day period with each type with 7-day washout period in between. The Turesky-Quigley-Hein biofilm index was used before and after brushing to assess the effectiveness of the technique. Frankl's behavioral scale was used during toothbrushing to assess the participants' cooperation. Paired T-test, Mann Whitney, Chi-square, and Fisher's Exact tests were applied, with a significance level of 5%. The quantity of dental biofilm was significantly reduced after both brushing techniques (p < 0.001). However, no significant difference was found in total biofilm (ET: 0.73 ± 0.36; MT: 0.73 ± 0.34; p = 0.985) or % biofilm reduction (ET: 72.22%; MT: 70.96%; p = 0.762) after brushing between techniques or in % biofilm reduction between toothbrushes of age groups (6 -9 years, p = 0.919; 10-14 years, p = 0.671). Participants showed similar cooperation level with the two types of toothbrush (p = 1.000). The use of electric or manual toothbrush had no effect on the quantity of dental biofilm removed in children and teenagers with DS, nor did it influence their cooperation during the procedure.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Down/fisiopatologia , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Cuidadores , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Estudos Cross-Over , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Encephale ; 46(3S): S99-S106, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32405083

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a multi-organ disease due to an infection with the SARS-CoV2 virus. It has become a pandemic in early 2020. The disease appears less devastating in children and adolescents. However, stress, quarantine and eventually mourning have major impacts on development. It is difficult to describe what this pandemic implies for a child psychiatrist, other than by giving a first-hand account. I propose to go through the main ethical questions that have arisen; to describe how my hospital team has reorganized itself to meet the new demands and questions, in particular by opening a unit dedicated to people with autism and challenging behaviors affected by COVID-19; and to address, in a context of national discussion, how the discipline has sought to understand the conditions of a certain well-being during quarantine. Finally, I will try to conclude with more speculative reflections on re-opening.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria do Adolescente , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Transtorno Autístico/terapia , Betacoronavirus , Psiquiatria Infantil , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Psiquiatria , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Psiquiatria do Adolescente/ética , Transtorno Autístico/complicações , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Psiquiatria Infantil/ética , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/complicações , Infecção Hospitalar/psicologia , Infecção Hospitalar/terapia , Exposição Ambiental , França , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Reestruturação Hospitalar , Unidades Hospitalares/organização & administração , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Serviços de Saúde Mental/ética , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Isolamento de Pacientes/psicologia , Ludoterapia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Prática Profissional/ética , Equipamentos de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia
10.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 44(3): 201-207, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32364653

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors associated with alcohol use in adolescents, with the focus on analysing the comorbidities between single-occasion harmful-drinking episodes with mental health issues and risk behaviours. METHODS: This study used data from the Young Minds Matter survey, designed to inform on the prevalence of the seven most common mental health disorders of children and adolescents. Logistic regression modelling was used to assess the odds of harmful drinking behaviour in young people aged 13-17 years in Australia. RESULTS: We found a strong association between single-occasion harmful drinking and mental health issues, which hold after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Young people with severe mental health issues within the past year were four times more likely to have been drinking at harmful levels in the past 30 days. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol use can have adverse health effects among children and adolescents. Research has found a bidirectional association between alcohol use and mental health conditions where the presence of one issue almost doubles the risk of having the other issue. Implications for public health: The comorbidity between these issues suggests the need for strategies to integrate policies addressing mental health and alcohol use disorders in young people.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Assunção de Riscos , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Ital J Pediatr ; 46(1): 69, 2020 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is an emerging issue that has significant consequences on psycho-social well-being. METHODS: In this regard, a survey was conducted on a large group of adolescents in Italy. The survey investigated four items: concerns and fears, information on the pandemic, provisions of public authorities (e.g., lockdown), and impact on everyday life. RESULTS: Adolescents actively participated in the survey. COVID-19 affected emotions and lifestyle. COVID-19 influenced relationships with peers and parents. There were regional differences. CONCLUSIONS: The current research highlighted the remarkable, healthy, and certainly unexpected, emotional balance of the new generations in the face of a sudden, unpredictable phenomenon capable of jeopardizing life itself. While understanding the gravity of the phenomenon and willingly adapting to all the necessary precautions, the adolescents still seemed to express an excellent ability to manage situations of insecurity and to deal with unfavorable and adverse conditions by adapting to the new routine and finding alternative and innovative means of meeting their social and psychological needs.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Atitude , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Pandemias , Pais/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adolescente , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
J Glob Health ; 10(1): 010423, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32426123

