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2.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 38(2): 115-118, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611855

RESUMO

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of oral habit videos on YouTube™. Materials and Methods: The four keywords "Oral Habits," "Thumb Sucking," "Tongue Thrust", and "Finger Sucking" relevant terms oral habits were searched on YouTube™. The videos sorted by view count were screened and evaluated. The following exclusion criteria were defined as; non-English videos, unrelated to a topic, poor audio-video quality, and duplication. A hundred videos were analyzed for general video characteristics (number of views, likes, dislikes, number of comments, and uploaded date) the purpose of the video, information content, audio-visual quality, and viewers' interaction index. Results: The top hundred videos have been viewed an average of 26,870.83 times. Most videos were uploaded by dentists (n = 29; 29.0%). Most of the videos (44.0%) were classified as having moderate general information content and 38.0% were rated as good, and 18.0% were rated as poor. Videos generally involved information about oral habits (82.0%), followed by personal experience (12.0%). The viewers' interaction index of all evaluated YouTube™ videos was 0.59. Good content videos had a significantly higher interaction index than the other groups (P = 0.011). Conclusions: YouTube™ videos about the oral habits are generally inadequate and patients must be recommended to view them with caution. High quality and more informative videos about oral habits in dentistry should be uploaded to YouTube™ by professionals.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Emoções , Hábitos , Humanos , Gravação em Vídeo
3.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 38(2): 190-199, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611867

RESUMO

Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic debilitating irreversible oral potentially malignant disorder affecting any part of the oral cavity. It is usually seen in adults but rarely noticed in children and adolescents. Since the paucity of the cases, there exists a gap of knowledge in the causative habits, root reasons of habit initiation, age of habit initiation, and the common clinical representation of this disorder. The current article aims to bridge this gap by presenting unusual 36 cases of children and adolescents reported at the tertiary care hospital of Vadodara, Gujarat, India, with specific areca nut chewing habit and distinct features of OSMF. Furthermore, the present case series is the first of its kind in the scientific literature with a high number of OSMF cases in children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Fibrose Oral Submucosa , Adolescente , Adulto , Areca , Criança , Hábitos , Humanos , Índia , Mastigação
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(7): e2016924, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725247

RESUMO

Importance: There is insufficient evidence on the efficacy of masks in the general population for the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in public areas. Therefore, it is imperative to investigate the association of mandatory mask-wearing policies with behaviors associated with the transmission of COVID-19. Objective: To assess the association of mask wearing with face-touching behavior among the general population in public areas. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used videos recorded in public transportation stations, streets, and parks among the general population in China, Japan, South Korea, Western Europe (ie, England, France, Germany, Spain, and Italy), and the US to analyze mask-wearing and face-touching behavior in public areas. Videos before the COVID-19 pandemic were defined as those recorded from January 2018 to October 2019, and those during the COVID-19 pandemic were defined as those recorded during February 2020 to March 2020 in China, Japan, and South Korea and during March 2020 in Western Europe and the US. Individuals who clearly displayed their face and face-touching behavior were included, and those whose behaviors were influenced by filming or public events were excluded. Exposures: Mandatory mask-wearing policies enacted at various time points in China, Japan, South Korea, Western Europe, and the US. Main Outcomes and Measures: Proportion of individuals wearing masks and incidence of face touching. Results: This study included 4699 individuals before the COVID-19 pandemic and 2887 individuals during the pandemic. During the periods studied, mask wearing increased in all regions except the US, from 20 of 1745 individuals (1.1%) to 1090 of 1097 individuals (99.4%) in mainland China (P < .001), 44 of 1422 individuals (3.1%) to 346 of 893 individuals (38.7%) in Japan (P < .001), 6 of 717 individuals (0.8%) to 277 of 324 individuals (85.5% ) in South Korea (P < .001), 1 of 546 individuals (0.2%) to 6 of 379 individuals (1.6%) in Western Europe (P = .02), and 1 of 269 individuals (0.4%) to 4 of 194 individuals (2.1%) in the US (P = .17). Surgical masks were predominant in China (989 masks [89.1%]), and fabric masks were predominant in the other regions (Japan: 371 masks [95.1%]; South Korea: 240 masks [84.8%]; Western Europe: 6 masks [85.7%]; US: 5 masks [100%]). Face-touching behaviors decreased from before COVID-19 to during COVID-19 among individuals in China (72 incidences of 1745 observations [4.1%] to 12 incidences of 1097 observations [1.1%]; P < .001), South Korea (80 incidences of 717 observations [11.2%] to 7 incidences of 324 observations [2.2%]; P < .001), and Europe (62 incidences of 546 observations [11.4%] to 23 incidences of 379 observations [6.1%]; P = .01). Logistic regression found that mask wearing was associated with a reduction in face touching in China (odds ratio [OR], 3.91; 95% CI, 2.11-7.24) and South Korea (OR, 6.69; 95% CI, 2.69-16.69) and of touching the nose, mouth, and eyes (China: OR, 8.60; 95% CI, 2.65-27.86; South Korea: OR, 29.27; 95% CI, 1.79-478.22). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cross-sectional study suggest that mandatory mask-wearing policies were associated with increased mask wearing during the COVID-19 pandemic. Mask wearing was associated with reduced face-touching behavior, especially touching of the eyes, nose, and mouth, which may prevent contact transmission of COVID-19 among the general population in public areas.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Face , Hábitos , Máscaras , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Tato , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Extremo Oriente/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
J Appl Behav Anal ; 53(3): 1225-1236, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686131

