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1.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 67(7): 452-460, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741876

RESUMO

Objectives Many local governments and elementary and junior high schools in Japan have conducted a "greeting campaign". This has been done in order to activate communication among local residents, and to instill public spirit and sociability in students' minds. However, few studies have explored the significance of greeting campaigns. The present study investigates greeting in neighborhoods and its relationship with students' spontaneous greeting behavior. The study also seeks to understand the quantity of greeting in daily life and its association with a student's community attachment and helping behavior.Methods A self-completion questionnaire survey was conducted with 1,346 students studying in the fourth and higher grades at elementary schools, and 1,357 students in the first and second grade at junior high schools. There were 2,692 valid respondents. We performed the following analyses using the data of elementary school students and junior high school students separately. A partial correlation analysis was conducted wherein gender and grade were introduced as control variables. This analysis tested the correlation between the frequency of being greeted by surrounding people and the frequency of greeting by students, of their own accord. A path analysis that tested the relationship between students' greeting behavior, their attachment to residential areas, and helping behavior was also conducted.Results The results of the partial correlation analysis revealed that there was a positive correlation between the frequency of being greeted by surrounding people and the frequency of greeting by students, of their own accord, regardless of gender and grade. Moreover, the results of the path analysis revealed that the frequency of being greeted was positively associated with community attachment and that the frequency of students' spontaneous greeting behavior was positively associated not only with community attachment but also with helping behavior. The goodness of model fit was high for both the data of elementary school students as well as the data of junior high school students.Conclusion We found that exchanging greetings with surrounding people in daily life enhanced students' attachment to the community. In particular, we showed that students' spontaneous greeting behavior led to their helping behavior, which supports the significance of recommending greeting at home, school, or in the local community. Since there was a correlation between the frequency of being greeted and the frequency of greeting willingly, we consider that actions of surrounding adults become important to help students acquire spontaneous greeting behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamento Infantil , Comportamento de Ajuda , Apego ao Objeto , Características de Residência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Aconselhamento , Humanos , Japão , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(9): 775-787, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal depression has a recurring course that can influence offspring outcomes. Evidence on how to treat maternal depression to improve longer-term maternal outcomes and reduce intergenerational transmission of psychopathology is scarce, particularly for task-shifted, low-intensity, and scalable psychosocial interventions. We evaluated the effects of a peer-delivered, psychosocial intervention on maternal depression and child development at 3 years postnatal. METHODS: 40 village clusters in Pakistan were randomly allocated using a computerised randomisation sequence to receive a group-based, psychosocial intervention and enhanced usual care for 36 months, or enhanced usual care alone. Pregnant women (≥18 years) were screened for moderate or severe symptoms of depression (patient health questionnaire-9 [PHQ-9] score ≥10) and were recruited into the trial (570 participants), and a cohort without depression (PHQ-9 score <10) was also enrolled (584 participants). Including the non-depressed dyads enabled us to determine how much of the excess risk due to maternal depression exposure the intervention could mitigate. Research teams responsible for identifying, obtaining consent, and recruiting trial participants were blind to the allocation status throughout the duration of the study, and principal investigators, site coordinators, statisticians, and members of the trial steering committee were also blinded to the allocation status until the analysis of 6-month data for the intervention. Primary outcomes were maternal depression symptoms and remission (PHQ-9 score <10) and child socioemotional skills (strengths and difficulties questionnaire [SDQ-TD]) at 36-months postnatal. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02658994. FINDINGS: From Oct 15, 2014 to Feb 25, 2016 46 village clusters were assessed for eligibility, of which 40 (including 1910 mothers were enrolled. After exclusions, 288 women were randomly assigned to the enhanced usual care group and 284 to the intervention group, and 1159 women were included in a group without prenatal depression. At 36-months postnatal, complete data were available from 889 mother-child dyads: 206 (72·5%) in the intervention group, 216 (75·3%) in the enhanced usual care group, and 467 (80·0%) women who did not have prenatal-depression. We did not observe significant outcome differences between the intervention group and the enhanced usual care group for the primary outcomes. The standardised mean difference of PHQ-9 total score was -0·13 (95% CI -0·33 to 0·07), relative risk of patient health questionnaire-9 remission was 1·00 (95% CI 0·88 to 1·14), and the SDQ-TD treatment estimate was -0·10 (95% CI -1·39 to 1·19). INTERPRETATION: Reduced symptom severity and high remission rates were seen across both the intervention and enhanced usual care groups, possibly masking any effects of the intervention. A multi-year, psychosocial intervention can be task-shifted via peers but might be susceptible to reductions in fidelity and dosage over time (which were not among the outcomes of this trial). Early intervention efforts might need to rely on multiple models (eg, collaborative care), be of greater intensity, and potentially targeted at mothers who are at high risk for depression to reduce the intergenerational transmission of psychopathology from mothers to children. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Depressão Pós-Parto/terapia , Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Depressão Pós-Parto/diagnóstico , Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Paquistão , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
3.
Pediatr Dent ; 42(4): 252-255, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847664

