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1.
PLoS Genet ; 16(7): e1008920, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697780

RESUMO

Neurofibromatosis type 1 is a monogenetic disorder that predisposes individuals to tumor formation and cognitive and behavioral symptoms. The neuronal circuitry and developmental events underlying these neurological symptoms are unknown. To better understand how mutations of the underlying gene (NF1) drive behavioral alterations, we have examined grooming in the Drosophila neurofibromatosis 1 model. Mutations of the fly NF1 ortholog drive excessive grooming, and increased grooming was observed in adults when Nf1 was knocked down during development. Furthermore, intact Nf1 Ras GAP-related domain signaling was required to maintain normal grooming. The requirement for Nf1 was distributed across neuronal circuits, which were additive when targeted in parallel, rather than mapping to discrete microcircuits. Overall, these data suggest that broadly-distributed alterations in neuronal function during development, requiring intact Ras signaling, drive key Nf1-mediated behavioral alterations. Thus, global developmental alterations in brain circuits/systems function may contribute to behavioral phenotypes in neurofibromatosis type 1.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Neurofibromatose 1/genética , Neurônios/metabolismo , Proteínas Ativadoras de ras GTPase/genética , Animais , Cognição/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Embrião não Mamífero , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Asseio Animal/fisiologia , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Neurofibromatose 1/patologia , Neurônios/patologia
2.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234910, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559200

RESUMO

Aging in mammals is the gradual decline of an organism's physical, mental, and physiological capacity. Aging leads to increased risk for disease and eventually to death. Here, we show that Brd2 haploinsufficiency (Brd2+/-) extends lifespan and increases healthspan in C57B6/J mice. In Brd2+/- mice, longevity is increased by 23% (p<0.0001), and, relative to wildtype animals (Brd2+/+), cancer incidence is reduced by 43% (p<0.001). In addition, relative to age-matched wildtype mice, Brd2 heterozygotes show healthier aging including: improved grooming, extended period of fertility, and lack of age-related decline in kidney function and morphology. Our data support a role for haploinsufficiency of Brd2 in promoting healthy aging. We hypothesize that Brd2 affects aging by protecting against the accumulation of molecular and cellular damage. Given the recent advances in the development of BET inhibitors, our research provides impetus to test drugs that target BRD2 as a way to understand and treat/prevent age-related diseases.


Assuntos
Longevidade/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade , Asseio Animal , Haploinsuficiência , Rim/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rim/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2261, 2020 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385304

RESUMO

Prolonged exposure to negative stressors could be harmful if a subject cannot respond appropriately. Strategies evolved to respond to stress, including repetitive displacement behaviours, are important in maintaining behavioural homoeostasis. In rodents, self-grooming is a frequently observed repetitive behaviour believed to contribute to post-stress de-arousal with adaptive value. Here we identified a rat limbic di-synaptic circuit that regulates stress-induced self-grooming with positive affective valence. This circuit links hippocampal ventral subiculum to ventral lateral septum (LSv) and then lateral hypothalamus tuberal nucleus. Optogenetic activation of this circuit triggers delayed but robust excessive grooming with patterns closely resembling those evoked by emotional stress. Consistently, the neural activity of LSv reaches a peak before emotional stress-induced grooming while inhibition of this circuit significantly suppresses grooming triggered by emotional stress. Our results uncover a previously unknown limbic circuitry involved in regulating stress-induced self-grooming and pinpoint a critical role of LSv in this ethologically important behaviour.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Sistema Límbico/fisiopatologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Asseio Animal , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Neurônios/patologia , Optogenética , Probabilidade , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sinapses/patologia
4.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230942, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282851

