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1.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO5425, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935827

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop an informative manual on venous thromboembolism prevention for the lay population and to estimate evidences of content and face validity. METHODS: A methodological study conducted in three stages. The first stage was the preparation of the manual, followed by content validation with cardiovascular specialists who judged clarity, theoretical relevance and practical pertinence on a 4-point Likert scale. Items with a content validity index ≤0.75 were revised and re-evaluated. The last stage was the face validation by lay people, who were interviewed regarding item understanding and visual appearance. Items with more than 80.0% positive opinions were considered adequate. RESULTS: The manual was developed containing nine illustrations, definition of the disease, risk factors, signs and symptoms, and preventive measures. In the first assessment round, the validity index was 1.0 for the text of all sections, with suggestions for language adjustments. As to the illustrations, the validity indexes ranged from 0.67 to 1.0. In the second round, the validity index reached 1.0 for all items. A total of 40 lay people participated in the face validation, and all considered the paper type and font size appropriate, as well as the font used as readable; 97.5% were able to understand the information contained in the manual; 98.0% considered it esthetically beautiful; and 90.0% considered the reading not tiresome. CONCLUSION: The informative manual on venous thromboembolism prevention was prepared, its content validated by experts, and considered appropriate by the lay population. These results suggest that the manual may be used as a preventive educational strategy for venous thromboembolism.


Assuntos
Manuais como Assunto , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Tromboembolia Venosa/terapia , Humanos , Idioma , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
2.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(704): 1582-1585, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880117

RESUMO

Our medical practice brings us to meet people from all walks of life. Some of our patients experience multiple vulnerabilities and are at greater risk of stigma and discrimination. In the field of asylum, they are often firstly designated by words reflecting their socio-administrative reality. These words are supposed to define their identity. The individual is dehumanized because reduced to an administrative status. These terms carry a denotative meaning, valuable in understanding the context in which the patient evolves ; but also a connotative meaning, which through implicit bias leads the caregiver to adopt attitudes that may be detrimental to the proper care of the patient. Words must be carefully chosen and brought in a timely manner, because words matter.


Assuntos
Hospitais Psiquiátricos , Idioma , Saúde Mental , Preconceito , Humanos , Vergonha , Estigma Social
3.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929919

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the general hypothesis about executive deficits in language production in schizophrenia as well as more specific hypothesis that this deficit would be more pronounced in the case of higher demand on executive functions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-five patients with schizophrenia and twenty-seven healthy controls were asked to tell a story based on a series of pictures and then to give an oral composition on the given topic. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Schizophrenia patients, compared to controls, demonstrated poorer programming as well as shorter text and phrase length in both tasks. Oral composition on the given topic in patients was characterized by the presence of agrammatism, need for leading questions due to the difficulties of story plot generation as well as higher variance in syntactic complexity and text length. Therefore, the authors revealed executive deficit in language production, more pronounced in the task with less numerous external cues for planning and sequential text explication, in schizophrenia patients.


Assuntos
Função Executiva , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Idioma , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
4.
Pediatr Neurol ; 111: 87, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861581
5.
Am J Nurs ; 120(9): 48-58, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858699

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This project examined nurses' positive and negative perceptions of the technology used in language interpretation for patients who have limited English proficiency (LEP). The intervention was guided by the technology acceptance model, a framework that addresses users' acceptance or rejection of computer-based technology. METHODS: A sample of 47 nurses participated. Nurses' perceptions of an existing telephone-based remote interpretation technology were compared with their perceptions of a video remote interpretation (VRI) system. Instruments included a structured questionnaire to collect nurses' demographic and other characteristics and to measure their perceptions of the technology used in language interpretation; open-ended questions were added on how technology affected nursing care and nurses' rapport and communication with patients. Questionnaires on the telephone-based interpretation technology were administered, and after an eight-week trial of the VRI technology, questionnaires on the VRI system were administered. RESULTS: Overall, positive perceptions of VRI were significantly higher and negative perceptions significantly lower compared with perceptions of telephone-based interpretation technology (P < 0.001 for both). Qualitative findings indicated that VRI technology improved communication and was less time consuming for nurses. CONCLUSIONS: Nurses preferred VRI technology because of its positive effects on time expenditure and communication. VRI technology is likely to be adopted successfully and ensures increased use of professional language interpretation for patients with LEP.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente/métodos , Proficiência Limitada em Inglês , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Comunicação por Videoconferência/organização & administração , Adulto , Barreiras de Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Tradução
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764480