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this pilot study was to assess whether child life intervention can be an effective alternative to pharmacologic behavior management in uncooperative pediatric dental patients. Methods: Thirty uncooperative four- to eight-year-old patients with no history of a negative invasive dental experience were randomly assigned into two groups: experimental (E) and control (C). Group E was given two 30- minute child life interventions (CLIs) by a certified child life specialist. Group C did not receive CLIs. Both groups then had an invasive restorative dental appointment, which was video recorded, edited, and viewed to assess behavior via the Houpt scale. Results: Group E demonstrated overall better cooperation for the appointment (Group C equals 3.63, and group E equals 4.07.) Conclusions: Child life interventions may be considered an adjunct to other behavior guidance techniques, but further investigations should be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of CLIs on behavior in the dental setting.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico , Agendamento de Consultas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Família , Humanos , Cooperação do Paciente , Projetos Piloto
4.
J Dent Child (Chic) ; 87(2): 98-102, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788003

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate caregivers' perspective on barriers to dental care for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).
Methods: A cross-sectional survey assessing perceived barriers to dental care was administered to 46 caregivers who had a child with ASD (study group) and 37 who had children without ASD (control group) but with chronic health issues.
Results: The barriers most frequently reported in the study group were difficulty finding a dentist who would treat their child (32 percent) and the child's uncooperative behavior (39 percent). A significantly higher number of caregivers of children with ASD agreed that their child was uncooperative and that such behavior was a barrier to finding care (chi-square=15.22, P =0.0001). The number of barriers reported by caregivers of children with ASD was greater than that reported by the other caregivers. Caregivers of children with severe ASD perceived having the most barriers to care.
Conclusion: There are many barriers faced by caregivers in getting dental treatment for their children with ASD. Understanding the difficulty caregivers have in securing dental care for their children with ASD may help dentists and agencies work to improve access.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Assistência Odontológica para Crianças , Cuidadores , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Estudos Transversais , Humanos
5.
Pediatrics ; 146(2)2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661188

