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1.
J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv ; 58(7): 7-10, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602929

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has aroused a level of anxiety and uncertainty that spans demographics and diagnoses. Because the coronavirus is a novel variant, the expert scientific community presents to the public as uncertain and inconsistent in information and ways to deal with potential infection, which creates disbelief and uncertainty. The most consistent recommendation is physical distancing and self-imposed isolation to reduce the spread. However, such isolation also adds to individual and community distress. This column focuses on the neurobiological explanations for anxiety, complications to pre-existing psychiatric disorders, sub diagnostic states of stress and anxiety generally and with health care providers, and pharmacological and nonpharmacological ways of addressing this anxiety. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 58(7), 7-10.].


Assuntos
Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Distância Social , Ansiedade/enfermagem , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Política Pública
2.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e122, 2020 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614283

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is exerting major pressures on society, health and social care services and science. Understanding the progression and current impact of the pandemic is fundamental to planning, management and mitigation of future impact on the population. Surveillance is the core function of any public health system, and a multi-component surveillance system for COVID-19 is essential to understand the burden across the different strata of any health system and the population. Many countries and public health bodies utilise 'syndromic surveillance' (using real-time, often non-specific symptom/preliminary diagnosis information collected during routine healthcare provision) to supplement public health surveillance programmes. The current COVID-19 pandemic has revealed a series of unprecedented challenges to syndromic surveillance including: the impact of media reporting during early stages of the pandemic; changes in healthcare-seeking behaviour resulting from government guidance on social distancing and accessing healthcare services; and changes in clinical coding and patient management systems. These have impacted on the presentation of syndromic outputs, with changes in denominators creating challenges for the interpretation of surveillance data. Monitoring changes in healthcare utilisation is key to interpreting COVID-19 surveillance data, which can then be used to better understand the impact of the pandemic on the population. Syndromic surveillance systems have had to adapt to encompass these changes, whilst also innovating by taking opportunities to work with data providers to establish new data feeds and develop new COVID-19 indicators. These developments are supporting the current public health response to COVID-19, and will also be instrumental in the continued and future fight against the disease.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos
3.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 17: E57, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32644921

RESUMO

"Upstream" interventions that increase access or reduce barriers to healthy foods and opportunities for physical activity - referred to as policy, systems, or environmental strategies - are central to encouraging and supporting healthy behaviors that prevent chronic disease at a population level. However, they are complex and challenging to execute, especially during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and efforts to build practitioner capacity are warranted. In this commentary, we describe a user or human-centered design (HCD) capacity-building approach to support practitioners in accomplishing the goals of the New York State Creating Healthy Schools and Communities (CHSC) initiative. This approach has been especially helpful during COVID-19, as it enables support to be responsive to practitioners' constantly changing needs. Given that CHSC is a project specific to New York State and that the efforts of the Obesity Prevention Center for Excellence were tailored to obesity prevention, more research and evaluations should be conducted to better understand how the use of HCD could support practitioners addressing other complex public health issues in the United States.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Política de Saúde , Humanos , New York/epidemiologia , Pandemias
4.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 376, 2020 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is hypothesized that anxiety and behavioral responses are intense at the beginning of an epidemic. The objective of this study was to investigate anxiety symptoms and use of preventive measures against COVID-19. The study also compared the association between preventive measures and anxiety symptoms during the week immediately preceding the study and those symptoms and measures at the beginning of the outbreak. METHODS: A cross-sectional population survey using an online questionnaire commenced on 14 February 2020. The study participants were residents of Taiwan ages 20 to 70 years. The 6-item state version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-6) was used to assess anxiety symptoms. The questions about preventive measures asked participants about their personal protection, cough etiquette, contact precautions, voluntary quarantine, and prompt reporting. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the factors influencing an increase in the preventive measures scores. RESULTS: Of a total of 3555 completed responses, a total of 52.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 50.4-53.7) of the respondents reported moderate to severe levels of anxiety symptoms in the past week, whereas 48.8% (95%CI 47.2-50.5) reported moderate to severe anxiety symptoms at the beginning of the outbreak. With a higher score indicating greater anxiety, the median scores for anxiety symptoms in the past week and at the beginning of the outbreak were 46.7 (IQR [interquartile range] 36.7-53.3) and 43.3 (IQR 36.7-53.3), respectively. The median scores for the preventive measures taken in the past week and at the beginning of the outbreak were 26.0 (IQR 21.0-30.0) and 24.0 (IQR 19.0-28.0), respectively, out of a maximum score of 36. In the multivariable analysis, an increased anxiety symptom score from the beginning of the outbreak to the past week (adjusted OR = 7.38, 95%CI 6.28-8.66) was a strongly significant determinant of an increased preventive measures score in the past week compared with the score at the beginning of the outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: Anxiety and preventive measures scores were high and increased with the epidemic rate. Higher anxiety was associated with an increased use of preventive measures against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Gesundheitswesen ; 82(7): 623-631, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698205