RESUMO

Habit reversal training (HRT) has been a mainstay of behavior analysts' repertoire for nearly the last 50 years. HRT has been effective in treating a host of repetitive behavior problems. In the face of the current coronavirus pandemic, HRT has practical public health importance as a possible intervention for reducing hand-to-head behaviors that increase the risk of viral infection. The current paper provides a brief review of HRT for hand-to-head habits that is designed for a broad audience and concludes with practical suggestions, based on HRT, for reducing face-touching behaviors.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental , Hábitos , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Face , Mãos , Cabeça , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
6.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(5): 568-574, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690842

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate and evaluate current knowledge and habits in prescribing preoperative antibiotic, and toward specific practice situations, in a subset of dental practitioners performing routine dental implant surgery in Saudi Arabia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was developed, and relevant information was gathered through a web-based survey from a dentist who performed surgical implant placement. Participant demographics, clinical experience, and educational background were obtained. Factors related to knowledge and practice of preoperative antibiotics prescription and relevant information were collected. Descriptive statistics (frequencies and percentages) were used to describe the categorical variables. Pearson's Chi-square test was used to compare the distribution of the categorical responses across specific survey variables. A p value of ≤ 0.05 was used to report the statistical significance of the responses relative to prescription habits. RESULTS: A total of 156 dentists participated in this study. Majority of the study sample was periodontists (70.5%, n = 110). About 63.5% of the study subjects do not prescribe prophylactic antibiotics. Private practitioners prescribed more antibiotics preoperatively (p = 0.019), while public and academic practitioners were in favor of developing guidelines toward antibiotics prescriptions (p = 0.009). Furthermore, a statistically significant difference was found between private and no private practitioners toward possible adverse complications when prescribing multidose antibiotics (p = 0.014). CONCLUSION: Various factors influence the knowledge and prescription habits toward prophylactic antibiotics among dental practitioners in routine dental implant procedures. The variability and conflicting practices require the attention of healthcare legislations and stakeholders, locally and globally, to improve antibiotics prescription habits. Furthermore, large-scale interventions, prescription stewardship programs, and collaborative work between professional and scientific organizations may be beneficial to address areas of concern. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Strategic policies and stewardship programs toward antibiotic prescription among dental practitioners may benefit in reducing the unjustified or misuse of these medications. Subsequently, this could minimize the potential development of bacterial resistance and unwanted events that might complicate the management of straightforward dental implant cases.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Odontólogos , Estudos Transversais , Hábitos , Humanos , Padrões de Prática Odontológica , Papel Profissional , Arábia Saudita , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd ; 127(6): 352-357, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716398