RESUMO

Cannabinoids, the psychoactive compounds in marijuana, are one of the most commonly used substances in the United States. In this review, we summarize the impact of marijuana on child and adolescent health and discuss the implications of marijuana use for pediatric practice. We review the changing epidemiology of cannabis use and provide an update on medical use, routes of administration, synthetic marijuana and other novel products, the effect of cannabis on the developing brain, other health and social consequences of use, and issues related to marijuana legalization.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Uso da Maconha , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/embriologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Canabidiol/farmacologia , Canabidiol/uso terapêutico , Canabinoides/efeitos adversos , Canabinoides/síntese química , Canabinoides/farmacologia , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Cannabis/química , Cannabis/envenenamento , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Medicamentosas , Endocanabinoides/fisiologia , Feminino , Feto/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Drogas Ilícitas/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Abuso de Maconha/terapia , Uso da Maconha/efeitos adversos , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/legislação & jurisprudência , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Maconha Medicinal/efeitos adversos , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico , Leite Humano/química , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/induzido quimicamente , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Receptores de Canabinoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Canabinoides/fisiologia , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia
6.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 105(5): 466-473, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Progressive ventricular dilatation after intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) in preterm infants has a very high risk of severe disability and death. Drainage, irrigation and fibrinolytic therapy (DRIFT), in a randomised controlled trial (RCT), reduced severe cognitive impairment at 2 years. OBJECTIVE: To assess if the cognitive advantage of DRIFT seen at 2 years persisted until school age. PARTICIPANTS: The RCT conducted in four centres recruited 77 preterm infants with IVH and progressive ventricular enlargement over specified measurements. Follow-up was at 10 years of age. INTERVENTION: Intraventricular injection of a fibrinolytic followed by continuous lavage, until the drainage was clear, and standard care consisting of control of expansion by lumbar punctures and if expansion persisted via a ventricular access device. PRIMARY OUTCOME: Cognitive quotient (CQ), derived from the British Ability Scales and Bayley III Scales, and survival without severe cognitive disability. RESULTS: Of the 77 children randomised, 12 died, 2 could not be traced, 10 did not respond and 1 declined at 10-year follow-up. 28 in the DRIFT group and 24 in the standard treatment group were assessed by examiners blinded to the intervention. The mean CQ score was 69.3 (SD=30.1) in the DRIFT group and 53.7 (SD=35.7) in the standard treatment group (unadjusted p=0.1; adjusted p=0.01, after adjustment for the prespecified variables sex, birth weight and IVH grade). Survival without severe cognitive disability was 66% in the DRIFT group and 35% in the standard treatment group (unadjusted p=0.019; adjusted p=0.003). CONCLUSION: DRIFT is the first intervention for posthaemorrhagic ventricular dilatation to objectively demonstrate sustained cognitive improvement. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN80286058.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral Intraventricular/terapia , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Prematuro/terapia , Hemorragia Cerebral Intraventricular/complicações , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Dilatação Patológica , Drenagem/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Punção Espinal , Irrigação Terapêutica/métodos , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Acuidade Visual
8.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 59, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491109

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To identify and evaluate the effects of community-based interventions on the sedentary behavior (SB) of Latin American children and adolescents. METHODS A systematic review on community-based trials to reduce and/or control SB in Latin American countries (Prospero: CRD42017072157). Five databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO and Lilacs) and a reference lists were searched. RESULTS Ten intervention studies met the eligibility criteria and composed the descriptive synthesis. These studies were conducted in Brazil (n=5), Mexico (n=3), Ecuador (n=1) and Colombia (n=1). Most interventions were implemented in schools (n=8) by educational components, such as meetings, lessons, and seminars, on health-related subjects (n=6). Only two studies adopted specific strategies to reduce/control SB; others focused on increasing physical activity and/or improving diet. Only one study used an accelerometer to measure SB. Seven studies investigated recreational screen time. Eight studies showed statistically significant effects on SB reduction (80%). CONCLUSIONS Latin America community-based interventions reduced children and adolescents' SB. Further studies should: define SB as a primary outcome and implement strategies to reduce such behaviour; focus in different SBs and settings, other than recreational screen time or at-home sitting time; and use objective tools together with questionnaires to measure sedentary behaviour in.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamento Infantil , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Comportamento Sedentário , Adolescente , Criança , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , América Latina , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(1): 74-83, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-chain n-3 PUFAs (n-3 LCPUFAs) accrete in the brain during childhood and affect brain development. Randomized trials in children show inconsistent effects of n-3 LCPUFAs on cognitive and socioemotional function, and few have investigated effects of fish per se. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the effects of oily fish consumption on overall and domain-specific cognitive and socioemotional scores and explore sex differences. METHODS: Healthy 8-9-y-old children (n = 199) were randomly allocated to receive ∼300 g/wk oily fish or poultry (control) for 12 ± 2 wk. At baseline and endpoint, we assessed attention, processing speed, executive functions, memory, emotions, and behavior with a large battery of tests and questionnaires and analyzed erythrocyte fatty acid composition. RESULTS: One hundred and ninety-seven (99%) children completed the trial. Children in the fish group consumed 375 (25th-75th percentile: 325-426) g/wk oily fish resulting in 2.3 (95% CI: 1.9, 2.6) fatty acid percentage points higher erythrocyte n-3 LCPUFA than in the poultry group. The overall cognitive performance score tended to improve by 0.17 (95% CI: -0.01, 0.35) points in children who received fish compared with poultry, supported by n-3 LCPUFA dose dependency. This was driven mainly by fewer errors [-1.9 (95% CI: -3.4, -0.3)] in an attention task and improved cognitive flexibility measured as faster reaction time [-51 ms (95% CI: -94, -7 ms)] in a complex relative to a simple task ("mixing cost"). The fish intervention furthermore reduced parent-rated Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire total difficulties by -0.89 (95% CI: -1.60, -0.18) points mainly due to a -0.63 (95% CI: -1.11, -0.16) points reduction in internalizing problems that was reflected in tendency to a decrease in the overall socioemotional problems score of -0.13 (95% CI: -0.26, 0.01) points. The overall effects were similar in boys and girls. CONCLUSIONS: Oily fish dose-dependently improved cognitive function, especially attention and cognitive flexibility, and reduced socioemotional problems. The results support the importance of n-3 LCPUFAs for optimal brain function and fish intake recommendations in children.The trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02809508.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Cognição , Peixes/metabolismo , Animais , Criança , Emoções , Função Executiva , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória
10.
Braz Oral Res ; 34: e057, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578800

