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1.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e146, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645810

RESUMO

Gilead et al. provide a unified account of predictive cognition in which abstract representations play an essential role. Although acknowledging the similarity to linguistic concepts toward the higher end of the proposed abstraction gradient, Gilead et al. do not consider the potential of their account to embrace phonetic and phonological speech sound representations and their neural bases.


Assuntos
Fonética , Fala , Encéfalo
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(21): e19585, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481249

RESUMO

To investigate the patterns of dysarthria in Korean patients with idiopathic peripheral facial palsy.Seventy-eight patients diagnosed with idiopathic peripheral facial palsy within the onset of symptom to 7 day time frame were prospectively enrolled. The initial symptom of facial palsy was examined by the House-Brackmann scale. All patients were tested by Urimal-Test of Articulation and Phonology-2 (U-TAP-2), which is specialized for the evaluation of dysarthria in Korean language - Hangeul - when the patients first visited and were followed up at 4 weeks after the onset, respectively. The facial electromyography was performed after 7 days, since the presentation of the first symptom. Electric stimulation therapy and simple facial exercise education were performed in all patients as routine treatments for facial palsy with or without dysarthria. The patterns of dysarthria were analyzed by initial and follow-up U-TAP-2 results, respectively.Among 78 patients, 50 patients (64.1%) had dysarthria in the first assessment. The 6 consonants and 3 vowels were errored in U-TAP-2 test. The bilabial consonants "ㅃ"[p] or "ㅍ" [p] were substituted with labiodental consonant [f], and palate-alveolar consonants were replaced by alveolar consonants - "ㅊ"[t(Equation is included in full-text article.)] to "ㅌ"[t]. Bilabial consonant "ㅁ"[m] was replaced by velar nasal consonant "ㅇ"[ŋ]. Liquid consonant was altered to nasal sound. For example, "ㄹ"[r] is replace by "ㄴ"[n]. The velar consonant "ㄲ"[k] was pronounced as "ㅋ" [k]. The diphthong vowels "ㅟ"[[Latin Small Letter Turned H]i], "ㅚ"[ø], or "ㅘ"[wa] were pronounced as monothong "ㅣ" [i], "ㅐ"[ε], or "ㅏ"[a], and "못"[mot] is slowly pronounced. After 4 weeks, 14 patients still showed pronunciation errors in 5 consonants and 3 vowels. The most common error was substitution.Among 78 patients with idiopathic peripheral facial palsy, 50 patients had dysarthria and 14 out of 50 patients with dysarthria lasted more than 4 weeks. Five consonants ("ㅁ", "ㅊ", "ㅍ", "ㄹ", "ㄲ") and 3 vowels ("ㅘ", "ㅗ", "ㅟ or ㅚ") were still mispronounced after 4 weeks, and most common error was substitution. Therefore, speech evaluation and speech therapy specialized for errors in high frequency of consonants and vowels are needed in patients with idiopathic peripheral facial palsy, in Korea.


Assuntos
Disartria/diagnóstico , Disartria/etiologia , Paralisia Facial/complicações , Idioma , Adulto , Idoso , Disartria/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , República da Coreia , Fala
3.
J Spec Oper Med ; 20(2): 104-109, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573745

RESUMO

In summer of 2017 in Charlottesville, Virginia, white nationalists clashed with counterprotestors, ultimately leading to the death of three people and leaving 34 more injured. Soon after, the same group was granted permission to speak on the campus of the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida. Despite our college town having limited resources and personnel, the comprehensive and extensive preparation preceding the event ensured a peaceful resolution for such a large and potentially volatile situation. The preparatory steps required joint efforts from local and state partners in law enforcement, emergency medical services, and emergency departments. We describe here the situation we faced, the pre-event preparations, the response in the field and in our emergency department, and the outcomes from an emergency and tactical medicine perspective. We hope our successful experience will impart knowledge for similar events.