RESUMO

AIM: Health risks of sedentary behaviour at work are a matter of concern. Solutions are needed based on interdisciplinary collaborations of research experts and practitioners in the field of occupational safety and health. METHODS: In February 2019, at a workshop in Berlin, experts from different fields discussed the health risks of sedentary behaviour at work and solutions for the workplace based on scientific evidence. The workshop is documented here in 2 parts. Gender relevant aspects are distinguished if possible. RESULTS: Part I describes the workshop contributions on current scientific findings regarding health risks of sedentary behavior in leisure time and at work as well as prevalence and determinants of sedentary work. The following contribution presents suggestions for the development of theory-based intervention strategies. Furthermore, available evidence from systematic reviews for intervention strategies to reduce sedentary time at work is shown. CONCLUSION AND OUTLOOK: In spite of many studies and evidence in favour of taking into consideration sedentary behavior at work, there are still research gaps predominantly regarding etiology, possibilities of compensation, determinants, and intervention strategies. In this context, documentation of differences between men and women is insufficient. Part II presents selected workplace solutions and the results of the discussions in the workshop.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sedentário , Berlim , Feminino , Alemanha , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde do Trabalhador , Local de Trabalho
6.
Gesundheitswesen ; 82(7): 632-638, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698206

RESUMO

AIM: Health risks of prolonged periods of sitting at work are a matter of concern. Solutions are needed based on interdisciplinary collaborations of research experts and practitioners in occupational safety and health areas. METHODS: In February 2019, at a workshop in Berlin of experts from different fields, issues of scientific evidence on the health risks of sedentary behaviour at work were presented in 6 lectures and solutions for the workplace were discussed. The workshop is documented here in 2 parts. Gender relevant aspects are distinguished where possible. RESULTS: Part II describes solution approaches for practice in the workplace. The results of a recent evaluation of dynamic workplaces are presented. Two examples provide insight into ongoing workplace health promotion measures addressing sedentary behavior in Germany which currently mainly target measures to increase physical activity rather than measures to interrupt long sedentary bouts. The documentation of the plenary discussion summarizes how interventions addressing sedentary behaviour at the workplace can be successful. CONCLUSIONS: Decision makers increasingly realize that there is a trend in the 21st century towards low physical demands due to increasingly sedentary tasks in the workplace. Despite research gaps, there is a need for evidence-based decisions in policy and workplace practices. Germany can learn from the experiences of other countries.