RESUMO

The structure and dynamics of primate social groups are shaped by the social relationships of its members. These relationships are based on different types of interactions and vary in relation to the identity of the interactants and over time. Social network analysis tools represent a powerful and comprehensive method to characterise social interactions and recent methodological advances now allow the study of the multidimensionality of sociality via multilayer networks that incorporate multiple types of interactions. Here, we use a multidimensional network approach to investigate the multidimensionality of sociality of females in a captive group of mandrills. We constructed two multiplex networks based on agonistic, proximity and grooming interactions of 6-7 mature females to analyse the multidimensionality of relationships within two independent observation periods; and three multiplex networks (one for each interaction type) to examine how relationships changed between periods. Within each period, different individuals were the most central in each layer and at the multiplex level, and different layers (i.e., interaction types) contributed non-redundant information to the multilayer structure. Across periods, relationships based on the same interaction type also contained non-redundant information. These results indicate that female mandrills engage in multidimensional and dynamic relationships, suggesting that in order to represent the full complexity of relationships, networks need to be constructed from more than a single type of interaction and across time. Our results provide evidence for the potential value of the multilayer network approach to characterise the multidimensionality of primate sociality.


Assuntos
Mandrillus/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Asseio Animal/fisiologia , Individualidade , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Estado Civil , Comportamento Social
5.
Neuron ; 106(5): 769-777.e4, 2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199104

RESUMO

Mutations in Shank3 are strongly associated with autism spectrum disorders and neural circuit changes in several brain areas, but the cellular mechanisms that underlie these defects are not understood. Homeostatic forms of plasticity allow central circuits to maintain stable function during experience-dependent development, leading us to ask whether loss of Shank3 might impair homeostatic plasticity and circuit-level compensation to perturbations. We found that Shank3 loss in vitro abolished synaptic scaling and intrinsic homeostatic plasticity, deficits that could be rescued by treatment with lithium. Further, Shank3 knockout severely compromised the in vivo ability of visual cortical circuits to recover from perturbations to sensory drive. Finally, lithium treatment ameliorated a repetitive self-grooming phenotype in Shank3 knockout mice. These findings demonstrate that Shank3 loss severely impairs the ability of central circuits to harness homeostatic mechanisms to compensate for perturbations in drive, which, in turn, may render them more vulnerable to such perturbations.


Assuntos
Homeostase/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Plasticidade Neuronal/genética , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Visual/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antimaníacos/farmacologia , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores/genética , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/antagonistas & inibidores , Asseio Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Lítio/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Vias Neurais , Plasticidade Neuronal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Ratos , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Sódio/farmacologia , Tetrodotoxina/farmacologia , Córtex Visual/citologia , Córtex Visual/metabolismo
6.
J Parasitol ; 106(1): 167-171, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057280

RESUMO

Allopreening occurs when 1 bird preens another bird. The behavior is normally directed at the head and neck of the recipient, i.e., regions that the bird cannot self-preen. Studies of penguins, pigeons, and other groups of birds suggest that allopreening plays a role in the control of ectoparasites, such as ticks and feather lice. However, it is not known whether allopreening increases in response to increases in parasite load, or whether it is a programmed response that occurs independently of parasite load. We conducted a laboratory experiment using wild-caught rock pigeons (Columba livia) to test the relationship between ectoparasite load and allopreening rate. We added feather lice (Columbicola columbae) to captive pigeons and tested for changes in allopreening rates compared to control birds with no lice added. Allopreening rates did not change in response to the addition of lice. Interestingly, however, our data revealed a negative correlation between allopreening and self-preening rates.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Columbidae/fisiologia , Asseio Animal/fisiologia , Iscnóceros/fisiologia , Infestações por Piolhos/veterinária , Carga Parasitária/veterinária , Animais , Doenças das Aves/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Columbidae/parasitologia , Plumas/parasitologia , Feminino , Infestações por Piolhos/parasitologia , Infestações por Piolhos/prevenção & controle , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Biol Lett ; 16(2): 20190869, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097598

RESUMO

Several species mitigate relationships according to their conspecifics' parasite status. Yet, this defence strategy comes with the costs of depriving individuals from valuable social bonds. Animals therefore face a trade-off between the costs of pathogen exposure and the benefits of social relationships. According to the models of social evolution, social bonds are highly kin-biased. However, whether kinship mitigates social avoidance of contagious individuals has never been tested so far. Here, we build on previous research to demonstrate that mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) modulate social avoidance of contagious individuals according to kinship: individuals do not avoid grooming their close maternal kin when contagious (parasitized with oro-faecally transmitted protozoa), although they do for more distant or non-kin. While individuals' parasite status has seldom been considered as a trait impacting social relationships in animals, this study goes a step beyond by showing that kinship balances the effect of health status on social behaviour in a non-human primate.


