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1.
J Spec Oper Med ; 20(1): 72-80, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203610

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To review the current literature investigating if performance of tactical athletes under multitask paradigms is different than performance under single-task paradigms. METHODS: The authors completed a search of the literature published from January 01, 2000, to June 01, 2018, using key search terms in PubMed, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, and Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) databases. Studies that met inclusion and exclusion criteria were assessed for quality. RESULTS: Fourteen articles were identified as eligible to be included in the review. Compared with single-task, two studies reported better motor performance, six reported poorer motor performance, and three reported no difference in motor performance under multitask. Compared with single- task, two studies reported better cognitive performance, seven studies reported poorer cognitive performance, and three studies reported no difference in cognitive performance under multitask. CONCLUSION: As occupational duties become increasingly demanding, it is crucial to modify and adapt performance assessments to meet the needs required of tactical athletes to guide training and injury management programs. Motor and cognitive assessments are an integral part of performance evaluations to train, prepare, and rehabilitate tactical athletes. To meet the modern demands of tactical athletes, varying levels of difficulty in multitask paradigms that include both motor and cognitive tasks should be investigated to understand fundamental performance under operational settings to better translate across training paradigms and rehabilitation programs.


Assuntos
Militares/psicologia , Comportamento Multitarefa , Polícia/psicologia , Desempenho Psicomotor , Humanos
2.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 205: 103043, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143063

RESUMO

While detrimental effects of dual-tasking on the acquisition and usage of sequence knowledge in the Serial Reaction Time Task (SRTT) have been attributed to the integration of regularly and randomly sequenced events, direct evidence for across-task integration has been scarce. In two experiments, we paired two spatial tasks: A visual-manual SRTT (serial reaction time task) of length 4 and a two-choice task with random order of stimuli. We reasoned that across-task integration might result in SRTT- and two-choice task events being stored and retrieved together. Therefore, RT might be influenced by current congruency as well as by whether it is repeated or altered from the congruency level encountered for this SRTT event in the last loop of the sequence. We observed such a modulation in two experiments, suggesting that across-task integration indeed takes place and that the detrimental effect of dual-tasking on sequence learning is, at least in parts, based on across-task integration.


Assuntos
Comportamento Multitarefa , Tempo de Reação , Aprendizagem Seriada , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento de Escolha , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desempenho Psicomotor , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
3.
Gait Posture ; 75: 109-114, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The dual-task effect on walking performance is different during treadmill and overground walking, though the cause of this difference is unknown. This study examined the effects of task prioritization on overground and treadmill dual-task walking. METHOD: Twenty-two adults walked overground and on a treadmill under three dual-task conditions: prioritization of walking performance, prioritization of cognitive performance (serial subtraction in sevens), or no prioritization. RESULTS: Compared to single-task walking, stride velocity was reduced and stride time variability was increased during dual-task overground walking. During treadmill walking, there was no dual-task effect on walking performance, but cognitive task performance was improved. Prioritization of the cognitive task reduced the dual-task effect on stride velocity during overground walking only, whilst prioritization of the walking task reduced cognitive task performance in both walking modalities. SIGNIFICANCE: These results corroborate recent findings that the dual-task effects on treadmill walking are not equivalent to those on overground walking. Healthy adults appear to prioritize cognitive task performance during treadmill dual-task walking without detrimental effects to gait. During overground walking however, allocation of attention to the secondary task reduces gait performance. These results indicate that treadmill based dual-task paradigms should not be used to infer factors which influence the cognitive control of overground walking.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço , Comportamento Multitarefa/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Caminhada/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Atenção , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Teste de Esforço/psicologia , Feminino , Marcha/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
4.
Gait Posture ; 75: 115-120, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dual tasking during prolonged split-belt adaptation (10-15 min) has shown to slow the adaptation process and prolong aftereffects. Therefore, dual tasks during split-belt adaptation are being explored for their potential in gait symmetry rehabilitation. However, the ideal paradigm configuration it is still not clear. RESEARCH QUESTION: To determine whether split-belt adaptation and ensuing aftereffects are altered by dual task placement, specifically looking at onset of split-belt adaptation or later part way through Adaptation (Experiment 1) and dual task duration (Experiment 2). METHODS: Healthy young adults (n = 40) performed 5 min of tied-belt walking, followed by 14 min of split-belts (Adaptation, 1:3 ratio) and 5 min of de-adaptation (both belts at same speed) to assess after effects (Post-Adaptation). Experiment 1: To assess the effects of dual task placement, an auditory version of an n-back task was presented during the first 8 min or last 8 min of Adaptation. Experiment 2: To assess the effects of dual task duration, the cognitive task was presented during the entire split-belt Adaptation phase (14 min) or during four 2-minute bouts (8 min). Cognitive task accuracy, dual support symmetry, and rates of adaptation and de-adaptation were compared. RESULTS: When both the onset of the auditory cognitive task and the onset of Adaptation (split-belts) occurred simultaneously, participants prioritized split-belt adaptation and in doing so, cognitive task accuracy was reduced (Experiment 1). By prioritizing gait symmetry over cognitive performance, there were no differences in dual support symmetry adaptation (magnitude, variability or rate of Adaptation/De-adaptation) regardless of cognitive task placement or duration (Experiment 2). SIGNIFICANCE: We believe the early portion of split-belt treadmill adaptation to be a cognitive interference period. These results support future work exploring the use of dual task in a rehabilitation setting with more complicated motor-cognitive dual task paradigms during this key period.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Marcha/fisiologia , Comportamento Multitarefa , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
5.
Appl Ergon ; 81: 102871, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422248