RESUMO

In the context of the growing knowledge about the influence of psychosocial factors on health, this article focuses on the role of stress in painful temporomandibular disorder and oral habits. Knowledge about the influence of stress on health, oral habits, and painful temporomandibular disorders is summarized, making clear that although knowledge is increasing, there is a lot still unclear. With regards to oral habits, it turns out that awake oral habits are, but oral habits during sleep are not influenced by stress, but better diagnostic procedures and more research distinguishing the different types of oral habits are needed in order to further our understanding. Increasing knowledge about the aetiology of painful temporomandibular disorders is showing a complex interplay of aetiological factors. Stress and oral habits are part of this, but much remains to be discovered about the way in which the aetiological factors interact and influence outcomes. When it comes to stress, especially childhood adversity appears to be a promising focus for further research.


Assuntos
Hábitos , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular , Criança , Dor Facial , Humanos , Dor
8.
Acta Biomed ; 91(9-S): 87-89, 2020 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701921

RESUMO

In March 2020, when the Government imposed nation-wide lockdown measures to contrast the COVID-19 outbreak, the life of Italians suddenly changed. In order to evaluate the impact of lockdown on lifestyle habits and behavioral risk factors of the general adult population in Italy, we set up the Lost in Italy (LOckdown and lifeSTyles IN ITALY) project. Within this project, the online panel of Doxa was used to conduct a web-based cross-sectional study during the first phase of the lockdown, on a large representative sample of adults aged 18-74 years (N=6003). The self-administered questionnaire included information on lifestyle habits and perceived physical and mental health, through the use of validated scales. As we are working within the Lost in Italy project, we got two additional grants to further research on the medium-term impact of lockdown, a topic of great interest and with anticipated large socio-economic and public health implications. In details: we obtained by the AXA Research Fund support to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on physical, mental, and social wellbeing of elderly and fragile populations in the Lombardy region, the area most heavily hit by the pandemic in the country. Moreover, as a fruitful integration, we obtained support by the Directorate General for Welfare of the region to assess health services delivery and access to healthcare in the same study population, combining an analysis of administrative databases with an economic analysis. We are confident that the solid background of our partners, the multi-disciplinary competencies they bring, together with appropriate funding and access to rich data sources will allow us to fulfill our research objectives.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Estilo de Vida , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Hábitos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235486, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609762

RESUMO

Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) inhibits the activity of thioredoxin (TXN), leading to increased oxidative stress. Expression of the TXNIP gene is regulated by DNA methylation. However, no study has reported the influence of lifestyle factors on TXNIP DNA methylation. Our goal was to determine the association between smoking habits and TXNIP DNA methylation levels in a Japanese population. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 417 subjects (180 males and 237 females) participating in a health examination. We used a pyrosequencing assay to determine TXNIP DNA methylation levels in leukocytes. The mean TXNIP DNA methylation level in current smokers (75.3%) was significantly lower than that in never and ex-smokers (never: 78.1%, p < 0.001; ex: 76.9%, p = 0.013). Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that the OR for TXNIP DNA hypomethylation was significantly higher in current smokers than that in never smokers, and significantly higher in current smokers with years of smoking ≥ 35 and Brinkman Index ≥ 600 compared to that in non-smokers. In conclusion, we found that current smokers had TXNIP DNA hypomethylation compared to never and ex-smokers. Moreover, long-term smoking and high smoking exposure also were associated with TXNIP DNA hypomethylation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Metilação de DNA , Hábitos , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Fumar/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Exp Psychol ; 67(2): 99-111, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729400