Assuntos
Parasitos , Animais , Família , Asseio Animal , Primatas , Comportamento Social
8.
Res Vet Sci ; 129: 21-27, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927177

RESUMO

Pediculosis is a parasitic disease that is considered a serious global public health problem. It is caused by the ectoparasite that is popularly known as lice, mainly affecting children in early childhood. The most commonly used treatment to combat this parasitosis is the macrocyclic lactone ivermectin (IVM). However, the use of IVM is contraindicated in children who are younger than 5 years old or who weigh <15 kg because some types of drugs that are used during certain periods of brain maturation can lead to behavioral disorders. The present study evaluated the effects of IVM treatment during the prepubertal and pubertal period on sexual behavior in adulthood in male rats. Genital grooming, preputial separation, sexual behavior, sexual motivation, relative organ weight, the gonadosomatic index, and histopathology were evaluated. Oral dose of 0.2 mg/kg (therapeutic dose) of a commercial IVM formulation was administered. IVM affected genital grooming but did not influence preputial separation in prepubertal rats. Prepubertal IVM administration did not impair sexual behavior in adult rats, with the exception of the time of residence with female rats in the sexual motivation test. It did not affect relative organ weights, with the exception of the relative weight of the full seminal vesicle. It did not alter the gonadosomatic index, and no histopathological alterations were observed in different organs. These results indicate that administration of a therapeutic dose of IVM during the prepubertal and pubertal period does not alter parameters of sexual development or sexual behavior in adult male rats.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Infestações por Piolhos/tratamento farmacológico , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Puberdade/efeitos dos fármacos , Maturidade Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Asseio Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Motivação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Am J Primatol ; 82(1): e23091, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903634

RESUMO

Social relationships play an important role in animal behavior. Bonds with kin provide indirect fitness benefits, and those with nonkin may furnish direct benefits. Adult male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) exhibit social bonds with maternal brothers as well as unrelated adult males, facilitating cooperative behavior, but it is unclear when these bonds develop. Prior studies suggest that social bonds emerge during adolescence. Alternatively, bonds may develop during adulthood when male chimpanzees can gain fitness benefits through alliances used to compete for dominance status. To investigate these possibilities and to determine who formed bonds, we studied the social relationships of adolescent and young adult male chimpanzees (N = 18) at Ngogo in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Adolescent male chimpanzees displayed social bonds with other males, and they did so as often as did young adult males. Adolescent and young adult males frequently joined subgroups with old males. They spent time in proximity to and grooming with old males, although they also did so with their age peers. Controlling for age and age difference, males formed strong association and proximity relationships with their maternal brothers and grooming relationships with their fathers. Grooming bonds between chimpanzee fathers and their adolescent and young adult sons have not been documented before and are unexpected because female chimpanzees mate with multiple males. How fathers recognize their sons and vice versa remains unclear but may be due to familiarity created by relationships earlier in development.


Assuntos
Pai , Pan troglodytes/psicologia , Irmãos , Comportamento Social , Fatores Etários , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Asseio Animal , Masculino , Uganda
10.
Ecol Lett ; 23(3): 565-574, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950595

RESUMO

Coinfections with multiple pathogens can result in complex within-host dynamics affecting virulence and transmission. While multiple infections are intensively studied in solitary hosts, it is so far unresolved how social host interactions interfere with pathogen competition, and if this depends on coinfection diversity. We studied how the collective disease defences of ants - their social immunity - influence pathogen competition in coinfections of same or different fungal pathogen species. Social immunity reduced virulence for all pathogen combinations, but interfered with spore production only in different-species coinfections. Here, it decreased overall pathogen sporulation success while increasing co-sporulation on individual cadavers and maintaining a higher pathogen diversity at the community level. Mathematical modelling revealed that host sanitary care alone can modulate competitive outcomes between pathogens, giving advantage to fast-germinating, thus less grooming-sensitive ones. Host social interactions can hence modulate infection dynamics in coinfected group members, thereby altering pathogen communities at the host level and population level.