Assuntos
Fala , Universidades , Violência/prevenção & controle , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Florida , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei
4.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO5225, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578676

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the latency and the amplitude values of Mismatch Negativity and P300 cognitive potential in children with stuttering, with no auditory complaints, with auditory thresholds within the normality range, comparing them to the findings of a Control Group. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 50 children of both sexes, 15 with stuttering and 35 without stuttering, aged 6 to 11 years, with no diagnosis of ear pathology or other diseases. All children were submitted to peripheral audiological evaluation (meatoscopy, pure tone testing, speech audiometry, and acoustic immittance measures) and a central audiological evaluation (investigation of the Mismatch Negativity and P300 cognitive potential). For the evaluation of fluency, all children with stuttering had a specific history taken and were video recorded in a spontaneous speech. Afterwards, the transcription was done, followed by speech analysis to classify children according the severity of stuttering. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in the latencies of Mismatch Negativity and P300 cognitive potential, as well as in the amplitude of Mismatch Negativity. CONCLUSION: There was a significant delay in the latencies of Mismatch Negativity and P300 cognitive potential, as well as increase in the amplitude of the Mismatch Negativity in children with stuttering when compared to children in the Control Group. Changes in the morphology of the waves were found in the Stuttering Group.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Limiar Auditivo , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/fisiologia , Gagueira/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Fala
5.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1928): 20192712, 2020 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32486976

RESUMO

Classic linguistic theory ascribes language change and diversity to population migrations, conquests, and geographical isolation, with the assumption that human populations have equivalent language processing abilities. We hypothesize that spectral and temporal characteristics make some consonant manners vulnerable to differences in temporal precision associated with specific population allele frequencies. To test this hypothesis, we modelled association between RU1-1 alleles of DCDC2 and manner of articulation in 51 populations spanning five continents, and adjusting for geographical proximity, and genetic and linguistic relatedness. RU1-1 alleles, acting through increased expression of DCDC2, appear to increase auditory processing precision that enhances stop-consonant discrimination, favouring retention in some populations and loss by others. These findings enhance classical linguistic theories by adding a genetic dimension, which until recently, has not been considered to be a significant catalyst for language change.


Assuntos
Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Fala/fisiologia , Alelos , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Idioma , Linguística , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico
6.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232163, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428038

RESUMO

Speakers occasionally produce verbs that agree with an element that is not the subject, a so-called 'attractor'; likewise, comprehenders occasionally fail to notice agreement errors when the verb agrees with the attractor. Cross-linguistic studies converge in showing that attraction is modulated by the hierarchical position of the attractor in the sentence structure. We report two experiments exploring the link between structural position and memory representations in attraction. The method used is innovative in two respects: we used jabberwocky materials to control for semantic influences and focus on structural agreement processing, and we used a Speed-Accuracy Trade-off (SAT) design combined with a memory probe recognition task, as classically used in list memorization tasks. SAT enabled the joint measurement of retrieval speed and retrieval accuracy of subjects and attractors in sentences that typically elicit attraction errors. Experiment 1 first established that attraction arises in jabberwocky sentences, to a similar extent and showing structure-dependency effects, as in natural sentences. Experiment 2 showed a close alignment between the attraction profiles found in Experiment 1 and memory parameters. Results support a content-addressable architecture of memory representations for sentences in which nouns' accessibility depends on their syntactic position, while subjects are kept in the focus of attention.


Assuntos
Memória , Fala , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232209, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365075

RESUMO

Recent research on speech communication has revealed a tendency for speakers to imitate at least some of the characteristics of their interlocutor's speech sound shape. This phenomenon, referred to as phonetic convergence, entails a moment-to-moment adaptation of the speaker's speech targets to the perceived interlocutor's speech. It is thought to contribute to setting up a conversational common ground between speakers and to facilitate mutual understanding. However, it remains uncertain to what extent phonetic convergence occurs in voice fundamental frequency (F0), in spite of the major role played by pitch, F0's perceptual correlate, as a conveyor of both linguistic information and communicative cues associated with the speaker's social/individual identity and emotional state. In the present work, we investigated to what extent two speakers converge towards each other with respect to variations in F0 in a scripted dialogue. Pairs of speakers jointly performed a speech production task, in which they were asked to alternately read aloud a written story divided into a sequence of short reading turns. We devised an experimental set-up that allowed us to manipulate the speakers' F0 in real time across turns. We found that speakers tended to imitate each other's changes in F0 across turns that were both limited in amplitude and spread over large temporal intervals. This shows that, at the perceptual level, speakers monitor slow-varying movements in their partner's F0 with high accuracy and, at the production level, that speakers exert a very fine-tuned control on their laryngeal vibrator in order to imitate these F0 variations. Remarkably, F0 convergence across turns was found to occur in spite of the large melodic variations typically associated with reading turns. Our study sheds new light on speakers' perceptual tracking of F0 in speech processing, and the impact of this perceptual tracking on speech production.