RESUMO

Health crisis situations generate greater attention and dependence on reliable and truthful information from citizens, especially from those organisations that represent authority on the subject, such as the World Health Organization (WHO). In times of global pandemics such as COVID-19, the WHO message "health for all" takes on great communicative importance, especially from the point of view of the prevention of the disease and recommendations for action. Therefore, any communication must be understandable and accessible by all types of people, regardless of their technology, language, culture or disability (physical or mental), according to the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), taking on special relevance for public health content. This study analysed whether the WHO is accessible in its digital version for all groups of citizens according to the widely accepted standards in the field of the Internet. The conclusion reached was that not all the information is accessible in accordance with the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.1, which implies that there are groups that are, to some extent, left out, especially affecting the elderly. This study can contribute to the development of proposals and suggest ways in which to improve the accessibility of health content to groups especially vulnerable in this pandemic.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde/organização & administração , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Competência Cultural , Pessoas com Deficiência , Humanos , Internet , Idioma , Pandemias , Saúde Pública
7.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e179, 2020 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772996

RESUMO

We consider the evolutionary plausibility of Osiurak and Reynaud's (O&R) arguments. We argue that technical reasoning is not quite the magic bullet that O&R assume, and instead propose a co-evolutionary account of the interplay between technical reasoning and social learning, with language emerging as a vital issue neglected in O&R's account.


Assuntos
Inteligência , Idioma , China , Cognição , Resolução de Problemas
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236423, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Use of functional MRI (fMRI) in pre-surgical planning is a non-invasive method for pre-operative functional mapping for patients with brain tumors, especially tumors located near eloquent cortex. Currently, this practice predominantly involves task-based fMRI (T-fMRI). Resting state fMRI (RS-fMRI) offers an alternative with several methodological advantages. Here, we compare group-level analyses of RS-fMRI vs. T-fMRI as methods for language localization. PURPOSE: To contrast RS-fMRI vs. T-fMRI as techniques for localization of language function. METHODS: We analyzed data obtained in 35 patients who had both T-fMRI and RS-fMRI scans during the course of pre-surgical evaluation. The RS-fMRI data were analyzed using a previously trained resting-state network classifier. The T-fMRI data were analyzed using conventional techniques. Group-level results obtained by both methods were evaluated in terms of two outcome measures: (1) inter-subject variability of response magnitude and (2) sensitivity/specificity analysis of response topography, taking as ground truth previously reported maps of the language system based on intraoperative cortical mapping as well as meta-analytic maps of language task fMRI responses. RESULTS: Both fMRI methods localized major components of the language system (areas of Broca and Wernicke) although not with equal inter-subject consistency. Word-stem completion T-fMRI strongly activated Broca's area but also several task-general areas not specific to language. RS-fMRI provided a more specific representation of the language system. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate several advantages of classifier-based mapping of language representation in the brain. Language T-fMRI activated task-general (i.e., not language-specific) functional systems in addition to areas of Broca and Wernicke. In contrast, classifier-based analysis of RS-fMRI data generated maps confined to language-specific regions of the brain.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Área de Broca/patologia , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto , Idoso , Atenção/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Área de Broca/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Frontal/patologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Descanso/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Temporal/patologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3319, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813786