RESUMO

Instrumental learning is regulated by two memory systems: a relatively rigid but efficient habit system and a flexible but resource-demanding goal-directed system. Previous work has demonstrated that exposure to acute stress may shift the balance between these systems toward the habitual system. In the current study, we used a 2-day outcome devaluation paradigm with a 75% reward contingency rate and altered food reward categories to replicate and extend our previous findings. Participants learned neutral stimulus-response-reward associations on the first day. On the second day, rewards were devalued by eating to satiety. Subsequently, acute stress was induced in half of the participants using the Maastricht Acute Stress Test, while the other half engaged in a nonstressful control task. Finally, relative goal-directed versus habitual behavior was evaluated in a slips-of-action phase, where more slips-of-action indicate a shift toward the habitual system. Results showed that participants successfully acquired the stimulus-response-reward associations, that devaluation was effective, and that stressed participants displayed significant increases in cortisol and blood pressure. Stress led participants to commit more slips-of-action compared with nonstressed controls. The current study extends previous work, showing that the employed paradigm and outcome devaluation procedure are boundary conditions to the stress-induced shift in instrumental responding.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Objetivos , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Hábitos , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
11.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 152: 110863, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479271

RESUMO

We investigated differences in the feeding habits of the starspotted smooth-hound, Mustelus manazo, in Tokyo Bay between the mid-1990s (low stock size) and the late 2000s (high stock size). The frequency of M. manazo with empty stomachs increased from 5.9% in the mid-1990s to 16.1% in the late 2000s. A decrease in the relative weight of the stomach contents was evident from the mid-1990s to the late 2000s, especially in the small size classes, along with changes in the species composition in the stomach contents. Although crustaceans were the main constituents of the stomach contents, the proportion of crabs increased while those of shrimps and hermit crabs decreased. Changes in the feeding habits of M. manazo may be associated with shifts in the benthic community structure in Tokyo Bay.


Assuntos
Baías , Elasmobrânquios , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Hábitos , Tóquio
12.
J Frailty Aging ; 9(3): 139-143, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association of physical activity (PA) intensities and duration spent in those activities with different walking tasks remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between the duration of PA intensities and three walking speeds (usual walking speed, maximal walking speed and zig-zag walking speed). DESIGN: Multiple linear regression analysis was used to estimate the association of age, BMI, maximum knee extension strength, light PA, moderate PA and vigorous PA with walking speeds. SETTING: University lab. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-six older women (67 ± 7 years). MEASUREMENTS: PA was measured for 30 consecutive days using the Lifecorder-EX accelerometer. Exercise intensity was categorized as light (levels 1-3), moderate (levels 4-6) and vigorous (levels 7-9) based on the manufacturer algorithms. Usual straight walking speed (20 m), maximal straight walking speed (20 m) and zig-zag walking speed tests (10 m) were performed by each participant. RESULTS: For the usual straight walking speed model (R2 = 0.296, SEE = 0.15 m/s), the significant predictors were BMI, knee extension strength, light PA and vigorous PA. For the maximal straight walking speed model (R2 = 0.326, SEE = 0.20 m/s), only age was a significant predictor. For the zig-zag walking speed model (R2=0.417, SEE = 0.14 m/s), age and maximum knee strength were significant predictors in the model. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the results of this study suggest that vigorous PA and maximal knee extension strength are two important factors that are associated with different walking speeds in older women.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Velocidade de Caminhada , Acelerometria , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hábitos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234424, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530930

RESUMO

Researchers have exerted tremendous efforts to empirically study how habits form and dominate at the expense of deliberation, yet we know very little about breaking these rigid habits to restore goal-directed control. In a three-experiment study, we first illustrate a novel approach of studying well-learned habits, in order to effectively demonstrate habit disruption. In Experiment 1, we use a Go/NoGo task with familiar color-response associations to demonstrate outcome-insensitivity when compared to novel, more flexible associations. Specifically, subjects perform more accurately when the required mapping is the familiar association of green-Go/red-NoGo than when it is red-Go/green-NoGo, confirming outcome-insensitive, habitual control. As a control condition, subjects show equivalent performance with unfamiliar color-response mappings (using the colors blue and purple mapped to Go and NoGo responses). Next, in Experiments 2 and 3, we test a motivation-based feedback manipulation in varying magnitudes (i.e., performance feedback with and without monetary incentives) to break the well-established habits elicited by our familiar stimuli. We find that although performance feedback prior to the contingency reversal test is insufficient to disrupt outcome-insensitivity in Experiment 2, a combination of performance feedback and monetary incentive is able to restore goal-directed control in Experiment 3, effectively breaking the habits. As the first successful demonstration of well-learned habit disruption in the laboratory, these findings provide new insights into how we execute and modify habits, while fostering new and translational research avenues that may be applicable to treating habit-based pathologies.