RESUMO

Poor oral hygiene seems to be the norm in children and teenagers with Down Syndrome (DS). Advances in design and types of toothbrushes may improve biofilm control. This randomized, single-blind, crossover clinical trial evaluated the effectiveness of electric toothbrushes regarding mechanical control of biofilm in children and teenagers with DS and their cooperation. Twenty-nine participants with DS, aged 6 to 14 years, used both types of toothbrushes: electric (ET) and manual (MT). The order of use of the different types of toothbrushes was randomly defined, including a 7-day period with each type with 7-day washout period in between. The Turesky-Quigley-Hein biofilm index was used before and after brushing to assess the effectiveness of the technique. Frankl's behavioral scale was used during toothbrushing to assess the participants' cooperation. Paired T-test, Mann Whitney, Chi-square, and Fisher's Exact tests were applied, with a significance level of 5%. The quantity of dental biofilm was significantly reduced after both brushing techniques (p < 0.001). However, no significant difference was found in total biofilm (ET: 0.73 ± 0.36; MT: 0.73 ± 0.34; p = 0.985) or % biofilm reduction (ET: 72.22%; MT: 70.96%; p = 0.762) after brushing between techniques or in % biofilm reduction between toothbrushes of age groups (6 -9 years, p = 0.919; 10-14 years, p = 0.671). Participants showed similar cooperation level with the two types of toothbrush (p = 1.000). The use of electric or manual toothbrush had no effect on the quantity of dental biofilm removed in children and teenagers with DS, nor did it influence their cooperation during the procedure.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Down/fisiopatologia , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Cuidadores , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Estudos Cross-Over , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Med Hypotheses ; 141: 109750, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388138

RESUMO

Although not widely studied, behavioral host manipulation by various pathogens has been documented. Host manipulation is the process by which a pathogen evolves adaptations to manipulate the behavior of the host to maximize reproduction (Ro) of the pathogen. The most notable example is rabies. When a host is infected with the rabies virus it gets into the host's central nervous system and triggers hyper aggression. The virus is also present in the rabid animal's saliva so being bitten transmits the infection to a new host and the old host is left to eventually die if untreated. Toxoplasmosis is another example. When mice are infected they demonstrate a fearlessness toward cats, thus increasing their chances of being eaten. Toxoplasmosis needs the digestive tract of the feline to survive. Recent studies have shown that exposure to toxoplasmosis in humans (e.g., through cat feces) has also been associated with behavioral changes that are predicted to enhance the spread of the pathogen. Even the common influenza virus has been shown to selectively increase in-person sociality during the 48-hour incubation period, thus producing an obvious vector for transmission. Here we hypothesize that the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV2, which produces the COVID-19 disease may produce similar host manipulations that maximize its transmission between humans.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Modelos Biológicos , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Comportamento Social , Adulto , Animais , Doenças Assintomáticas/psicologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , Cuidadores , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Colesterol/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Feto/virologia , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Período de Incubação de Doenças Infecciosas , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal
12.
Eur J Pediatr ; 179(8): 1267-1270, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388722