Assuntos
Formigas , Metarhizium , Animais , Asseio Animal , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Comportamento Social , Virulência
11.
Oecologia ; 192(3): 723-733, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980936

RESUMO

Avian plumage harbors various pathogens such as feather-degrading bacteria, which have the potential to reduce host fitness. A growing body of evidence suggests that the secretion of the uropygial gland of birds-preen oil-acts as one of the first lines of defence against harmful bacteria. However, previous studies on the antimicrobial impact of preen oil have yielded controversial results. The impact of preen oil on bacterial densities of feathers was experimentally investigated in two passerine species: great tits Parus major and pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca. More specifically, we tested whether the antibacterial effect of the preen oil secreted by the same individual differs from that of the preen oil originating from the gland of other species. In the laboratory, ventral feathers were treated with preen oil from (1) an individual's own gland, (2) from the gland of another passerine species, or (3) from the gland of a phylogenetically distant bird species. We detected a significant antibacterial effect of preen oil on bacteria that were attached to feathers, though the effect did not depend on whether the oil originated from the individual's own gland or from the gland of another bird species. However, treatment with preen oil suppressed the density of bacteria more in the pied flycatcher than in the great tit. This is the first study providing experimental evidence that preen oil represents an important antimicrobial mechanism against those plumage bacteria that are attached to feathers.


Assuntos
Plumas , Passeriformes , Animais , Bactérias , Asseio Animal , Glândulas Sebáceas
12.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226947, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940322

RESUMO

The long-term effects of early life adversities on social capacities have been documented in humans and wild-caught former laboratory chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). However, former pet and entertainment chimpanzees have received little attention to date. This study aimed to investigate the long-term effects of early life experience on 18 former pet and entertainment chimpanzees, based on social grooming data collected at a primate rescue centre over a 12-year period. Moreover, we also focused on the possible short-term effects that alterations to group composition might have on grooming patterns. For this purpose, we compared stable and unstable periods (i.e. where alterations to group composition occurred). We used two individual social network measures to analyse the grooming activity and the distribution of grooming among group mates for each individual. We could show that wild-caught chimpanzees were significantly more selective regarding their grooming partners and spent less time grooming when compared to their captive born companions. We also found that individuals who were predominantly housed without conspecifics during infancy spent less time grooming compared to those who were predominantly housed with conspecifics during infancy. Furthermore, we found that alterations to the group composition had short-term effects on the distribution of social grooming from a more equal distribution during periods with a stable group composition towards a more unequal and selective distribution during unstable periods. Thus, we conclude that the social grooming networks of former pet and entertainment chimpanzees are shaped not only by long-term effects such as early life experience, but also by short-term effects such as alterations to group composition. Remarkably, we found not only captive born chimpanzees but also wild-caught individuals to adjust their grooming to socially challenging situations by modifying their grooming distribution in a similar way.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Pan troglodytes/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Feminino , Asseio Animal , Masculino , Pan troglodytes/psicologia , Animais de Estimação
13.
Behav Processes ; 171: 104022, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866260

RESUMO

In biparental species, each parent represents a semi-independent source of variable caregiving. The nature of care may differ between parents, and the type of care offspring seek is likely to change across development. We asked if caregiving differed between prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) mothers and fathers, and which parent pups prefer over development. We categorized parents as high- or low-contact based on daily recordings of grooming and brooding behavior. Pups were tested for their preferences between parents on postnatal days 10, 14, 18, 22, and 26. We expected individual parents would vary in the amount of care they gave, with pups preferring the parent that gives the most care and/or that most meets their needs at each developmental timepoint. Mothers spent more time in contact with pups than fathers. Mothers were consistent in the amount of care they gave, whereas fathers were variable caregivers. Pups never preferred fathers over mothers, but only demonstrated a preference for mothers before weaning. Lastly, the amount of contact did not influence pup preferences. Our data indicate that mothers are consistent sources of caregiving relative to fathers, and pups show little evidence of attachment to a specific parent beyond meeting its own immediate needs.