Assuntos
Comportamento Imitativo/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Algoritmos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fonética , Percepção da Fala , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nat Rev Neurosci ; 21(6): 322-334, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376899

RESUMO

The recognition of spoken language has typically been studied by focusing on either words or their constituent elements (for example, low-level features or phonemes). More recently, the 'temporal mesoscale' of speech has been explored, specifically regularities in the envelope of the acoustic signal that correlate with syllabic information and that play a central role in production and perception processes. The temporal structure of speech at this scale is remarkably stable across languages, with a preferred range of rhythmicity of 2- 8 Hz. Importantly, this rhythmicity is required by the processes underlying the construction of intelligible speech. A lot of current work focuses on audio-motor interactions in speech, highlighting behavioural and neural evidence that demonstrates how properties of perceptual and motor systems, and their relation, can underlie the mesoscale speech rhythms. The data invite the hypothesis that the speech motor cortex is best modelled as a neural oscillator, a conjecture that aligns well with current proposals highlighting the fundamental role of neural oscillations in perception and cognition. The findings also show motor theories (of speech) in a different light, placing new mechanistic constraints on accounts of the action-perception interface.


Assuntos
Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Periodicidade , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Humanos
10.
Codas ; 32(4): e20190152, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401996

RESUMO

Purpose This study investigated the influence of the cleft type on the appearance of hypernasality after surgical maxillary advancement (MA). Methods Nasality was determined by measurement of nasalance (acoustic correlate of nasality) by nasometry. The study involved analysis of the nasalance scores of 17 individuals with isolated cleft palate (CP), 118 with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and 69 with bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP), of both sexes, aged 18 to 28 years, after MA. Only individuals with normal nasalance scores indicating balanced resonance before MA were included in this study. Nasometry was performed 3 days before and 15 months after MA, on average. The proportion of patients who presented nasalance scores indicating hypernasality after surgery was calculated by the ANOVA test, and comparison among the different cleft types was evaluated by the chi-square test (p < 0.05). Results No significant difference was found in the proportions of individuals with hypernasality among the cleft types. Conclusion Nasometry showed that the appearance of hypernasality after MA in individuals with cleft palate with or without cleft lip occurred in similar proportions, regardless of the cleft type.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial/cirurgia , Fissura Palatina/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ortognáticos/efeitos adversos , Distúrbios da Fala/etiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Insuficiência Velofaríngea/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fenda Labial/fisiopatologia , Fissura Palatina/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Maxila/cirurgia , Osteotomia de Le Fort/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distúrbios da Fala/fisiopatologia , Medida da Produção da Fala , Insuficiência Velofaríngea/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(22): 11875-11877, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404416

RESUMO

Speech droplets generated by asymptomatic carriers of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are increasingly considered to be a likely mode of disease transmission. Highly sensitive laser light scattering observations have revealed that loud speech can emit thousands of oral fluid droplets per second. In a closed, stagnant air environment, they disappear from the window of view with time constants in the range of 8 to 14 min, which corresponds to droplet nuclei of ca. 4 µm diameter, or 12- to 21-µm droplets prior to dehydration. These observations confirm that there is a substantial probability that normal speaking causes airborne virus transmission in confined environments.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Saliva/virologia , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Fômites/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Tamanho da Partícula , Vírus da SARS , Saliva/química , Fala , Carga Viral
12.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231484, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32287289