Assuntos
Saúde do Trabalhador , Local de Trabalho , Berlim , Alemanha , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Comportamento Sedentário , Postura Sentada
7.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1040, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The primary aim of this review was to establish whether health literacy interventions, in adults, are effective for improving health literacy. Two secondary aims assessed the impact of health literacy interventions on health behaviours and whether health literacy interventions have been conducted in cardiovascular patients. METHODS: A systematic review (Prospero registration: CRD42018110772) with no start date running through until April 2020. Eligible studies were conducted in adults and included a pre/post measure of health literacy. Medline, Embase, Eric, PsychINFO, CINAHL, Psychology and Behavioural Science, HMIC, Web of Science, Scopus, Social Care Online, NHS Scotland Journals, Social Policy and Practice, and Global Health were searched. Two thousand one hundred twenty-seven papers were assessed, and 57 full text papers screened to give 22 unique datasets from 23 papers. Risk of bias was assessed regarding randomisation, allocation sequence concealment, blinding, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting and other biases. Intervention reporting quality was assessed using the TIDieR checklist. RESULTS: Twenty-two studies were included reporting on 10,997 participants in nine countries. The majority of studies (14/22) were published in 2018 or later. Eight studies (n = 1268 participants) also reported on behavioural outcomes. Health literacy interventions resulted in improvements in at least some aspect of health literacy in 15/22 studies (n = 10,180 participants) and improved behavioural outcomes in 7/8 studies (n = 1209 participants). Only two studies were conducted with cardiovascular patients. All studies were at risk of bias with 18 judged as high risk. In addition, there was poor reporting of intervention content with little explication of the theoretical basis for the interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Health literacy interventions can improve health literacy and can also lead to changes in health behaviours. Health literacy interventions offer a way to improve outcomes for populations most at risk of health inequalities. Health literacy is a developing field with very few interventions using clear theoretical frameworks. Closer links between health literacy and behaviour change theories and frameworks could result in higher quality and more effective interventions. PROSPERO REGISTRATION: Prospero registration: CRD42018110772.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Escócia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235590, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614889

RESUMO

Amongst the most robust consensus related to the COVID-19 disease is that the elderly are by far the most vulnerable population group. Hence, public authorities target older people in order to convince them to comply with preventive measures. However, we still know little about older people's attitudes and compliance toward these measures. In this research, I aim to improve our understanding of elderly people's responses to the pandemic using data from 27 countries. Results are surprising and quite troubling. Elderly people's response is substantially similar to their fellow citizens in their 50's and 60's. This research (i) provides the first thorough description of the most vulnerable population's attitudes and compliance in a comparative perspective (ii) suggest that governments' strategies toward elderly people are far from successful and (iii) shows that methodologically, we should be more cautious in treating age as having a linear effect on COVID-19 related outcomes.


Assuntos
Atitude , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Quarentena/métodos , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 17(1): 85, 2020 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthy childhood development is fostered through sufficient physical activity (PA; including time outdoors), limiting sedentary behaviours (SB), and adequate sleep; collectively known as movement behaviours. Though the COVID-19 virus outbreak has changed the daily lives of children and youth, it is unknown to what extent related restrictions may compromise the ability to play and meet movement behaviour recommendations. This secondary data analysis examined the immediate impacts of COVID-19 restrictions on movement and play behaviours in children and youth. METHODS: A national sample of Canadian parents (n = 1472) of children (5-11 years) or youth (12-17 years) (54% girls) completed an online survey that assessed immediate changes in child movement and play behaviours during the COVID-19 outbreak. Behaviours included PA and play, SB, and sleep. Family demographics and parental factors that may influence movement behaviours were assessed. Correlations between behaviours and demographic and parental factors were determined. For open-ended questions, word frequency distributions were reported. RESULTS: Only 4.8% (2.8% girls, 6.5% boys) of children and 0.6% (0.8% girls, 0.5% boys) of youth were meeting combined movement behaviour guidelines during COVID-19 restrictions. Children and youth had lower PA levels, less outside time, higher SB (including leisure screen time), and more sleep during the outbreak. Parental encouragement and support, parental engagement in PA, and family dog ownership were positively associated with healthy movement behaviours. Although families spent less time in PA and more time in SB, several parents reported adopting new hobbies or accessing new resources. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence of immediate collateral consequences of the COVID-19 outbreak, demonstrating an adverse impact on the movement and play behaviours of Canadian children and youth. These findings can guide efforts to preserve and promote child health during the COVID-19 outbreak and crisis recovery period, and to inform strategies to mitigate potential harm during future pandemics.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Jogos e Brinquedos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Sono , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus , Canadá/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pais , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(7): e2014323, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639569