Assuntos
Arvicolinae , Comportamento de Escolha , Pai , Comportamento Materno , Mães , Apego ao Objeto , Comportamento Paterno , Animais , Feminino , Pradaria , Asseio Animal , Humanos , Masculino , Desmame
14.
Primates ; 60(6): 487-491, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571101

RESUMO

Hair plucking is observed in many captive primate species and is often characterized as an abnormal behavior. However, this behavior may be both self-directed and social and may have different etiologies. Early research in captive macaques (Macaca mulatta) described the aggressive nature of social hair plucking while more recent observations did not find an association with aggression or grooming, but the behavior was initiated most frequently by individuals with more secure dominance rank. Here, we investigate patterns of social hair plucking in a group of captive bonobos at the Columbus Zoo. We tested the hypothesis that social plucking reflects the dominance hierarchy by examining the association between social plucking and grooming, dominance, and kinship. We collected 128 h of grooming data on 16 captive bonobos using all-occurrence sampling. We ran three Mantel tests between a directed grooming matrix and (1) a plucking matrix, (2) a matrix reflecting dominance, and (3) matrix of relatedness. Grooming and hair plucking were significantly correlated (r = 0.25, p < 0.01), however, there was no association between plucking and dominance (r = - 0.04, p = 0.67), or plucking and relatedness (r = 0.07, p = 0.24). These results support the hypothesis that social plucking in bonobos is a grooming convention and is unrelated to dominance.


Assuntos
Asseio Animal , Pan paniscus/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Ohio , Predomínio Social
15.
Am Nat ; 194(3): 395-404, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553216

RESUMO

Prey species rarely seek out and dismantle traps constructed by their predators. In the current study, we report an instance of targeted trap destruction by an invertebrate and a novel context for rescue behavior. We found that foragers of the granivorous desert ant (Veromessor pergandei) identify and cooperatively dismantle spiderwebs (Araneae: Theridiidae, Steatoda spp., and Asagena sp.) During group foraging, workers ensnared in webs are recovered by sisters, which transport them to the nest and groom away their silk bindings. The presence of an ensnared nestmate and chemical alarm signal significantly increased the probability of web removal and nestmate retrieval. A subset of larger-bodied foragers participated in web removal, and 6.3% became tangled or were captured by spiders. Most animals that perform rescue behavior live in small groups, but V. pergandei colonies include tens of thousands of short-lived workers. To maintain their size, large colonies must collect enough seeds to produce 650 new ants each day. We hypothesize that the removal of spiderwebs allows for an unimpeded income of seeds on a single foraging path during a brief daily temperature window. Despite the cost to individuals, webs are recognized and removed only when workers are captured in them.


Assuntos
Formigas/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal , Comportamento Social , Animais , Arizona , California , Feminino , Asseio Animal , Feromônios , Comportamento Predatório , Aranhas
16.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 10411-10422, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447145

RESUMO

Providing access to forage has been shown to influence feeding behavior and non-nutritive oral behavior in individually housed calves, and these effects may be enhanced or altered in calves reared in social housing. We evaluated the effect of hay provision on the behavioral development and performance of group-housed dairy calves. Holstein calves (n = 32) were group-housed (4 calves per group) at 17 ± 3 (mean ± SD) d of age. All calves were provided milk replacer (8 L/d) via an automated milk feeder and pelleted starter and water ad libitum. Pens were randomly assigned to receive either chopped coastal Bermuda grass in buckets adjacent to the starter trough (starter and hay, STH; n = 4 pens), or no additional feed (starter only, ST; n = 4 pens). Calves were weaned through a 10-d stepdown program beginning at 46 d of age. Intake of solid feed and hay were recorded daily, and body weights were measured weekly. The behavior of 2 focal calves per pen was recorded continuously from video for 12 h on 2 consecutive days during each of wk 4, 6, and 7 of life, to measure solid feed intake time, grooming, and pen-directed sucking. Hay provision influenced total feed intake, with calves provided hay having greater total solid feed intake in the week before weaning (0.79 vs. 0.55 kg/d, STH vs. ST, respectively; SE = 0.19). Average daily gain (ADG) was similar during the pre-weaning period but tended to be greater for STH calves during weaning. Calves in pens provided hay also had fewer unrewarded visits to the milk feeder during weaning (12.5 vs. 21.1 visits per 12 h, STH vs. ST, respectively; SE = 3.59) and performed less pen-directed sucking (9.11 vs. 19.3 min per 12 h, STH vs. ST, respectively; SE = 2.86). Self-grooming time and bout characteristics evolved differently between treatments over time, with pens of calves provided hay having a greater increase in frequency and duration of self-grooming bouts during weaning. Overall, we found that providing hay to pre-weaned calves resulted in behavioral and performance benefits, including greater total feed intake and reductions in pen-directed sucking, suggesting that access to hay may improve calf welfare.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/provisão & distribução , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Bovinos/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Asseio Animal , Abrigo para Animais/classificação , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Registros/veterinária , Gravação em Vídeo , Desmame , Ganho de Peso
17.
Primates ; 60(6): 559-563, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440864

