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1.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 38(2): 115-118, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611855

RESUMO

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of oral habit videos on YouTube™. Materials and Methods: The four keywords "Oral Habits," "Thumb Sucking," "Tongue Thrust", and "Finger Sucking" relevant terms oral habits were searched on YouTube™. The videos sorted by view count were screened and evaluated. The following exclusion criteria were defined as; non-English videos, unrelated to a topic, poor audio-video quality, and duplication. A hundred videos were analyzed for general video characteristics (number of views, likes, dislikes, number of comments, and uploaded date) the purpose of the video, information content, audio-visual quality, and viewers' interaction index. Results: The top hundred videos have been viewed an average of 26,870.83 times. Most videos were uploaded by dentists (n = 29; 29.0%). Most of the videos (44.0%) were classified as having moderate general information content and 38.0% were rated as good, and 18.0% were rated as poor. Videos generally involved information about oral habits (82.0%), followed by personal experience (12.0%). The viewers' interaction index of all evaluated YouTube™ videos was 0.59. Good content videos had a significantly higher interaction index than the other groups (P = 0.011). Conclusions: YouTube™ videos about the oral habits are generally inadequate and patients must be recommended to view them with caution. High quality and more informative videos about oral habits in dentistry should be uploaded to YouTube™ by professionals.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Emoções , Hábitos , Humanos , Gravação em Vídeo
2.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 38(2): 190-199, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611867

RESUMO

Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic debilitating irreversible oral potentially malignant disorder affecting any part of the oral cavity. It is usually seen in adults but rarely noticed in children and adolescents. Since the paucity of the cases, there exists a gap of knowledge in the causative habits, root reasons of habit initiation, age of habit initiation, and the common clinical representation of this disorder. The current article aims to bridge this gap by presenting unusual 36 cases of children and adolescents reported at the tertiary care hospital of Vadodara, Gujarat, India, with specific areca nut chewing habit and distinct features of OSMF. Furthermore, the present case series is the first of its kind in the scientific literature with a high number of OSMF cases in children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Fibrose Oral Submucosa , Adolescente , Adulto , Areca , Criança , Hábitos , Humanos , Índia , Mastigação
3.
Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd ; 127(6): 352-357, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716398

RESUMO

In the context of the growing knowledge about the influence of psychosocial factors on health, this article focuses on the role of stress in painful temporomandibular disorder and oral habits. Knowledge about the influence of stress on health, oral habits, and painful temporomandibular disorders is summarized, making clear that although knowledge is increasing, there is a lot still unclear. With regards to oral habits, it turns out that awake oral habits are, but oral habits during sleep are not influenced by stress, but better diagnostic procedures and more research distinguishing the different types of oral habits are needed in order to further our understanding. Increasing knowledge about the aetiology of painful temporomandibular disorders is showing a complex interplay of aetiological factors. Stress and oral habits are part of this, but much remains to be discovered about the way in which the aetiological factors interact and influence outcomes. When it comes to stress, especially childhood adversity appears to be a promising focus for further research.


Assuntos
Hábitos , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular , Criança , Dor Facial , Humanos , Dor
4.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(5): 568-574, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690842

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate and evaluate current knowledge and habits in prescribing preoperative antibiotic, and toward specific practice situations, in a subset of dental practitioners performing routine dental implant surgery in Saudi Arabia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was developed, and relevant information was gathered through a web-based survey from a dentist who performed surgical implant placement. Participant demographics, clinical experience, and educational background were obtained. Factors related to knowledge and practice of preoperative antibiotics prescription and relevant information were collected. Descriptive statistics (frequencies and percentages) were used to describe the categorical variables. Pearson's Chi-square test was used to compare the distribution of the categorical responses across specific survey variables. A p value of ≤ 0.05 was used to report the statistical significance of the responses relative to prescription habits. RESULTS: A total of 156 dentists participated in this study. Majority of the study sample was periodontists (70.5%, n = 110). About 63.5% of the study subjects do not prescribe prophylactic antibiotics. Private practitioners prescribed more antibiotics preoperatively (p = 0.019), while public and academic practitioners were in favor of developing guidelines toward antibiotics prescriptions (p = 0.009). Furthermore, a statistically significant difference was found between private and no private practitioners toward possible adverse complications when prescribing multidose antibiotics (p = 0.014). CONCLUSION: Various factors influence the knowledge and prescription habits toward prophylactic antibiotics among dental practitioners in routine dental implant procedures. The variability and conflicting practices require the attention of healthcare legislations and stakeholders, locally and globally, to improve antibiotics prescription habits. Furthermore, large-scale interventions, prescription stewardship programs, and collaborative work between professional and scientific organizations may be beneficial to address areas of concern. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Strategic policies and stewardship programs toward antibiotic prescription among dental practitioners may benefit in reducing the unjustified or misuse of these medications. Subsequently, this could minimize the potential development of bacterial resistance and unwanted events that might complicate the management of straightforward dental implant cases.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Odontólogos , Estudos Transversais , Hábitos , Humanos , Padrões de Prática Odontológica , Papel Profissional , Arábia Saudita , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 152: 110863, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479271