RESUMO

Importance: In the absence of a vaccine and therapeutic agent, personal hygiene and physical distancing are essential measures to contain the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Objective: To determine whether a social media campaign, targeted at the gaps in behavior on personal hygiene and physical distancing and distributed nationwide via digital news media, may be an effective method to improve behavior and help to inhibit person-to-person transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study was designed to uncover self-reported gaps in behavior regarding personal hygiene and physical distancing in the Netherlands. A diagnostic survey was distributed by a large national newspaper (De Telegraaf) and a popular social influencer (Govert Sweep) on March 17, 2020, and was completed by 16 072 participants. Analysis of these outcomes showed that coughing and sneezing in the elbow was done well, but that handwashing, face touching, and physical distancing showed serious gaps compared with advised behavior. This diagnostic information was used to design infographics and a video targeted at repairing these gaps in behavior. The video and infographics were distributed on a national level on March 21, 2020, followed by a postcampaign survey to measure the results on March 24, 2020. Data analysis was performed from March to April 2020. Exposure: Exposed participants were those who viewed the infographics and/or video. Main Outcomes and Measures: Improvement on the extent of handwashing in all areas, handwashing duration of 20 seconds or longer, awareness on face touching, and physical distancing were measured according to responses on the postcampaign survey. Results: A total of 17 189 participants (mean [SD] age, 47.61 [13.57] years; 9100 women [52.9%]) responded to the postcampaign survey. The news article in De Telegraaf was read more than 2 million times, and the influencer video was watched more than 80 000 times. Cross-sectional analysis of the postcampaign survey using logistic regression correcting for age, gender, and educational level showed that exposure to the video plus infographics (827 participants) (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.14; 95% CI, 1.83-2.50; P < .001) and to the infographics alone (11 348 participants) (adjusted OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.22-1.40; P < .001) were positively associated with washing hands in all areas compared with the unexposed group (4751 participants). In addition, exposure to the video plus infographics (adjusted OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.59-2.16; P < .001) and to the infographics alone (adjusted OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.19-1.36; P < .001) were positively associated with washing hands long enough compared with the unexposed group. Exposure to the video alone was not associated with improved handwashing. Compared with the unexposed group, exposure to the infographics alone and video plus infographics were associated with improvements in physical distancing when the participant had COVID-19 syptoms (infographics alone, adjusted OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.03-1.17; P = .006; video plus infographics, adjusted OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.69-0.91; P = .001) and face touching (infographics alone, adjusted OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.22-1.38; P < .001; infographics and video, adjusted OR, 1.49, 95% CI, 1.30-1.71; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that a targeted behavioral change campaign, promoted by a news platform and social media, was associated with self-reported improvement in personal hygiene with the aim to prevent person-to-person transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. This method of evidence-based campaigning may be an effective way to improve critical public health issues, such as the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção das Mãos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Mídias Sociais , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Razão de Chances , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(7)2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641292

RESUMO

As a marginalised subpopulation, migrant workers often fall short from protection by public policies, they take precarious jobs with unsafe working and living conditions and they grapple with cultural and linguistic barriers. In light of the current COVID-19 pandemic, migrant workers are now exposed to additional stressors of the virus and related responses. We applied a comprehensive qualitative cumulative risk assessment framework for migrant workers living in Kuwait. This pandemic could be one of the few examples where the stressors overlap all domains of migrant workers' lives. No single intervention can solve all the problems; there must be a set of interventions to address all domains. Local authorities and employers must act quickly to stop the spread, ensure easy access to testing and treatment, provide adequate housing and clear communication, encourage wide social support, safeguard financial protection and mental well-being and continuously re-evaluate the situation as more data are collected.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco , Migrantes , Adulto , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Kuweit/epidemiologia , Masculino , Saúde do Trabalhador , Ocupações , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores de Risco
13.
Comput Biol Med ; 121: 103827, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32568667