RESUMO

Fur rubbing or anointing is a well known behavior in capuchin monkeys (Cebus and Sapajus), and may have medicinal and/or social functions. Observations of anointing in capuchins have recorded the application of substances derived from both plants (orange, onion, garlic, citronella, and lemongrass) and animals (ants and millipedes). The present study reports on anointing behavior in free-ranging white-headed capuchins, Cebus capucinus, which involved a commercial insect repellent. After looting a bottle of repellent from the bag of a visitor to the Manuel Antonio National Park in Costa Rica, an adult male bit open the bottle and rubbed the leaking liquid over its entire body, focusing mainly on its belly. Other members of the group rubbed themselves against the male's body and were eventually able to retrieve the bottle of repellent and anoint themselves. The repellent is composed mainly of extracts of eucalyptus and citronella. The capuchins may have been attracted by the strong citric scent of the citronella, which is known to stimulate fur-rubbing behavior in these monkeys. This is reinforced by the fact that the sequence of events was quite distinct from that associated with an earlier event, in which a juvenile male looted, tasted, and then discarded a stick of lip gloss and a tube of sunblock. Overall, the observations indicate that the citric scent of the repellent was attractive to the capuchins, especially in comparison with other man-made substances. As the animals partially ingested all the substances, there is clearly a need for more effective regulation of the contact between animals and visitors in the park.


Assuntos
Cebus capucinus/fisiologia , Repelentes de Insetos , Comportamento Social , Animais , Costa Rica , Asseio Animal , Parques Recreativos
18.
Am J Vet Res ; 80(9): 862-867, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449448