RESUMO

We investigated differences in the feeding habits of the starspotted smooth-hound, Mustelus manazo, in Tokyo Bay between the mid-1990s (low stock size) and the late 2000s (high stock size). The frequency of M. manazo with empty stomachs increased from 5.9% in the mid-1990s to 16.1% in the late 2000s. A decrease in the relative weight of the stomach contents was evident from the mid-1990s to the late 2000s, especially in the small size classes, along with changes in the species composition in the stomach contents. Although crustaceans were the main constituents of the stomach contents, the proportion of crabs increased while those of shrimps and hermit crabs decreased. Changes in the feeding habits of M. manazo may be associated with shifts in the benthic community structure in Tokyo Bay.


Assuntos
Baías , Elasmobrânquios , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Hábitos , Tóquio
6.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(2): 651-658, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476360

RESUMO

Tibetan red deer (Cervus wallichii) is an endemic species to China, which was once considered extinct in the wild. As there are several other wild ungulates and domestic animals with similar feeding habits within its habitat range, it's thus essential to study interspecific competition and co-existence between Tibetan red deer and other cohabiting ungulates in the highly unique environment of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Using microscopic analysis on fresh fecal samples collected in Sangri Tibetan Red Deer Nature Reserve from August to September in 2013 and 2014, the trophic niche width and overlap index were calculated on the basis of diet composition of C. wallichii, Cervus albirostris, Procapra picticaudata, Bos mutus and Capra hircas in green grass period. We analyzed and compared the overlap and differentiation of feeding habits between Tibetan red deer and other wild ungulates and domestic animals. The results showed that C. wallichii fed on similar edible plants with other species, but differed in proportion of different dietary components, with the main edible plants of C. wallichii being mostly the secondary edible plants to other species. Leontopodium pusillum was the common main edible plant for C. wallichii (percentage in animal recipes was 11.2%) and B. mutus (10.2%), Salix xizangensis was the common main edible plant of C. wallichii (9.6%) and C. albirostris (11.4%). At plant family level, Leguminosae was the common main edible plant family for C. wallichii (21.4%) and P. picticaudata (42.5%). Cyperaceae was the common main edible plant family for C. albirostris (49.2%), B. mutus (33.4%) and C. hircas (50.3%). Compositae was main edible plant family for C. wallichii (29.6%), as well as the secondary edible plant family for C. albirostris (7.6%), P. picticaudata (11.6%), B. mutus (17.3%) and C. hircas (14.1%). As the secondary edible plant family for C. wallichii (7.1%), Gramineae took up a lower proportion than that of the other ungulates (C. albirostris (13.6%), P. picticaudata (12.3%), B. mutus (11.5%) and C. hircas (16.0%)). Food overlap indices between C. wallichii and the other ungulates were all higher than 0.5, and the highest with B. mutus (0.65). The food diversity index (1.32), evenness index (0.37) and niche width index (15.79) of C. wallichii were all at high values. Compared with the results from 2007 to 2008, dietary composition of Tibetan red deer changed greatly as the proportion of Leguminosae increased while that of Cyperaceae decreased, resulting in improvement of food quality. In addition, there was greater competition of food resources between C. wallichii and domestic animals, which would further affect the distribution range and living space of C. wallichii.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos , Cervos , Animais , Bovinos , China , Hábitos , Poaceae , Tibet
7.
J Frailty Aging ; 9(3): 139-143, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association of physical activity (PA) intensities and duration spent in those activities with different walking tasks remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between the duration of PA intensities and three walking speeds (usual walking speed, maximal walking speed and zig-zag walking speed). DESIGN: Multiple linear regression analysis was used to estimate the association of age, BMI, maximum knee extension strength, light PA, moderate PA and vigorous PA with walking speeds. SETTING: University lab. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-six older women (67 ± 7 years). MEASUREMENTS: PA was measured for 30 consecutive days using the Lifecorder-EX accelerometer. Exercise intensity was categorized as light (levels 1-3), moderate (levels 4-6) and vigorous (levels 7-9) based on the manufacturer algorithms. Usual straight walking speed (20 m), maximal straight walking speed (20 m) and zig-zag walking speed tests (10 m) were performed by each participant. RESULTS: For the usual straight walking speed model (R2 = 0.296, SEE = 0.15 m/s), the significant predictors were BMI, knee extension strength, light PA and vigorous PA. For the maximal straight walking speed model (R2 = 0.326, SEE = 0.20 m/s), only age was a significant predictor. For the zig-zag walking speed model (R2=0.417, SEE = 0.14 m/s), age and maximum knee strength were significant predictors in the model. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the results of this study suggest that vigorous PA and maximal knee extension strength are two important factors that are associated with different walking speeds in older women.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Velocidade de Caminhada , Acelerometria , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hábitos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(22): e20247, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481392