RESUMO

This study compared the spinal moments (i.e., peak and cumulative moments acting on the L5/S1 joint), kinematics (i.e., peak trunk and knee angles) and work pace of workers, when either removing a box from a shelf or depositing a box on a shelf, under two conditions: as a single task or as part of a combined task. An experiment was conducted, in which the subjects performed the tasks and were recorded using a motion capture system. An automated program was developed to process the motion capture data. The results showed that, when the removing and depositing tasks were performed as part of a combined task (rather than as single tasks), subjects experienced smaller peak and cumulative spinal moments and they performed the tasks faster. The results suggest that investigations into the separate tasks that comprise a combination have a limited ability to predict kinematics and kinetics during the combined job.


Assuntos
Remoção , Coluna Vertebral/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Trabalho/fisiologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Joelho/fisiologia , Masculino , Comportamento Multitarefa , Postura/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Tronco/fisiologia , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia , Carga de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
6.
Appl Ergon ; 81: 102895, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422275

RESUMO

Spearcons (time-compressed speech) may be a viable auditory display for patient monitoring; however, the impact of concurrent linguistic tasks remains unexamined. We tested whether different concurrent linguistic tasks worsen participants' identification of spearcons. Experiment 1 tested non-clinician participants' identification of multiple-patient spearcons representing 2 vital signs of 5 patients while participants performed no concurrent task, reading, or saying linguistic tasks. Experiment 2 tested non-clinician participants' identification of 48 single-patient spearcons while they performed no concurrent task, reading, listening, and saying linguistic tasks. In Experiment 1 the saying task worsened participants' identification of spearcons compared with no concurrent task or reading. In Experiment 2, the saying and listening tasks reduced participants' accuracy at identifying spearcons, but the reading task did not. Listening affected identification accuracy no differently than the saying task did. Concurrent auditory linguistic tasks worsen participants' identification of spearcons, probably due to auditory modality interference in verbal working memory.


Assuntos
Linguística , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Comportamento Multitarefa , Percepção da Fala , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto , Atenção , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Leitura , Fala , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 45(12): 1529-1548, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436454

RESUMO

Findings from studies using the voluntary task switching (VTS) paradigm (Arrington & Logan, 2004) suggest that task selection in multitasking can be influenced by both cognitive and environmental constraints. In the present study, we used an adaptive VTS paradigm to directly test whether and how people adapt to these 2 constraints when they are instructed to optimize their task performance. In 5 experiments, the availabilities of stimuli for 2 tasks in a trial changed predictably because the stimulus needed for a task repetition appeared with an SOA that increased linearly with the number of repetitions. Experiments 1a and 1b demonstrated that stimulus availability did not automatically induce switching behavior. Experiment 2 showed that the predictable external constraints were accommodated in participants' switching behavior once participants overcame their reluctance to switch tasks. Experiments 3 and 4 revealed that both switch costs and switch rates were influenced by manipulating the time between trials. Moreover, switch costs and switch rates were correlated across all experiments; and when the time for advanced preparation of task selection was limited (Experiment 1a, 1b, and certain conditions of Experiments 3 and 4), the SOA in task switches approximately matched switch costs. Together, these results point to a link between task selection and performance indicating that participants adapt their task selection behavior to mutual effects of external and internal influences on task performance. We propose that both task selection and task performance can be integrated within a framework of competing multiple task-set activations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Desempenho Psicomotor , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento de Escolha , Feminino , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Comportamento Multitarefa , Tempo de Reação , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220150, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412048