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate erythema and number of CFUs on the skin of dogs with hair clipped by use of 2 sizes of clipper blades. ANIMALS: 67 client-owned dogs receiving an epidural. PROCEDURES: Hair was clipped with a No. 10 blade (approx hair length, 1.5 mm) on one half and a No. 40 blade (approx hair length, 0.25 mm) on the other half of each epidural site. Skin was surgically scrubbed with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate and 70% isopropyl alcohol. Samples were obtained immediately after clipping, after skin was scrubbed, and again 24 hours after clipping. Number of CFUs for both sides of the clipped areas, types of microorganisms, and growth on MacConkey agar were evaluated every 24 hours for 72 hours. Colonies were evaluated for bacterial morphology and Gram stain characteristics. Sites were evaluated 24 hours after clipping for evidence of erythema. RESULTS: 24 hours after hair was clipped, there was a significantly higher incidence of erythema and higher number of Micrococcaceae bacteria for the side clipped with the No. 40 blade than the side clipped with the No. 10 blade. Number of CFUs did not differ significantly between size of clipper blades. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Clipping hair with a No. 40 blade resulted in a significant increase in the incidence of erythema and higher number of Micrococcaceae bacteria, compared with results for clipping with a No. 10 blade. These results supported use of a No. 10 clipper blade to prevent erythema and reduce variation in the skin microbiome.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Cães/microbiologia , Asseio Animal , Cabelo/microbiologia , Pele/microbiologia , Animais , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Eritema/etiologia , Eritema/microbiologia , Eritema/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco
19.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 118: 109276, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Paeonia lactiflora (PL) was widely used for pain relief, but its effects on migraine headaches remain unclear. PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of PL on migraine headaches. METHODS: First, we found that PL was frequently used in Taiwan for headache treatment based on data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Migraine was induced through the intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of nitroglycerin (NTG, 10 mg/kg) in rats. Pretreatment with PL was administered orally 30 min prior to the NTG i.p. Migraine headache behavior was observed by video-recordings. Finally, the rats were sacrificed and brain was removed for immunohistochemistry staining analysis. RESULTS: The frequency and total time spent rearing up and sniffing in exploratory behavior, and walking in locomotor behavior, were reduced in the NTG group compared with the control group (all p <  0.001). This reduction could be ameliorated by pretreatment with PL 1.0 g/kg (all p <  0.05). Total time spent in the light chamber was lower in the NTG group compared with the control group (p <  0.05); this could be ameliorated by pretreatment with 1.0 g/kg PL (p <  0.05). The rats in the NTG group spent longer time on the smooth surface than those in the control group (p <  0.001); this could be shortened by pretreatment with 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg PL (both p <  0.01). The traveling distance of rats in the NTG group was shorter than in the control group (p <  0.001); rats given 1.0 g/kg PL had a longer traveling distance than those in the NTG group (p <  0.01). Both c-fos and CGRP immunoreactive cells increased in the TNC in the NTG group compared with that of the control group (both p <  0.001); this increased could be reduced by pretreatment with PL 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg (both p <  0.05). CONCLUSION: Pretreatment with PL ameliorated migraine headache behaviors in the NTG-induced migraine rat model, suggesting pretreatment with PL is beneficial for migraine headache treatment. This effect of PL is related to the decrease of c-fos and CGRP in the TNC. However, still there are too many methodological limitations which need to be overcome in further experiments to support the data.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Paeonia/química , Animais , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/metabolismo , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Reação de Congelamento Cataléptica , Asseio Animal , Hiperalgesia/complicações , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Imobilização , Masculino , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/complicações , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/fisiopatologia , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitroglicerina , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sono , Núcleos do Trigêmeo/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleos do Trigêmeo/patologia , Núcleos do Trigêmeo/fisiopatologia
20.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 284, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Calf stress at weaning and during transition to group pens represents a concern in dairy operations. Favoring natural behaviors, such as grooming, may help on reducing this challenge. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of a mechanical grooming brush on behavior and health of recently weaned calves, after transferring from individual to group housing. Two treatment groups (control [CON, n = 81]; automated brush [AB, n = 81]) were compared enrolling Holstein heifers (94 ± 7 d old) that were monitored for 20 days. Four cohorts, considering one CON and one AB group (19-20 calves/pen/cohort) were enrolled sequentially. Each calf was weighed, clinically evaluated, and affixed with a 3-D accelerometer sensor attached to the ear at enrolment. Continuous measurements (min/h) were generated for the following behaviors: Not-active, active, highly active, eating, and ruminating. Cameras for continuous video recording were installed in each pen, and calves were weighted at the last day of the study (d 20). Behavioral data were summarized as daily averages (min/h). Data was examined using repeated measures analysis for nested factors, with day as the time unit. RESULTS: Overall, calves had their first interaction with the brush within 2.5 days with a mean (SE) of 7 (±9.6) h after being transferred to group pens. A significant effect was determined for the interaction day by treatment on the time spent not-active and eating. Average not-active time was greater in CON compared to AB (22.8 ± 0.82 min/h vs. 21.7 ± 0.82 min/h), while eating time was greater in AB compared with CON (7.01 ± 0.40 min/h vs. 6.43 ± 0.40 min/h). Treatment groups had a similar weight gain and time to the first disease. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the use of a mechanical brush influenced behavior, reducing not-active time, while increasing eating time. The consequences of this change in activity require further investigation.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/instrumentação , Comportamento Animal , Bovinos/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Asseio Animal , Abrigo para Animais , Comportamento Social
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