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Eye rubbing (ER) is a proven factor that can trigger the onset and progression of keratoconus (KC). Apart from allergy, ER is a repetitive motor stereotypy. Eye rubbing is frequently observed in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and in individuals who may be at risk for developing KC. We present a child with ASD who developed progressive KC following standard corneal cross-linking (CXL), most likely because of abnormal ER associated with allergy and repetitive behavior due to ASD symptoms. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 14-year-old boy was referred to our clinic because of asymmetric visual acuity reduction. DIAGNOSIS: The child was diagnosed as having keratoconus. He had a strong ER habit. The child had been previously diagnosed as having ASD. INTERVENTIONS: Corneal cross-linking was performed in both the eyes. On account of keratoconus progression, most likely associated with persistent ER habit, he was retreated with CXL in the right eye. Behavioral modification intervention for ER habit reversal was also applied. OUTCOMES: Corneal cross-linking in combination with behavioral modification intervention for ER habit reversal prevented further KC progression. LESSONS: Behavioral interventions are likely to provide positive results in an ER habit reversal in children with ASD. Keratoconus treatment with CXL combined with behavioral management for ER reversal seemed effective in halting keratoconus progression in a young patient with ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Ceratocone/complicações , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Terapia Comportamental , Hábitos , Humanos , Ceratocone/radioterapia , Masculino , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Riboflavina/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Terapia Ultravioleta , Acuidade Visual
9.
Encephale ; 46(3S): S53-S59, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475692

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Explore the evolution of sleep during the SARS-CoV-2 quarantine period and define associated factors. METHODS: An online survey of patients in quarantine. Questions targeted the conditions of quarantine, sleep related behaviours and exposure to factors known to affect sleep and circadian rhythms (light exposure and sport). RESULTS: In all, 1777 participants were included: 77% women and 72% aged 25-54 years. Quarantine conditions were most frequently in couples with children (36%) and in a house with a garden (51%). Forty-seven percent of participants reported a decrease in sleep quality during quarantine. Factors associated with a reduction in sleep quality by logistic regression were sleep reduction (OR 15.52 P<0.001), going to bed later (OR 1.72 P<0.001), getting up earlier (2.18 P=0.01), an increase in sleep-wake irregularity (OR 2.29 P<0.001), reduced exposure to daylight (OR 1.46 P=0.01) and increased screen use in the evenings (OR 1.33 P=0.04). CONCLUSION: Sleep quality tended to reduce during quarantine and this was associated with changes in sleep behaviours and light exposure, especially in the evening. In order to optimise sleep during quarantine, regular sleep and wake times, at least 1hour exposure to daylight and a reduction of screen use in the evenings are suggested.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Quarentena , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Sono , Isolamento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Dissonias/tratamento farmacológico , Dissonias/epidemiologia , Dissonias/etiologia , Exercício Físico , Família , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Hábitos , Habitação , Humanos , Luz , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistemas On-Line , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Sono/fisiologia , Sono/efeitos da radiação , Medicamentos Indutores do Sono , Privação do Sono , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/etiologia , Latência do Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232213, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374783