Assuntos
Hábitos , Adolescente , Aprendizagem por Associação , Cor , Feminino , Objetivos , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Motivação , Estimulação Luminosa , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 741: 140489, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599395

RESUMO

Starting from December 2019 the world has faced an unprecedented health crisis caused by the new Coronavirus (COVID-19) due to the SARS-CoV-2 pathogen. Within this topic, the aim of the paper was to quantify the effect of mobility habits in the spread of the Coronavirus in Italy through a multiple linear regression model. Estimation results showed that mobility habits represent one of the variables that explains the number of COVID-19 infections jointly with the number of tests/day and some environmental variables (i.e. PM pollution and temperature). Nevertheless, a proximity variable to the first outbreak was also significant, meaning that the areas close to the outbreak had a higher risk of contagion, especially in the initial stage of infection (time-decay phenomena). Furthermore, the number of daily new cases was related to the trips performed three weeks before. This threshold of 21 days could be considered as a sort of positivity detection time, meaning that the mobility restrictions quarantine commonly set at 14 days, defined only according to incubation-based epidemiological considerations, is underestimated (possible delays between contagion and detection) as a containment policy and may not always contribute to effectively slowing down the spread of virus worldwide. This result is original and, if confirmed in other studies, will lay the groundwork for more effective containment of COVID-19 in countries that are still in the health emergency, as well as for possible future returns of the virus.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Hábitos , Humanos , Itália
15.
Encephale ; 46(3S): S53-S59, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475692

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Explore the evolution of sleep during the SARS-CoV-2 quarantine period and define associated factors. METHODS: An online survey of patients in quarantine. Questions targeted the conditions of quarantine, sleep related behaviours and exposure to factors known to affect sleep and circadian rhythms (light exposure and sport). RESULTS: In all, 1777 participants were included: 77% women and 72% aged 25-54 years. Quarantine conditions were most frequently in couples with children (36%) and in a house with a garden (51%). Forty-seven percent of participants reported a decrease in sleep quality during quarantine. Factors associated with a reduction in sleep quality by logistic regression were sleep reduction (OR 15.52 P<0.001), going to bed later (OR 1.72 P<0.001), getting up earlier (2.18 P=0.01), an increase in sleep-wake irregularity (OR 2.29 P<0.001), reduced exposure to daylight (OR 1.46 P=0.01) and increased screen use in the evenings (OR 1.33 P=0.04). CONCLUSION: Sleep quality tended to reduce during quarantine and this was associated with changes in sleep behaviours and light exposure, especially in the evening. In order to optimise sleep during quarantine, regular sleep and wake times, at least 1hour exposure to daylight and a reduction of screen use in the evenings are suggested.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Quarentena , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Sono , Isolamento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Dissonias/tratamento farmacológico , Dissonias/epidemiologia , Dissonias/etiologia , Exercício Físico , Família , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Hábitos , Habitação , Humanos , Luz , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistemas On-Line , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Sono/fisiologia , Sono/efeitos da radiação , Medicamentos Indutores do Sono , Privação do Sono , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/etiologia , Latência do Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Clin Ethics ; 31(2): 184-190, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585664