RESUMO

It has been reported that asymptomatic people can transmit the new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and become important sources of COVID-19. To reduce the role of asymptomatic or poorly symptomatic people in COVID-19, universal use of face masks in addition to hand hygiene and safety distance seems extremely useful. Consequently, preparing the healthy child to use face masks is strongly needed. To obtain maximal compliance, reasons for mask wearing without attempts of removing must be clearly explained. Moreover, child's will must not be forced.Conclusion: On the basis of clinical findings, we think that the universal use of facial masks seems necessary when people have to go out in their everyday lives. In addition to the availability of masks of different sizes capable of adapting perfectly to the face, it is necessary that the use of masks in children is preceded by a strong parental work and school lessons on this issue and other hygiene topics with the main aim to obtain child cooperation. What is Known: • Asymptomatic people can transmit and become important sources of COVID-19. • Asymptomatic cases are common also in pediatrics. What is New: • Universal use of face masks for success against COVID-19 seems necessary also in pediatric age when people have to go out in their everyday lives. • In addition to the availability of masks of different sizes capable of adapting perfectly to the face, it is necessary that the use of masks in children is preceded by a strong parental work and school lessons with the main aim to obtain child cooperation.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Saúde da Criança , Bem-Estar da Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Máscaras , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Poder Familiar , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Psicologia da Criança
13.
Encephale ; 46(3S): S99-S106, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32405083

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a multi-organ disease due to an infection with the SARS-CoV2 virus. It has become a pandemic in early 2020. The disease appears less devastating in children and adolescents. However, stress, quarantine and eventually mourning have major impacts on development. It is difficult to describe what this pandemic implies for a child psychiatrist, other than by giving a first-hand account. I propose to go through the main ethical questions that have arisen; to describe how my hospital team has reorganized itself to meet the new demands and questions, in particular by opening a unit dedicated to people with autism and challenging behaviors affected by COVID-19; and to address, in a context of national discussion, how the discipline has sought to understand the conditions of a certain well-being during quarantine. Finally, I will try to conclude with more speculative reflections on re-opening.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria do Adolescente , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Transtorno Autístico/terapia , Betacoronavirus , Psiquiatria Infantil , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Psiquiatria , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Psiquiatria do Adolescente/ética , Transtorno Autístico/complicações , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Psiquiatria Infantil/ética , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/complicações , Infecção Hospitalar/psicologia , Infecção Hospitalar/terapia , Exposição Ambiental , França , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Reestruturação Hospitalar , Unidades Hospitalares/organização & administração , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Serviços de Saúde Mental/ética , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Isolamento de Pacientes/psicologia , Ludoterapia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Prática Profissional/ética , Equipamentos de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia
14.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 67(3): 573-584, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443995