RESUMO

The younger generation is the largest Internet user group in China. They are the first generation to grow up with computers, the Internet, smartphones, online social media, and online shopping. The individuals that belong to this generational cohort have one thing in common-their online shopping behavior. To understand the shopping behavior of the younger Chinese generation, this study draws on the theoretical foundation of generational cohort theory. This study proposes an integrated model that examines the effects of information adoption, personalized service, perceived switching risk, and habitual behavior on purchase intention in the online shopping environment. Survey data have been collected from 407 Chinese people that belong to the post-90s generation. Structural equation modeling is used to analyze the data. Empirical findings show that information adoption, personalized service, and perceived switching risk are the most important predictors of online purchase intention. However, habitual behavior is negatively related to online purchase intention.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Econômicos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hábitos , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
11.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(1): e20190833, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321028

RESUMO

Malocclusions are changes in the development of craniofacial structures of high prevalence. Associated risk factors are diverse and nutritional and non-nutritional suction habits are the most reported. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of malocclusions in the mixed dentition and to study possible association with practices of breastfeeding and suction habits among Brazilian schoolchildren. A cross-sectional study involving a sample of 664 6-year-old children and their families was carried out. Data collection was done through interviews with mothers in the homes and oral examinations of children in schools. Multivariate analyses were performed using the Poisson regression with a robust estimator. The prevalence of overjet over 4 mm was 21.1% and of posterior crossbite was 12.2%; 91.9% of the children were breastfed, 79.0% used a nursing bottle and 49.4% used a pacifier. Significant and independent associations were observed between father's unemployment, private school, interruption of breastfeeding before the fourth month and pacifier use with certain malocclusions. High rates of malocclusion were found in the studied sample. Socioeconomic conditions, breastfeeding practices and suction habits were shown to be statistically associated with their occurrence.


Assuntos
Alimentação Artificial/efeitos adversos , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Dentição Mista , Hábitos , Má Oclusão/epidemiologia , Chupetas/efeitos adversos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Má Oclusão/etiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 153: 110983, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275538

RESUMO

Salt marshes in urban watersheds are prone to microplastics (MP) pollution due to their hydrological characteristics and exposure to urban runoff, but little is known about MP distributions in species from these habitats. In the current study, MP occurrence was determined in six benthic invertebrate species from salt marshes along the North Adriatic lagoons (Italy) and the Schelde estuary (Netherlands). The species represented different feeding modes and sediment localisation. 96% of the analysed specimens (330) did not contain any MP, which was consistent across different regions and sites. Suspension and facultative deposit-feeding bivalves exhibited a lower MP occurrence (0.5-3%) relative to omnivores (95%) but contained a much more variable distribution of MP sizes, shapes and polymers. The study provides indications that MP physicochemical properties and species' ecological traits could all influence MP exposure, uptake and retention in benthic organisms inhabiting European salt marsh ecosystems.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Poluentes da Água/análise , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , Ecossistema , Hábitos , Itália , Países Baixos
13.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230672, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Four Habits Coding Scheme (4-HCS) is a standardized instrument designed to assess physicians' communication skills from an external rater's perspective, based on video-recorded consultations. OBJECTIVE: To perform the cross-cultural adaptation of the 4-HCS into French and to assess its psychometric properties. METHODS: The 4-HCS was cross-culturally adapted by conducting forward and backward translations with independent translators, following international guidelines. Four raters rated 200 video-recorded medical student consultations with standardized patients, using the French version of the 4-HCS. We examined the internal consistency, factor structure, construct validity, and reliability of the 4-HCS. RESULTS: The mean overall 4-HCS score was 76.44 (standard deviation, 12.34), with no floor or ceiling effects across subscales. The median rating duration of rating was 8 min (range, 4-19). Cronbach's alpha was 0.94 for the overall 4-HCS, ranging from 0.72 to 0.88 across subscales. In confirmatory factor analysis, goodness-of-fit statistics did not corroborate the hypothesized 4-habit structure. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in two dimensions, with the merging of three conceptually related habits into a single dimension and substantial cross-loading for 15 out of 23 items. Median average absolute-agreement intra-class correlation coefficient estimates were 0.74 (range, 0.68-0.84) and 0.85 (range, 0.76-0.91) for inter- and intra-rater reliability of habit subscales, respectively. CONCLUSION: The French version of the 4-HCS demonstrates satisfactory internal consistency but requires the use of two independent raters to achieve acceptable reliability. The underlying factor structure of the original US version and cross-cultural adaptations of the 4-HCS deserve further investigation.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Comparação Transcultural , Idioma , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hábitos , Humanos , Médicos/psicologia , Psicometria , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231078, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Certain cosmetic habits may trigger or aggravate rosacea, while there is little published epidemiologic evidence to support this point. PURPOSE: To examine if daily skin care habits have an effect on the development of rosacea in Chinese population. METHODS: A multi-center retrospective case-control survey of 1,245 rosacea cases and 1,538 skin-healthy controls was conducted in China. Participants completed the questionnaire comprised of demographic characteristics, socioeconomic data and daily skin care habits. Data were collected retrospectively and analyzed using the chi-square test and t-test. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to predict rosacea. RESULTS: The multivariate logistic regression analysis highlighted some results: Dry, oily or mixed skin (OR = 6.3-6.9, P< .001), the usage of foaming cleanser (OR = 1.45, 95%CI 1.115-1.886, P = .01), make up more than 6 times a week (OR = 2.839, 95%CI 1.962-4.108, P< .001), using facial mask more than 4 times a week (OR = 2.56-3.069, P< .001), facial treatments at beauty salon more than once a week (OR = 4.946, 95%CI 2.005-12.198, P = .0018) and using beauty salon products (OR = 2.334, 95%CI 1.435-3.976, P = .0018) are positively correlated with the development of rosacea. Using of moisturizing products (OR = 0.602, 95%CI 0.386-0.983, P = .035) and sunscreen cream (OR = 0.303-0.507, P< .001 or P = .0167 for different frequency) presented significantly negative correlations with rosacea. Frequency of cleansing showed a nonlinear association with rosacea: using facial cleansers 1~3 times per week (OR = 0.647, 95%CI 0.429-0.975, P = .038) showed beneficial effects while using facial cleanser excessively (twice or more daily) (OR = 2.131, 95%CI 1.394-3.256, P< .001) positively correlated to rosacea strongly. CONCLUSIONS: Excessive use of facial cleanser (twice or more a day) and facial mask (more than 4 times a week), frequent makeup (more than 6 times a week), regular skin care in beauty salon (more than once a week), and using beauty salon products were closely correlated to the development of rosacea in Chinese population.