RESUMO

Background: To describe and compare the separate and combined prevalence of physical activity, active transportation, physical education, and sedentary behavior among adolescents 12-15 year-olds in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods: We used the latest data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS), which collect data on the physical behaviors of young adolescents in LMICs. The weighted prevalence and 95% confidence intervals of separate, combined and all of the qualifying physical behaviors were calculated. Pooled overall and regional estimates were calculated using a random effects model. Results: In total, 154 559 young adolescents (45.90% boys) aged 12-15 from 54 countries covered in the GSHS were included in our analysis. Only 0.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.5%-1.0%) of the adolescents, comprising 0.9% (95% CI = 0.6%-1.3%) of the boys and 0.5% (95% CI = 0.3%-0.7%) of the girls, displayed all of the qualifying physical behaviors. The overall prevalence of physical activity, active transportation, physical education, and sedentary behavior was 15.2% (95% CI = 13.7%-16.7%), 39.5% (95% CI = 34.9%-44.0%), 18.8% (95% CI = 16.1%-21.5%), and 34.6% (95% CI = 28.4%-40.7%), respectively. The overall prevalence of high levels of combined physical behaviors was 6.6% (95% CI = 5.4%-7.8%), with lowest in the Eastern Mediterranean region (4.9%, 95% CI = 3.5%-6.2%) and highest in Southeast Asia (8.6%, 95% CI = 4.9%-12.3%). Conclusion: The prevalence of the separate physical behaviors and high levels of the combined physical behaviors was consistently low among young adolescents in LMICs, and that of all qualifying physical behaviors was even lower.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Países em Desenvolvimento , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Saúde Global , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(5): 420-430, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multisystemic therapy is a manualised treatment programme for young people aged 11-17 years who exhibit antisocial behaviour. To our knowledge, the Systemic Therapy for At Risk Teens (START) trial is the first large-scale randomised controlled trial of multisystemic therapy in the UK. Previous findings reported to 18 months after baseline (START-I study) did not indicate superiority of multisystemic therapy compared with management as usual. Here, we report outcomes of the trial to 60 months (START-II study). METHODS: In this pragmatic, randomised, controlled, superiority trial, young people (aged 11-17 years) with moderate-to-severe antisocial behaviour were recruited from social services, youth offending teams, schools, child and adolescent mental health services, and voluntary services across England, UK. Participants were eligible if they had at least three severity criteria indicating past difficulties across several settings and one of five general inclusion criteria for antisocial behaviour. Eligible families were randomly assigned (1:1), using stochastic minimisation and stratifying for treatment centre, sex, age at enrolment, and age at onset of antisocial behaviour, to management as usual or 3-5 months of multisystemic therapy followed by management as usual. Research assistants and investigators were masked to treatment allocation; the participants could not be masked. For this extension study, the primary outcome was the proportion of participants with offences with convictions in each group at 60 months after randomisation. This study is registered with ISRCTN, ISRCTN77132214, and is closed to accrual. FINDINGS: Between Feb 4, 2010, and Sept 1, 2012, 1076 young people and families were assessed for eligibility and 684 were randomly assigned to management as usual (n=342) or multisystemic therapy (n=342). By 60 months' of follow-up, 188 (55%) of 342 people in the multisystemic therapy group had at least one offence with a criminal conviction, compared with 180 (53%) of 341 in the management-as-usual group (odds ratio 1·13, 95% CI 0·82-1·56; p=0·44). INTERPRETATION: The results of the 5-year follow-up show no evidence of longer-term superiority for multisystemic therapy compared with management as usual. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research Health Services and Delivery Research programme.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Comunicação , Transtorno da Conduta/reabilitação , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Terapia Familiar/métodos , Delinquência Juvenil/reabilitação , Poder Familiar , Apoio Social , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Terapia de Controle da Ira , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Criança , Inglaterra , Feminino , Visita Domiciliar , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Rede Social , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Trends Cogn Sci ; 24(8): 585-587, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444200