RESUMO

Serious threats to child safety are infrequent and unpredictable but can lead to serious injury and death. To stay safe, children must identify and avoid contact with a safety threat, escape from it, and report it to an adult so the adult can remove the threat. Research shows that active learning approaches are effective for teaching children to engage in these safety skills. Passive learning approaches are not effective. Active learning approaches require children to practice the skills in the presence of simulated threats with feedback to reinforce correct responses and promote generalization of skills to the natural environment.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Crime/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Segurança , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle , Criança , Humanos , Jogos e Brinquedos , Ensino
15.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232061, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior research has shown that individuals with experience of out-of-home care (foster family care or residential care) in childhood are educationally disadvantaged compared to their peers. In order to be better equipped to design interventions aimed at improving the educational outcomes of children for whom society has assumed responsibility, this study seeks to further our understanding about which factors that contribute to the educational disparities throughout the life course. METHODS: Using longitudinal data from a cohort of more than 13,000 Swedes, of which around 7% have childhood experience of out-of-home care, Peters-Belson decomposition is utilized to quantify the extent to which the gap in educational achievement in school (age 16) and midlife educational attainment (age 50) captures differences in the prevalence of factors influencing educational outcomes, and differences in the impacts between these factors. RESULTS: We find that the achievement and the attainment gap was around 13% and 9% respectively. These gaps were to a large extent explained by differences in the distribution of predictors. The major explanatory factor for placed children's lower achievement was a lower average cognitive ability. Yet there were some evidence that the rewards of cognitive ability in these children differed across the life course. While the lower returns of cognitive ability suggest that they were underperforming in compulsory school, the higher returns of cognitive ability on midlife attainment indicate that-given previous underperformance-their attainment at age 50 reflects their cognitive capacity more accurately than their achievement at age 16 do. CONCLUSION: The large influence of the unequal distribution of predictors suggests that policy efforts are needed to promote equity in the distribution of factors contributing to educational achievement and attainment. Since cognitive ability was found to be an important contributory factor, such efforts may include promoting cognitive and intellectual development among children in out-of-home care, preferably starting at a young age.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Logro , Comportamento Infantil , Serviços de Proteção Infantil/estatística & dados numéricos , Bem-Estar da Criança/psicologia , Cuidados no Lar de Adoção/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 380, 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the recent decade presence of digital media, especially handheld devices, in everyday life, has been increasing. Survey data suggests that children and adults spend much of their leisure on screen media, including use of social media and video services. Despite much public debate on possible harmful effects of such behavioral shifts, evidence from rigorously conducted randomized controlled trials in free-living settings, investigating the efficacy of reducing screen media use on physical activity, sleep, and physiological stress, is still lacking. Therefore, a family and home-based randomized controlled trial - the SCREENS trial - is being conducted. Here we describe in detail the rationale and protocol of this study. METHODS: The SCREENS pilot trial was conducted during the fall of 2018 and spring of 2019. Based on experiences from the pilot study, we developed a protocol for a parallel group randomized controlled trial. The trial is being conducted from May 2019 to ultimo 2020 in 95 families with children 4-14 years recruited from a population-based survey. As part of the intervention family members must handover most portable devices for a 2-week time frame, in exchange for classic mobile phones (not smartphones). Also, entertainment-based screen media use during leisure must be limited to no more than 3 hours/week/person. At baseline and follow-up, 7-day 24-h physical activity will be assessed using two triaxial accelerometers; one at the right hip and one the middle of the right thigh. Sleep duration will be assessed using a single channel EEG-based sleep monitor system. Also, to assess physiological stress (only assessed in adults), parameters of 24-h heart rate variability, the cortisol awakening response and diurnal cortisol slope will be quantified using data sampled over three consecutive days. During the study we will objectively monitor the families' screen media use via different software and hardware monitoring systems. DISCUSSION: Using a rigorous study design with state-of-the-art methodology to assess outcomes and intervention compliance, analyses of data from the SCREENS trial will help answer important causal questions of leisure screen media habits and its short-term influence on physical activity, sleep, and other health related outcomes among children and adults. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04098913 at https://clinicaltrials.gov [20-09-2019, retrospectively registered].