Assuntos
Cosméticos/efeitos adversos , Face/patologia , Rosácea/epidemiologia , Dermatopatias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hábitos , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Rosácea/etiologia , Rosácea/patologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/patologia , Higiene da Pele/efeitos adversos , Dermatopatias/etiologia , Dermatopatias/patologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(20): 25287-25296, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347493

RESUMO

The influence of farmers' production experience on pesticide overuse is empirically analyzed by an endogenous switching probit model of pesticide use time, type, and dosage, based on survey data of 836 rice farmers in the Yangtze River Basin of China. We find that farmers' production experience is an important cause of pesticide overuse, especially for small-scale farmers. Older, self-sufficient, small-scale, non-cooperative members and rice farmers with distant market towns are more likely to use pesticides based on their personal experience. In terms of pesticide use time, type, and dosage, 35.26%, 30.10%, and 28.52% of the samples, respectively, relied on a decision based on "experience." Among them, farmers' decision-making based on production experience for pesticide type and dosage are the key causes of pesticide overuse. These results will be helpful for reducing pesticides and correcting farmers' "bad habits" within agricultural ecosystems.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Praguicidas , Agricultura , China , Ecossistema , Fazendeiros , Hábitos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
16.
Food Chem ; 321: 126694, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244140

RESUMO

Red cabbage contains glucosinolates, precursors to health-promoting isothiocyanates. However, raw cabbage often releases mainly epithionitriles and nitriles from glucosinolates. To increase isothiocyanate formation, the effect of acid usage in the preparation of red cabbage was evaluated. Moreover, the effects of the chosen boiling method (acidic boiled red cabbage versus neutral boiled blue cabbage) on glucosinolate degradation were investigated using UHPLC-DAD-ToF-MS and GC-MS. The addition of vinegar significantly increased isothiocyanate formation of cabbage salad from 0.09 to 0.21 µmol/g fresh weight, while lemon juice only slightly increased isothiocyanate formation. Acidic boiled red cabbage degraded glucosinolates and increased nitrile formation, while in neutral boiled blue cabbage, glucosinolates were stable. However, shortly boiled blue cabbage (5 min) had the highest isothiocyanate levels (0.08 µmol/g fresh weight). Thus, for a diet rich in isothiocyanates it is recommended to acidify raw cabbage salads and prepare shortly boiled blue cabbage instead of red cabbage.