RESUMO

The practice of generalist medicine differs from the practice of other clinical disciplines. We postulate that the application of ethics in generalist practice similarly differs from its application in other healthcare settings. In contrast to the problem-focused practice of ethics in other medical specialties, the practice of ethics in generalist medicine blends habits of mind with behaviors applied routinely over time-an ethical way of being. Using a graphic summary and tabular matrix, we present five "T" habits of mind (time, talk, tact, touch, and trust), associate them with applicable practice characteristics, and link them to observable clinician behaviors to demonstrate how the application of ethics in generalist practice is a day-to-day endeavor and not simply a means to resolve episodic conflicts. We textually review key aspects of the matrix and present two case studies that illustrate how such habits of mind and practice behaviors inform the ethical way of being we espouse. We invite generalist practitioners to incorporate the five "T" habits and associated behaviors into their daily care of patients, and we encourage clinical ethicists and other clinical faculty members to consider using them as a model for ethics education with medical students and resident physicians.


Assuntos
Ética Médica , Estudantes de Medicina , Eticistas , Hábitos , Humanos , Princípios Morais
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(22): e20247, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481392

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Eye rubbing (ER) is a proven factor that can trigger the onset and progression of keratoconus (KC). Apart from allergy, ER is a repetitive motor stereotypy. Eye rubbing is frequently observed in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and in individuals who may be at risk for developing KC. We present a child with ASD who developed progressive KC following standard corneal cross-linking (CXL), most likely because of abnormal ER associated with allergy and repetitive behavior due to ASD symptoms. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 14-year-old boy was referred to our clinic because of asymmetric visual acuity reduction. DIAGNOSIS: The child was diagnosed as having keratoconus. He had a strong ER habit. The child had been previously diagnosed as having ASD. INTERVENTIONS: Corneal cross-linking was performed in both the eyes. On account of keratoconus progression, most likely associated with persistent ER habit, he was retreated with CXL in the right eye. Behavioral modification intervention for ER habit reversal was also applied. OUTCOMES: Corneal cross-linking in combination with behavioral modification intervention for ER habit reversal prevented further KC progression. LESSONS: Behavioral interventions are likely to provide positive results in an ER habit reversal in children with ASD. Keratoconus treatment with CXL combined with behavioral management for ER reversal seemed effective in halting keratoconus progression in a young patient with ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Ceratocone/complicações , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Terapia Comportamental , Hábitos , Humanos , Ceratocone/radioterapia , Masculino , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Riboflavina/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Terapia Ultravioleta , Acuidade Visual
18.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(2): 651-658, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476360