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in the widespread implementation of social distancing measures. Adhering to social distancing may be particularly challenging for adolescents, for whom interaction with peers is especially important. We argue that young people's capacity to encourage each other to observe social distancing rules should be harnessed.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Infuência dos Pares , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Normas Sociais
16.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(691): 784-788, 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320154

RESUMO

Digital media are central in our modern society and, as such, have an impact not only on teenagers but on most of us. Adolescents are among the most observed and stigmatized in terms of screens use. The encounter between the crucial developmental phase they cross and the neurobiological changes in their brains can be relatively «â€…noisy ¼. Because of the pervasive nature of screens in our daily lives and the potential effect on adolescent health, it is essential for health professionals to offer a systematic assessment of media use when consulting with an adolescent. This article provides practical tools for screening the use of media in consultation with the -adolescent and illustrates with a clinical story what lies behind the screens.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Anamnese/métodos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Tempo de Tela , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Humanos
17.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231180, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275704

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Mental disorders and suicidality among adolescents have been identified as a major public health concern worldwide; however, they often do not get the necessary attention from parents, school and health professional, and therefore are left untreated. This study aimed to investigate the factors associated with the use of mental health services among Australian adolescents aged 13-17 with mental disorders and/or suicidality. METHODS: Adolescents aged 13-17 (n = 2134) from Young Minds Matter (YMM): the Second Australian Child and Adolescent Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing were included in this study. The YMM is a cross-sectional nationwide survey, in which information was collected from both parents and adolescents (aged 13-17 years). Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify the factors that have an impact on the use of mental health services (outcome variable) in two subsamples: (1) adolescents with mental disorder and (2) adolescents with suicidality. RESULTS: Overall, 740 (34.7%) and 168 (7.9%) adolescents reported a mental disorder and/or suicidality, respectively. The incidence of seeking any service was higher among adolescents with suicidality (approximately 50%) compared to those with a mental disorder (about 30%). Girls, older age-group (15-17), adolescents living with disadvantaged families (lower-income, less educated and unemployed parents), those who had multiple mental disorders and history of substance use were most likely to use mental health services regardless of mental disorder and suicidality. Health services and online services were the most popular type of mental health service among adolescents aged 13-17 across two subgroups, while, school and telephone services were less utilized. CONCLUSIONS: Many adolescents with mental disorders and/or suicidality do not use mental health services. The findings indicate differences in factors associated with the use of mental health services among adolescents with mental disorder and suicidality. Further research is needed to address the specific barriers that limit the use of the services.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 31, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236302