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the role of motor control immaturity in the speech production characteristics of 4-year-old children, compared to adults. Specifically, two indices were examined: trial-to-trial variability, which is assumed to be linked to motor control accuracy, and anticipatory extra-syllabic vowel-to-vowel coarticulation, which is assumed to be linked to the comprehensiveness, maturity and efficiency of sensorimotor representations in the central nervous system. METHOD: Acoustic and articulatory (ultrasound) data were recorded for 20 children and 10 adults, all native speakers of Canadian French, during the production of isolated vowels and vowel-consonant-vowel (V1-C-V2) sequences. Trial-to-trial variability was measured in isolated vowels. Extra-syllabic anticipatory coarticulation was assessed in V1-C-V2 sequences by measuring the patterns of variability of V1 associated with variations in V2. Acoustic data were reported for all subjects and articulatory data, for a subset of 6 children and 2 adults. RESULTS: Trial-to-trial variability was significantly larger in children. Systematic and significant anticipation of V2 in V1 was always found in adults, but was rare in children. Significant anticipation was observed in children only when V1 was /a/, and only along the antero-posterior dimension, with a much smaller magnitude than in adults. A closer analysis of individual speakers revealed that some children showed adult-like anticipation along this dimension, whereas the majority did not. CONCLUSION: The larger trial-to-trial variability and the lack of anticipatory behavior in most children-two phenomena that have been observed in several non-speech motor tasks-support the hypothesis that motor control immaturity may explain a large part of the differences observed between speech production in adults and 4-year-old children, apart from other causes that may be linked with language development.


Assuntos
Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Acústica , Adulto , Antecipação Psicológica/fisiologia , Canadá , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Masculino , Fonética , Espectrografia do Som/métodos , Acústica da Fala , Testes de Articulação da Fala/métodos , Medida da Produção da Fala/métodos
13.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0227721, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298298

RESUMO

Speech fluency can be impaired in stressful situations. In this study, it was investigated whether a verbal fluency task by itself, i.e. without the presence of any further stressors, induces responses of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). The sample consisted of n = 85 participants (68.2% female; 33.3 ± 15.2 years) who performed two consecutive verbal fluency tasks for two minutes each. The categories were either 'stress' or 'disease' and 'animals' or 'foods' which were presented in a randomized order. Three saliva samples were collected, prior to the task (t0), immediately after (t1), and ten minutes after it (t2). Salivary α-amylase and cortisol were assessed. Furthermore, blood pressure, heart rate, and ratings of actual stress perception, level of effort, and tiredness were measured. The verbal fluency task induced a HPA axis response with a maximum cortisol level at t2 which was independent of task performance. Furthermore, perceived stress and effort, as well as tiredness increased after the task. Moreover, tiredness immediately after the task was negatively correlated with task performance. No α-amylase, blood pressure, or heart rate, and therefore SNS, responses were found. Implications for the integrated specificity model are discussed. We conclude that a verbal fluency task acts like an acute stressor that induces a cortisol and a perceived stress response without the need for further (e.g., social-evaluative) stress components. Therefore, it is a less time-consuming alternative to other stress tasks that can be used in field studies with little effort.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saliva/química , alfa-Amilases Salivares/análise , alfa-Amilases Salivares/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231322, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271836

RESUMO

Wrong-site surgeries can occur due to the absence of an appropriate surgical time-out. However, during a time-out, surgical participants are unable to review the patient's charts due to their aseptic hands. To improve the conditions in surgical time-outs, we introduce a deep learning-based smart speaker to confirm the surgical information prior to cataract surgeries. This pilot study utilized the publicly available audio vocabulary dataset and recorded audio data published by the authors. The audio clips of the target words, such as left, right, cataract, phacoemulsification, and intraocular lens, were selected to determine and confirm surgical information in the time-out speech. A deep convolutional neural network model was trained and implemented in the smart speaker that was developed using a mini development board and commercial speakerphone. To validate our model in the consecutive speeches during time-outs, we generated 200 time-out speeches for cataract surgeries by randomly selecting the surgical statuses of the surgical participants. After the training process, the deep learning model achieved an accuracy of 96.3% for the validation dataset of short-word audio clips. Our deep learning-based smart speaker achieved an accuracy of 93.5% for the 200 time-out speeches. The surgical and procedural accuracy was 100%. Additionally, on validating the deep learning model by using web-generated time-out speeches and video clips for general surgery, the model exhibited a robust and good performance. In this pilot study, the proposed deep learning-based smart speaker was able to successfully confirm the surgical information during the time-out speech. Future studies should focus on collecting real-world time-out data and automatically connecting the device to electronic health records. Adopting smart speaker-assisted time-out phases will improve the patients' safety during cataract surgeries, particularly in relation to wrong-site surgeries.