RESUMO

The rapid spread of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a global threat affecting almost all countries in the world. As countries reach the infection peak, it is planned to return to a new normal under different coexistence conditions in order to reduce the economic effects produced by the total or partial closure of companies, universities, shops, etc. Under such circumstances, the use of mathematical models to evaluate the transmission risk of COVID-19 in various facilities represents an important tool in assisting authorities to make informed decisions. On the other hand, agent-based modeling is a relatively new approach to model complex systems composed of agents whose behavior is described using simple rules. Different from classical mathematical models (which consider a homogenous population), agent-based approaches model individuals with distinct characteristics and provide more realistic results. In this paper, an agent-based model to evaluate the COVID-19 transmission risks in facilities is presented. The proposed scheme has been designed to simulate the spatiotemporal transmission process. In the model, simulated agents make decisions depending on the programmed rules. Such rules correspond to spatial patterns and infection conditions under which agents interact to characterize the transmission process. The model also includes an individual profile for each agent, which defines its main social characteristics and health conditions used during its interactions. In general, this profile partially determines the behavior of the agent during its interactions with other individuals. Several hypothetical scenarios have been considered to show the performance of the proposed model. Experimental results have demonstrated that the simulations provide useful information to produce strategies for reducing the transmission risks of COVID-19 within the facilities.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Análise de Sistemas , Biologia Computacional , Simulação por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Dinâmica Populacional/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560550

RESUMO

Confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemic can influence dietary profiles, especially those of adolescents, who are highly susceptible to acquiring bad eating habits. Adolescents' poor dietary habits increase their subsequent risk of degenerative diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular pathologies, etc. Our aim was to study nutritional modifications during COVID-19 confinement in adolescents aged 10 to 19 years, compare them with their usual diet and dietary guidelines, and identify variables that may have influenced changes. Data were collected by an anonymous online questionnaire on food intake among 820 adolescents from Spain, Italy, Brazil, Colombia, and Chile. The results show that COVID-19 confinement did influence their dietary habits. In particular, we recorded modified consumption of fried food, sweet food, legumes, vegetables, and fruits. Moreover, gender, family members at home, watching TV during mealtime, country of residence, and maternal education were diversely correlated with adequate nutrition during COVID-19 confinement. Understanding the adolescents' nutrition behavior during COVID-19 lockdown will help public health authorities reshape future policies on their nutritional recommendations, in preparation for future pandemics.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus , Brasil/epidemiologia , Chile/epidemiologia , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Dieta/psicologia , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Sedentário , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Encephale ; 46(3S): S107-S113, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517998

RESUMO

Emerging infectious diseases like Covid-19 cause a major threat to global health. When confronted with new pathogens, individuals generate several beliefs about the epidemic phenomenon. Many studies have shown that individual protective behaviors largely depend on these beliefs. Due to the absence of treatment and vaccine against these emerging pathogens, the relation between these beliefs and these behaviors represents a crucial issue for public health policies. In the premises of the Covid-19 pandemic, several preliminary studies have highlighted a delay in the perception of risk by individuals, which potentially holds back the implementing of the necessary precautionary measures: people underestimated the risks associated with the virus, and therefore also the importance of complying with sanitary guidelines. During the peak of the pandemic, the salience of the threat and of the risk of mortality could then have transformed the way people generate their beliefs. This potentially leads to upheavals in the way they understand the world. Here, we propose to explore the evolution of beliefs and behaviors during the Covid-19 crisis, using the theory of predictive coding and the theory of terror management, two influential frameworks in cognitive science and in social psychology.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Cultura , Medo/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Negação em Psicologia , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Guias como Assunto , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Higiene , Modelos Psicológicos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Equipamentos de Proteção , Gestão de Riscos , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Precauções Universais
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549345