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of cigarette use among adolescents and to identify associated health risk behaviors. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with a representative sample, composed of 1059 adolescents between 13 and 19 years old, enrolled in primary and secondary public schools of Olinda, Pernambuco, in 2014. Information was obtained through self-administered questionnaires (validated version of YRBS 2007). Cigarette experimentation was defined as smoking at least once in life. Adolescents who smoked at least one day within 30 days prior to the survey were considered current smokers. Most students were female and 16 years old or older. RESULTS: Almost 30% used it in life and about 10% smoked within the 30 days before the survey. Suicidal ideation (PR = 1.51, 95%CI 1.25-1.82), alcohol use (PR = 1.41, 95%CI 1.03-1.92), marijuana (PR = 1.64, 95%CI 1.37-1.96), excessive alcohol consumption (PR = 1.57, 95%CI 1.15-2.16) and sexual experience (PR = 1.78, 95%CI 1.43-2.21) have increased the risk of using cigarettes. Feelings of sadness (PR = 1.70, 95%CI 1.22-2.36), alcohol use (PR=2.40, 95%CI 1.12-5.12), excessive alcohol consumption (PR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.24-5.38), marijuana (PR = 2.31, 95%CI.57-3.39) and cocaine (PR = 1.99, 95%CI.32-3.01) increased the risk of cigarette use within the 30 days before the survey. CONCLUSIONS: Cigarette use among adolescents from Olinda was high, being considered higher than the national prevalence. Possible factors associated with cigarette use were drug use (alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine) and behaviors related to sexual experience, feelings of sadness and suicidal ideation.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Tristeza , Comportamento Sexual , Fumar/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Ideação Suicida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 476, 2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rapid and widespread development of social networking sites has created a venue for an increase in cyberbullying among adolescents. Protective mechanisms and actions must be considered, such as how proximal family factors can prevent self-harm and suicidal behaviors among adolescents exposed to cyberbullying. The present study examined the associations among cyberbullying, parental attitudes, self-harm, and suicidal behaviors after adjusting for confounding factors. METHODS: Data were obtained from a school-based survey of randomly selected grade 6 students (11 years old) performed in Hue City, Vietnam, in 2018. A total of 648 students were interviewed face-to-face using a structured questionnaire based on the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS). Univariate, multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed at 95% confidence level. RESULTS: After adjusting for gender, perceived academic pressure, unhealthy behaviors, use of Internet devices, school bullying, and family living situation, a significantly higher risk of self-harm was detected among those who had experienced cyberbullying (adjusted odd ratio [AOR] = 2.97; 95% CI, 1.32-6.71). Parental acceptance retained a significant association with self-harm and suicidal behavior (P < 0.05) while parental concentration did not exhibit a significant association in a multivariable logistic regression model. In addition, suicidal ideation and suicidal planning were associated with an interaction effect between cyberbullying and parental concentration (AOR = 0.37; 95% CI, 0.15-0.94 and AOR = 0.23; 95% CI, 0.06-0.87, respectively). CONCLUSION: Cyberbullying has become an important phenomenon associated with self-harm among young adolescents in developing countries, and parental acceptance in proxy of parental attitude was positively related with severe mental health issues among adolescents. Thus, sufficient attention in efforts to promote adolescent health should be focused on family factors in the digital era of developing countries.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Atitude , Cyberbullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Pais/psicologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Ideação Suicida , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vietnã/epidemiologia
20.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 33, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236384

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prevalence of suicidal ideation and its associated factors in school adolescents. METHODS: Cross-sectional school-based study with 674 students from public and private schools in Teresina, Piauí, in 2016. Bivariate analysis was performed with the chi-square test and multiple analysis by the Poisson regression model to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS: The study participants were mostly female (56.7%), black (77.4%), who lived with their parents (85%), whose mothers had schooling greater than or equal to 8 years of schooling (68.8%), with family income greater than a minimum wage (58.3%), practitioners of some religion (86.8%) and coming from public school (64.7%). The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 7.9%. Higher frequency of suicidal ideation was reported among female students (10.2%). Suicidal ideation was statistically associated with students who reported not living with their parents (adjusted PR = 2.27; 95%CI 1.26-4.10; p < 0.05) and those who reported having suffered sexual violence by other students, teachers or school staff (adjusted PR = 3.40; 95%CI 1.80-6.44; p < 0.05), among which the prevalence of suicidal ideation was more than three times that observed among those who did not mention this type of violence. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of suicidal ideation in school adolescents was associated with female students, who did not live with parents and have been victim of sexual violence at school. We recommend advising the school community and health professionals to identify signs of suicidal behavior, especially in those with suspicion or proof of the occurrence of sexual violence at school.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Estudantes/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
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