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to determine the validity and reliability of the Turkish language version of the Moral Distress Questionnaire for nurses. METHOD: methodological study whose sample consisted of 200 nurses working in the internal medicine and surgery clinics of a university hospital. Data was collected using the personal information form and the Moral Distress Questionnaire for nurses. RESULTS: in the Main Components Analysis, the items were grouped under three factors. Findings regarding confirmatory factor analysis: chi-square goodness: 2.28, goodness of fit index: 0.88, comparative fit index: 0.88, non-normed fit index: 0.86, root mean square error of approximation: 0.07. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was found to be 0.79 as a result of the analysis conducted in order to test the internal consistency of the scale. It was seen that these three factors explained 44.92% of the total variance. CONCLUSION: in this present study, the Turkish version of the Moral Distress Questionnaire was found to be valid and reliable for the Turkish society. It is recommended that the Moral Distress Questionnaire for nurses should be used in future studies to be conducted with nurses in order to investigate of issues of ethical dilemma.


Assuntos
Idioma , Princípios Morais , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235796, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667950

RESUMO

Chinese information extraction is traditionally performed in the process of word segmentation, entity recognition, relation extraction and event detection. This pipelined approach suffers from two limitations: 1) It is prone to introduce propagated errors from upstream tasks to subsequent applications; 2) Mutual benefits of cross-task dependencies are hard to be introduced in non-overlapping models. To address these two challenges, we propose a novel transition-based model that jointly performs entity recognition, relation extraction and event detection as a single task. In addition, we incorporate subword-level information into character sequence with the use of a hybrid lattice structure, removing the reliance of external word tokenizers. Results on standard ACE benchmarks show the benefits of the proposed joint model and lattice network, which gives the best result in the literature.


Assuntos
Mineração de Dados/métodos , Idioma , Algoritmos , China , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação
12.
Rev Med Chil ; 148(1): 103-108, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730442

RESUMO

This paper summarizes the main features of review articles in medical topics. Articles can be classified as narrative reviews, systematic reviews or meta-analysis. Narrative reviews are appropriate to update etiology, pathophysiology or clinical aspects of diseases, and advances in basic and preclinical sciences. In systematic reviews the authors define its purpose, limit its scope, describe the literature search, define the inclusion and exclusion criteria adopted to select primary studies, and the criteria applied to assess the quality of their results and conclusions. Meta-analysis are quantitative, statistically analysed systematic reviews that consider mainly primary studies conducted prospectively with simultaneous randomized controls, pooling the data obtained from each of these primary studies in order to get a single estimate of effect. Systematic analysis and meta-analysis are important to evaluate new diagnostic and therapeutic tools, and they are most relevant to evidence-based medicine, mainly for the design of clinical guidelines and the adoption of new health care policies. Review articles published in Revista Médica de Chile were compared in one or two-year periods separated by ten years in between: in the "2001 period" 26 reviews were all narrative; in the "2010 period" 30 reviews were narrative and another 4 were systematic reviews; in the "2019 period" 14 reviews were narrative and another 7 were systematic reviews. No meta-analysis had been published in these periods, in this journal. Meta-analysis including primary studies performed in Chile by Chilean investigators have been published in English language in other medical journals. The educational and professional role of review articles is recognised, with a word of caution on a strict adherence to ethical rules adopted by scientific and clinical publications, mainly with respect to authorship and potential conflicts of interest.


Assuntos
Autoria , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Chile , Política de Saúde , Idioma
13.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235659, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614904