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamento Infantil , Exercício Físico , Nível de Saúde , Tempo de Tela , Sono , Estresse Fisiológico , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Telefone Celular , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Computadores , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Smartphone , Mídias Sociais , Televisão
17.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 39, 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32326983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preschoolers regularly display disruptive behaviors in child care settings because they have not yet developed the social skills necessary to interact prosocially with others. Disruptive behaviors interfere with daily routines and can lead to conflict with peers and educators. We investigated the impact of a social skills training program led by childcare educators on children's social behaviors and tested whether the impact varied according to the child's sex and family socio-economic status. METHODS: Nineteen public Child Care Centers (CCC, n = 361 children) located in low socio-economic neighborhoods of Montreal, Canada, were randomized into one of two conditions: 1) intervention (n = 10 CCC; 185 children) or 2) wait list control (n = 9 CCC; 176 children). Educators rated children's behaviors (i.e., disruptive and prosocial behaviors) before and after the intervention. Hierarchical linear mixed models were used to account for the nested structure of the data. RESULTS: At pre-intervention, no differences in disruptive and prosocial behaviors were observed between the experimental conditions. At post-intervention, we found a significant sex by intervention interaction (ß intervention by sex = - 1.19, p = 0.04) indicating that girls in the intervention condition exhibited lower levels of disruptive behaviors compared to girls in the control condition (f2 effect size = - 0.15). There was no effect of the intervention for boys. CONCLUSIONS: Girls may benefit more than boys from social skills training offered in the child care context. Studies with larger sample sizes and greater intervention intensity are needed to confirm the results. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current clinical trial number is ISRCTN84339956 (Retrospectively registered in March 2017). No amendment to initial protocol.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Creches , Educação , Comportamento Social , Habilidades Sociais , Canadá , Cuidado da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Problema
19.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231462, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271851

RESUMO

AIM: The present study aimed to investigate and compare parent-child agreement in different domains of child health and behavior. METHODS: Data were collected between 2011 and 2019 within the framework of the LIFE Child study (Germany). Different subgroups of 10- to 12-year-old children and their parents (n (max) = 692) completed questionnaires on several health behaviors (diet, media use, physical activity, sleep), parameters of health (behavioral strengths and difficulties, psychosomatic complaints), and school grades. Agreement between child and parent reports was evaluated using weighted kappa coefficients. Furthermore, the frequencies of different types of (dis)agreement (parent report > child report, same response, child report > parent report) were assessed and checked for associations with child or parent gender. RESULTS: Agreement between child and parent reports varied from low to almost perfect, with the greatest levels of agreement for school grades and organized physical activity, and the lowest for dizziness, sleep duration, and the consumption of potatoes. Child gender had no significant effect on parent-child agreement. In contrast, the findings suggest that parent gender had some effect on agreement levels, with higher agreement for certain psychosomatic complaints when parent reports were completed by the mother, and higher agreement for white bread consumption if they were completed by the father. For some of the questionnaire items (especially those relating to behavioral difficulties and psychosomatic complaints, but also to the consumption of individual food products and mobile phone use), the type of (dis)agreement differed depending on child or parent gender. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that the perceptions and reporting strategies of children and their parents can diverge considerably, in particular for behavior that is not easily observable or measurable.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Criança , Dieta/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Pai/psicologia , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 484, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated whether parent-child attachment and self-esteem may mediate the relationship between parental marital conflict and increases in features of internet gaming disorder (IGD) in children at 1 year. METHODS: The baseline and one-year follow-up data for 268 pre-teens aged between 9 and 10 from the Internet User Cohort for Unbiased Recognition of Gaming Disorder in Early Adolescence (iCURE) study were collected. The students were children at low risk for IGD in the initial self-reported assessment, anyone living with both parents, current game user at baseline, and those who completed a 12-month follow-up assessment. The Internet Game Use-Elicited Symptom Screen (IGUESS) was used to identify increases in IGD features at 12 months. To examine a potential mediation effect, structural equation modeling was performed. RESULTS: The direct effect was statistically significant, and parental marital conflict at baseline significantly predicted the increases in IGD features in children at the 12-month follow-up after adjusting for gender, sex, socioeconomic status, and baseline IGUESS score (ß = 0.206, P = 0.003). The indirect effect showed that attachment to fathers through self-esteem was a significant mediating effect (ß = 0.078, P = 0.045). Parental marital conflicts were associated with increases in IGD features in children through poor father-child attachment, and in turn, the lower levels of self-esteem in the children. CONCLUSIONS: Parents, especially fathers, should make an effort to bond with their children to reduce the risk of their children's developing the IGD features.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Comportamento Infantil , Conflito Familiar , Relações Pai-Filho , Internet , Autoimagem , Jogos de Vídeo , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Pai , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Apego ao Objeto , Pais , Risco , Autorrelato
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