RESUMO

Tibetan red deer (Cervus wallichii) is an endemic species to China, which was once considered extinct in the wild. As there are several other wild ungulates and domestic animals with similar feeding habits within its habitat range, it's thus essential to study interspecific competition and co-existence between Tibetan red deer and other cohabiting ungulates in the highly unique environment of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Using microscopic analysis on fresh fecal samples collected in Sangri Tibetan Red Deer Nature Reserve from August to September in 2013 and 2014, the trophic niche width and overlap index were calculated on the basis of diet composition of C. wallichii, Cervus albirostris, Procapra picticaudata, Bos mutus and Capra hircas in green grass period. We analyzed and compared the overlap and differentiation of feeding habits between Tibetan red deer and other wild ungulates and domestic animals. The results showed that C. wallichii fed on similar edible plants with other species, but differed in proportion of different dietary components, with the main edible plants of C. wallichii being mostly the secondary edible plants to other species. Leontopodium pusillum was the common main edible plant for C. wallichii (percentage in animal recipes was 11.2%) and B. mutus (10.2%), Salix xizangensis was the common main edible plant of C. wallichii (9.6%) and C. albirostris (11.4%). At plant family level, Leguminosae was the common main edible plant family for C. wallichii (21.4%) and P. picticaudata (42.5%). Cyperaceae was the common main edible plant family for C. albirostris (49.2%), B. mutus (33.4%) and C. hircas (50.3%). Compositae was main edible plant family for C. wallichii (29.6%), as well as the secondary edible plant family for C. albirostris (7.6%), P. picticaudata (11.6%), B. mutus (17.3%) and C. hircas (14.1%). As the secondary edible plant family for C. wallichii (7.1%), Gramineae took up a lower proportion than that of the other ungulates (C. albirostris (13.6%), P. picticaudata (12.3%), B. mutus (11.5%) and C. hircas (16.0%)). Food overlap indices between C. wallichii and the other ungulates were all higher than 0.5, and the highest with B. mutus (0.65). The food diversity index (1.32), evenness index (0.37) and niche width index (15.79) of C. wallichii were all at high values. Compared with the results from 2007 to 2008, dietary composition of Tibetan red deer changed greatly as the proportion of Leguminosae increased while that of Cyperaceae decreased, resulting in improvement of food quality. In addition, there was greater competition of food resources between C. wallichii and domestic animals, which would further affect the distribution range and living space of C. wallichii.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos , Cervos , Animais , Bovinos , China , Hábitos , Poaceae , Tibet
19.
Arq Gastroenterol ; 57(2): 114-120, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome is a functional and chronic gastrointestinal disorder that may cause abdominal pain and altered bowel habits, affecting the nutritional status and quality of life of its carriers. Its prevalence is high, affecting about 10% to 15% of the general population in developed countries, being more prevalent in women than in men in the proportion 2:1. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to compare the profile of body adiposity, life habits, and the quality of life of women with irritable bowel syndrome with a healthy control group. METHODS: Case-control study on 70 women, 34 with irritable bowel syndrome and 36 healthy. We applied the "Irritable Bowel Syndrome Quality of Life Questionnaire"to assess quality of life. Body adiposity was assessed from body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio. We investigated the self-reporting of gastrointestinal symptoms with food deemed as problematic for carriers of irritable bowel syndrome and the presence of typical comorbidities. Assessment of life habits included: practice of physical activities, alcoholism, smoking, daytime sleepiness, and exclusion of foods from the feeding routine. For statistical analysis we used the IBM SPSS program, with a significance level at 5%. RESULTS: There was higher volume of central and general adiposity in the case group compared with the control group (P<0.05). Cases presented a higher chance of developing IBS-related comorbidities (P<0.05). About of 80% of patients with irritable bowel syndrome have excluded some food from the diet (P<0.01) and the total amount of troublesome foods varied from 7 to 21 (P<0.01). The case group featured worse quality of life compared with the control (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Compared to the control group, women with irritable bowel syndrome showed greater body adiposity, higher frequency of comorbidities, greater restriction on the consumption of problematic foods and worse quality of life.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Hábitos , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Qualidade de Vida
20.
Med Lav ; 111(2): 116-125, 2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the relevant frequency of ultraviolet induced adverse health effects in workers, solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is an occupational risk not adequately minimized in Italy. OBJECTIVE: To assess the characteristics and prevalence of sun exposure habits and behaviors in a group of students and outdoor workers (OW) from the agricultural and construction sectors of a north-Italian region. METHODS: Based on a previously developed standardized questionnaire, we collected full information on individual sun exposure habits at work and during leisure activities. RESULTS: In 2018, 380 high school students and OW from the agricultural and construction sectors participated in a sun-safety campaign. More than a third (39.0%) of OW reported never using sunglasses, 52.8% never applied sunscreens at work, and a quarter never wear a UV protective hat. Considering leisure-time, students reported more frequent sunburns compared to OW: 25.0% vs. 13.8%; half (51.6%) of students and a third (36.4%) of OW reported never wearing a UV protective hat. A third (30.1%) of students and 37.2% of OW never or only seldom applied sunscreens on holidays. DISCUSSION: The majority of OW in our study reported poor protective solar exposure habits. Young students of the construction and agricultural sectors indicated even worse sun-protective behaviors, both during apprenticeship and leisure activities. Our study highlights the low health literacy related to solar UVR in OW and apprentices. Further educational initiatives are required in Italy to improve the adoption of protective behaviors during outdoor activities.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Fazendeiros , Exposição Ocupacional , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Hábitos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Itália , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Estudantes , Luz Solar , Raios Ultravioleta
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