RESUMO

Japan has been recognized for its excellent universal health coverage system. However, the migrant population faces many barriers in accessing health services in Japan. Japan hosts around 260,000 international students, mostly from developing countries. Among them, language school students tripled from 2011 to 2017, against the backdrop of labor shortage in Japan. Most of these students are also engaged as cheap laborers and are vulnerable populations with poor access to health services. Several socio-economic and behavioral factors may increase their vulnerability to HIV and prevent them from accessing HIV testing in Japan. We examined the factors associated with access to HIV testing among international students in language schools in Tokyo. We conducted a cross-sectional study among international students studying in Japanese language schools in Tokyo. We collected data from 769 Chinese, Vietnamese, and Nepalese students using a self-administered questionnaire. We measured their access to HIV testing through questions on their knowledge of where to receive HIV testing and utilization of HIV testing. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyze the data. Nepalese students were less likely to know where to receive HIV testing in Japan than Chinese students (AOR = 0.12, 95% CI 0.01-0.96). Students who did not need Japanese language interpreters during visits to health facilities were more likely to know where to receive HIV testing (AOR = 1.93, 95% CI 1.14-3.25). Students who did not have knowledge of free and anonymous HIV testing in Japan were also less likely to know where to receive HIV testing in Japan (AOR = 0.18, 95% CI 0.08-0.42). Students who did not have knowledge of free and anonymous HIV testing (OR = 0.05, 95% CI 0.02-0.10) and who had not utilized HIV testing in their home country (OR = 0.12, 95% CI 0.06-0.27) were less likely to utilize HIV testing in Japan. Factors associated with access to HIV testing among Japanese language school students in Tokyo are nationality, need for Japanese language interpreters, perceived access to doctors/health workers, utilization of HIV testing in the home country, and knowledge of free and anonymous HIV testing. These findings may help to design interventions for improving access to HIV testing among international students in Japan.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Estudantes/psicologia , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Japão , Idioma , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Razão de Chances , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tóquio , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS Med ; 17(7): e1003148, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Embedded implementation research (IR) promotes evidence-informed policy and practices by involving decision-makers and program implementers in research activities that focus on understanding and solving existing implementation challenges. Although embedded IR has been conducted in multiple settings by different organizations, there are limited experiences of embedded IR in humanitarian settings. This study highlights some of the key challenges of conducting embedded IR in a humanitarian setting based on our experience with the Rohingya refugee population in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We collected qualitative data in between January and July 2019. First, we visited Rohingya refugee camps and interviewed representatives from different humanitarian organizations. Second, we conducted interviews with researchers from BRAC University who were engaged with data collection and analysis in a broader embedded IR study on maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health (MNCAH) program implementation challenges. Data were analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. Two researchers developed and agreed on codes and relevant themes based on the objectives of this study. The findings of this study highlight several challenges encountered while conducting embedded IR in the Rohingya emergency setting in Cox's Bazar, which may have implications for other humanitarian settings. The overall context of the camps was complex, with more than 100 organizations devoted to providing health services for approximately 1 million refugees. Despite the presence of the Bangladesh government, United Nations agencies and other international organizations played key roles in making programmatic and policy decisions for the Rohingya. Because health service delivery modalities and policies and related implementation challenges for MNCAH programs for the refugees changed rapidly, the embedded IR approach used was flexible and able to adapt to changes identified, with research questions and methods modified accordingly. Access to the camps, reaching Rohingya respondents, overcoming language barriers in order to get quality information, and the limited availability of local research collaborators were additional challenges. Working with researchers or research institutes that are familiar with the context and have experience in conducting implementation and health systems research can help with collection of quality data, identifying key stakeholders and bringing them on board to ensure the execution of the project, and ensuring utilization of the research findings. Study limitations include possible constraints in generalizing our conclusions to other humanitarian settings. Implementation research conducted in additional humanitarian settings can contribute to the evidence on this topic. CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate that embedded IR can be done effectively in humanitarian settings if the challenges are anticipated, and appropriate strategies and in-country partners put in place to address or mitigate them, before commencing the funding or starting of the project. Understanding the context and analyzing the role of relevant stakeholders prior to conducting the research, considering a simple descriptive method appropriate to answering real-time IR questions, and working with local researchers or research institutes with specific skill sets and prior experience conducting research in humanization contexts may reduce costs and time spent, and ensure collection of quality data relevant for policy and practice.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Adolescente , Bangladesh , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Ciência da Implementação , Recém-Nascido , Idioma , Organizações , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Campos de Refugiados , Refugiados , Nações Unidas
15.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 272: 71-74, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604603