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Culinária/métodos , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Saladas , Ácido Acético/química , Brassica/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Comportamento Alimentar , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hábitos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Isotiocianatos/química , Isotiocianatos/metabolismo , Nitrilos/metabolismo
17.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e30, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32292146

RESUMO

Cushman claims that post hoc rationalization of habitual behavior can improve future reasoning. His characterization of habits includes two components: (1) habitual behavior is a non-rational process, and (2) habitual behavior is sometimes rationalized. We argue that Cushman fails to show any habits that are apt targets for rationalization. Thus, it's unclear when - if ever - rationalizing habits would improve reasoning.


Assuntos
Hábitos , Racionalização
18.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 29, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contextual cues play an important role in facilitating behaviour change. They not only support memory but may also help to make the new behaviour automatic through the formation of new routines. However, previous research shows that when people start a new behaviour, they tend to select cues that lack effectiveness for prompting behaviour. Therefore, it is important to understand what influences cue selection, as this can help to identify acceptable cues, which in turn could inform future behaviour change interventions to help people select cues that best fit their context and so ensure continued repetition. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study to investigate what cues people select, how, and what influences their decisions. We recruited 39 participants and asked them to take vitamin C tablets daily for 3 weeks and later interviewed them about their experience. Quantitative habit strength and memory measures were taken for descriptive purposes. RESULTS: Cue selection was primarily influenced by a desire to minimise effort, e.g. keeping related objects at hand or in a visible place; prior experience with similar behaviours (regardless of whether the cues used in the past were reliable or not); and beliefs about effective approaches. In addition, we found that suboptimal remembering strategies involved reliance on a single cue and loosely defined plans that do not specify cues. Moreover, for many participants, identifying optimal cues required trial and error, as people were rarely able to anticipate in advance what approach would work best for them. CONCLUSIONS: Future behaviour change interventions that rely on routine behaviours might fruitfully include the provision of educational information regarding what approaches are suboptimal (single factors, vaguely defined plans) and what is most likely to work (combining multiple clearly defined cues). They should also assess people's existing beliefs about how to best remember specific behaviours as such beliefs can either enhance or inhibit the cues they select. Finally, interventions should account for the fact that early failures to remember are part of the process of developing a reliable remembering strategy and to be expected.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Hábitos , Adulto , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
20.
Environ Pollut ; 262: 114132, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179218

RESUMO

In this study, total concentration and inhalation bioaccessibility (dissolution in simulated biological solution) of trace elements (TE) and rare earth elements (REE) were assessed in PM10 from Canadian house dust samples with smoking (n = 25) and non-smoking (n = 25) status. Compared to the natural background concentrations in Canadian soils, median Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu concentrations in PM10 were 10-23 fold higher, while median La, Ce and Pr concentrations were 1.6-2.4 fold higher. Mann-Whitney tests (α = 0.05) indicated no difference between the median TE concentrations based on the smoking status of the household; however, median REE concentrations were significantly higher in the PM10 of smoking households. Additionally, Cd and Ni were positively correlated (Spearman r, p < 0.05) to La, Ce and Nd in smoking households, suggesting that tobacco combustion may have contributed REE in the PM10 of these households. Median inhalation-ingestion bioaccessibility assay outcomes of arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) was higher in the non-smoking households when compared to smoking households (Mann Whitney test, α = 0.05), suggesting that tobacco combustion products may be associated with less soluble species of As and Pb. Although REE bioaccessibility was negligible in simulated lung epithelial fluid regardless of the smoking status of the household, bioaccessibility in the lung-gastric phase was 23.6-27.6% in the smoking household and 34.7-36.7% in the non-smoking households, indicating a significantly lower REE dissolution in PM10 of smoking households. In contrast, between 17 and 21.9% bioaccessibility of REE was observed when artificial lysosomal fluid was used, where the outcome was not significantly affected by the smoking status. This study indicates that despite a higher median REE concentration in the PM10 of smoking households, inhalation bioaccessibility may be significantly influenced by the mineralogy.


Assuntos
Metais Terras Raras , Oligoelementos , Canadá , Poeira/análise , Hábitos
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