RESUMO

This online survey study aimed to compare the cognitive, affective, and behavioral constructs of health beliefs related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) between sexual minority and heterosexual individuals in Taiwan. In total, 533 sexual minority and 1421 heterosexual participants were recruited through a Facebook advertisement. The constructs pertaining to cognition (perceived relative susceptibility to COVID-19, perceived COVID-19 severity, having sufficient knowledge and information on COVID-19, and confidence in coping with COVID-19), affect (worry toward COVID-19), and behavior (adoption of health-protective behaviors) in relation to health beliefs about COVID-19 were compared between sexual minority and heterosexual participants. The results indicated that sexual minority participants had lower perceived susceptibility to COVID-19, greater self-confidence in coping with COVID-19, and lower worry about COVID-19 and were less likely to maintain good indoor ventilation and disinfect their household than heterosexual individuals. Sexual orientation is the modifying factor for the Health Belief Model in the COVID-19 pandemic and should be taken into consideration when medical professionals establish prevention programs for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Afeto , Cognição , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560180

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak has quickly spread around the world, with Spain being one of the most severely affected countries. Healthcare professionals are an important risk group given their exposure. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of symptoms, main concerns as patients, preventive behaviours of healthcare professionals, and the different temporal outcomes associated with the negativization of PCR results. A total of 238 professionals were analysed and follow-up was conducted from 11 March to 21 April 2020 through clinical records, in-depth surveys, and telephone interviews. Symptoms, concerns, and preventive measures were documented, and temporal outcomes (start and end of symptoms, first positive PCR, and negativization of PCR) were analysed through survival analyses. A high prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms (especially in women and older professionals), fever, cough, and fatigue were reported. The main concern was contagion in the work and home environment. Professionals (especially men) reported low use of face masks before the pandemic. Our analysis indicates that the median times for the negativization of PCR testing to confirm the resolution of infection is 15 days after the end of symptoms, or 25 days after the first positive PCR test. Our results suggest that these times are longer for women and for professionals aged ≥55 years, therefore follow-up strategies should be optimized in light of both variables. This is the first study we are aware of to report factors associated with the time to negativization of PCR results. We present the first rigorous estimates of time outcomes and hope that these data can be valuable to continue feeding the prediction models that are currently being developed. Similar studies are required to corroborate our results.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Espanha
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32575700

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the differences in preventive behaviors of COVID-19 between urban and rural residents, as well as identify the factors that might contribute to such differences. Methods: Our online survey included 1591 participants from 31 provinces of China with 87% urban and 13% rural residents. We performed multiple linear regressions and path analysis to examine the relationship between rural status and behavioral intention, attitude, subjective norms, information appraisal, knowledge, variety of information source use, and preventive behaviors against COVID-19. Findings: Compared with urban residents, rural residents were less likely to perform preventive behaviors, more likely to hold a negative attitude toward the effectiveness of performing preventive behaviors, and more likely to have lower levels of information appraisal skills. We identified information appraisal as a significant factor that might contribute to the rural/urban differences in preventive behaviors against COVID-19 through attitude, subjective norms, and intention. We found no rural/urban differences in behavioral intention, subjective norms, knowledge about preventive behaviors, or the variety of interpersonal/media source use. Conclusions: As the first wave of the pandemic inundated urban areas, the current media coverage about COVID-19 prevention may not fully satisfy the specific needs of rural populations. Thus, rural residents were less likely to engage in a thoughtful process of information appraisal and adopt the appropriate preventive measures. Tailoring health messages to meet rural populations' unique needs can be an effective strategy to promote preventive health behaviors against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude , Betacoronavirus , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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