RESUMO

Rapid access to patient overall health status is essential for a physician during a medical consultation. The use of a HIS for the management of neonatal screening and follow-up of sickle cell disease patients at CERPAD in the Saint-Louis region of Senegal leads the patient electronic records growing in volume and complexity. To facilitate access to relevant information and shortens the time required to analyze and understand these clinical data, an original solution is to set up a data visualization system. In this article, we propose the integration of two iconic visualization tools into the SIMENS-CERPAD module designed for sickle cell screening and healthcare. The two tools use the VCM iconic language and consist of a simplified anatomical schema showing the current health status of the patient and a timeline to visualize its temporal evolution.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Visualização de Dados , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Idioma , Triagem Neonatal , Senegal
16.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 272: 187-190, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604632

RESUMO

The expressiveness of a medical knowledge representation language has significant impact on the effectiveness of a knowledge-based clinical decision support system. We assess the expressiveness of two such languages, Arden Syntax and the Guideline Definition Language. Using data extracted from both languages' specifications, we quantify expressiveness by means of language syntax and the number of supported operators. Preliminary results show that Arden Syntax is a more dynamic standard, having better readability and a higher number and more diverse operators than GDL. In contrast, GDL is a more rigid language that utilizes an underlying data model specification in the openEHR framework.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Linguagens de Programação , Inteligência Artificial , Idioma
17.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 272: 241-244, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604646

RESUMO

This paper presents an audio file segmentation method in an attempt to mitigate the issue of variable durations of the same utterance by different individuals, e.g.: Speech-Language Pathologist (SLP) and dyslalic subjects. The Method section describes the manner of determination of the maximum cross-correlation value between the 2 audio files and the subsequent automated segmentation thereof in order to extract 2 valid pronunciation samples of the target consonant. The method is aimed at pre-processing audio files and supplying homogeneously-trimmed audio samples to a computerized SSD Screening system. The results obtained on a batch of 30 pronunciations are presented and briefly discussed in the third section while the last section is reserved for conclusions and perspectives.


Assuntos
Idioma , Audição , Humanos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610523

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the characteristics of YouTube videos in Spanish on the basic measures to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: On 18 March 2020, a search was conducted on YouTube using the terms "Prevencion Coronavirus" and "Prevencion COVID-19". We studied the associations between the type of authorship and the country of publication with other variables (such as the number of likes and basic measures to prevent COVID-19 according to the World Health Organization, among others) with univariate analysis and a multiple logistic regression model. RESULTS: A total of 129 videos were evaluated; 37.2% were produced in Mexico (25.6%) and Spain (11.6%), and 56.6% were produced by mass media, including television and newspapers. The most frequently reported basic preventive measure was hand washing (71.3%), and the least frequent was not touching the eyes, nose, and mouth (24.0%). Hoaxes (such as eating garlic or citrus to prevent COVID-19) were detected in 15 videos (10.9%). In terms of authorship, papers produced by health professionals had a higher probability of reporting hand hygiene (OR (95% CI) = 4.20 (1.17-15.09)) and respiratory hygiene (OR (95% CI) = 3.05 (1.22-7.62)) as preventive measures. CONCLUSION: Information from YouTube in Spanish on basic measures to prevent COVID-19 is usually not very complete and differs according to the type of authorship. Our findings make it possible to guide Spanish-speaking users on the characteristics of the videos to be viewed in order to obtain reliable information.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Mídias Sociais , Gravação em Vídeo , Betacoronavirus , Estudos Transversais , Decepção , Higiene das Mãos , Humanos , Idioma , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , México , Espanha
19.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e143, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32624050

RESUMO

Hierarchical structures are rapidly and flexibly built up in the domains of human language and music. These domains require a tree-building capacity - "dendrophilia" - to dynamically infer hierarchical structures from sensory input (or to hierarchically structure output), based on subunits stored in a lexicon. This dynamic process involves a crucial class of abstracta overlooked in the target article.


Assuntos
Música , Encéfalo , Cognição , Humanos , Idioma
20.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e147, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32624051

RESUMO

Language comprehension of action verbs recruits embodied representations in the brain that are assumed to invoke a mental simulation (e.g., "grasping a peanut"). This extends to abstract concepts, as well ("grasping an idea"). We, therefore, argue that mental simulation works across levels of abstractness and involves higher-level schematic structures that subsume a generic structure of actions and events.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Idioma
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