Assuntos
Extração de Catarata , Aprendizado Profundo , Erros Médicos/prevenção & controle , Catarata/patologia , Telefone Celular , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Fala
17.
Nat Neurosci ; 23(4): 575-582, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231340

RESUMO

A decade after speech was first decoded from human brain signals, accuracy and speed remain far below that of natural speech. Here we show how to decode the electrocorticogram with high accuracy and at natural-speech rates. Taking a cue from recent advances in machine translation, we train a recurrent neural network to encode each sentence-length sequence of neural activity into an abstract representation, and then to decode this representation, word by word, into an English sentence. For each participant, data consist of several spoken repeats of a set of 30-50 sentences, along with the contemporaneous signals from ~250 electrodes distributed over peri-Sylvian cortices. Average word error rates across a held-out repeat set are as low as 3%. Finally, we show how decoding with limited data can be improved with transfer learning, by training certain layers of the network under multiple participants' data.


Assuntos
Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Redes Neurais de Computação , Percepção da Fala , Fala , Adulto , Eletrocorticografia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230710, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243455

RESUMO

When speaking a foreign language, non-native speakers can typically be readily identified by their accents. But which aspects of the speech signal determine such accents? Speech pauses occur in all languages but may nonetheless vary in different languages with regard to their duration, number or positions in the speech stream, and therefore are one potential contributor to foreign speech production. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate whether non-native speakers pause 'with a foreign accent'. We recorded native English speakers and non-native speakers of German or Serbo-Croatian with excellent English reading out an English text at three different speech rates, and analyzed their vocal output in terms of number, duration and location of pauses. Overall, all non-native speakers were identified by native raters as having non-native accents, but native and non-native speakers made pauses that were similarly long, and had similar ratios of pause time compared to total speaking time. Furthermore, all speakers changed their pausing behavior similarly at different speech rates. The only clear difference between native and non-native speakers was that the latter made more pauses than the native speakers. Thus, overall, pause patterns contributed little to the acoustic characteristics of speakers' non-native accents, when reading aloud. Non-native pause patterns might be acquired more easily than other aspects of pronunciation because pauses are perceptually salient and producing pauses is easy. Alternatively, general cognitive processing mechanisms such as attention, planning or memory may constrain pausing behavior, allowing speakers to transfer their native pause patterns to a second language without significant deviation. We conclude that pauses make a relatively minor contribution to the acoustic characteristics of non-native accents.


Assuntos
Fala , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Multilinguismo , Percepção da Fala
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1877, 2020 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312995

RESUMO

In the brain, the semantic system is thought to store concepts. However, little is known about how it connects different concepts and infers semantic relations. To address this question, we collected hours of functional magnetic resonance imaging data from human subjects listening to natural stories. We developed a predictive model of the voxel-wise response and further applied it to thousands of new words. Our results suggest that both semantic categories and relations are represented by spatially overlapping cortical patterns, instead of anatomically segregated regions. Semantic relations that reflect conceptual progression from concreteness to abstractness are represented by cortical patterns of activation in the default mode network and deactivation in the frontoparietal attention network. We conclude that the human brain uses distributed networks to encode not only concepts but also relationships between concepts. In particular, the default mode network plays a central role in semantic processing for abstraction of concepts.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Semântica , Adulto , Atenção , Percepção Auditiva , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Modelos Teóricos , Fala/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 38(2): 149-154, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314887

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This research aims to collect speech samples from patients with cleft palate, establish a mandarin-based database of cleft palate speech after sample analysis and classification, and provide a reference for the diagnosis of hypernasal or cleft palate, clinical education, and standard training for professional speech therapists and related research. METHODS: A total of 768 speech samples were collected from patients and volunteers from the Speech Therapy Center, West China Hospital of Stomatology, between May 2016 and March 2018. These samples were edited and categoried before being saved into the cleft lip and palate biologic information database. RESULTS: A mandarin-based database of cleft palate speech was established from 768 subjects, including 456 children (male 227, female 229), 312 adults (male 178, female 134), 369 normal speech voices, 155 low-level hypernasal samples, 102 moderate-level hypernasal samples, 142 high-level hypernasal samples, and 64 512 words, 24 576 phonemes, and 7 680 numbers. CONCLUSIONS: This study first established a mandarin-based database of cleft palate speech, which has enormous value for the education of speech pathology of cleft palate in mandarin and further research.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Adulto , Criança , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fala
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