RESUMO

According to a popular stereotype, women are better at multitasking than men, but empirical evidence for gender differences in multitasking performance is mixed. Previous work has focused on specific aspects of multitasking or has not considered gender differences in abilities contributing to multitasking performance. We therefore tested gender differences (N = 96, 50% female) in sequential (i.e., task switching) and concurrent (i.e., dual tasking) multitasking, while controlling for possible gender differences in working memory, processing speed, spatial abilities, and fluid intelligence. Applying two standard experimental paradigms allowed us to test multitasking abilities across five different empirical indices (i.e., performance costs) for both reaction time (RT) and accuracy measures, respectively. Multitasking resulted in substantial performance costs across all experimental conditions without a single significant gender difference in any of these ten measures, even when controlling for gender differences in underlying cognitive abilities. Thus, our results do not confirm the widespread stereotype that women are better at multitasking than men at least in the popular sequential and concurrent multitasking settings used in the present study.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Comportamento Multitarefa/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Estereotipagem , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
9.
Appl Ergon ; 80: 1-8, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280792

RESUMO

There has been a considerable amount of research to conceptualize how cognition handle multitasking situations. Despite these efforts, it is still not clear how task parameters shape attentionnal resources allocation. For instance, many research have suggested that difficulty levels could explain these conflicting observations and very few have considered other factors such as task importance. In the present study, twenty participants had to carry out two N-Back tasks simultaneously, each subtask having distinct difficulty (0,1 or 2-Back) and importance (1 or 3 points) levels. Participants's cumulative dwell time were collected to assess their attentional strategies. Results showed that depending on the global level of difficulty (combination of the two levels of difficulty), attentional resources of people were driven either by the subtask difficulty (under low-global-difficulty) or the subtask importance (under high-global-difficulty), in a non-compensatory way. We discussed these results in terms of decision-making heuristics and metacognition.


Assuntos
Atenção , Cognição , Tomada de Decisões , Comportamento Multitarefa , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
10.
Exp Psychol ; 66(3): 207-220, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266432

RESUMO

Many studies have documented that multitasking reduces Response Time (RT) indicators of implicit sequence learning as well as the expression of acquired sequence knowledge in RT benefits. In these tasks it is only relevant that the correct key is hit quickly, not where it is hit. We explored how variability in response location is influenced by (a) breaking a repeating sequence of target locations, (b) multitasking demands in the current trial, and (c) presence of multitasking in the block. Participants performed a Serial Reaction Time Task (SRTT) on a touchscreen while shutting down a beep tone by pressing the space bar with their non-dominant hand (throughout Experiment 1 and in the second half of Experiment 2). The first-order sequence of four response locations on the screen was broken by off-sequence deviants in 1/6th of the trials. Our results show a dissociation between RT and response location variability. While the effect of breaking the sequence on RT was larger under single- than under multitasking, breaking the sequence only led to an increase in response location variability under multitasking. Experiment 3 suggested that the impact of sequence knowledge on either aspect of performance in the SRTT is limited by interference from an additional task.


Assuntos
Comportamento Multitarefa/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Seriada/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
11.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 76(6): 353-359, 2019 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361842

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The process and methods used in an impact assessment of a centralized pharmacy call center on community pharmacy employee patient safety climate perceptions, telephone distractions/interruptions, and prescription filling efficiency are described. SUMMARY: A broad-based team designed a multi-faceted, pre-post call center implementation analysis that included multiple change assessment measures. First, yearly administration of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Community Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture was used to assess patient safety climate based on employee perceptions of a safe working environment and potential for errors due to interruptions and distractions. Evaluative measures of staff workload that assessed telephone interference with prescription filling activities pre and 3 months post implementation included (1) the NASA Task Load Index, (2) multi-tasking observations through shadowing of pharmacists and technicians to count number of interruptions/distractions per prescription "touched," and (3) self-reported work sampling to assess proportional time estimates of clinical, professional, and technical activities. Finally, pharmacy efficiency and prescription filling capacity were assessed using operational measures (prescriptions filled, patients served, phone call volume changes, prescription rework counting). Data analysis included summary statistics, Student's t-test, and chi-square analysis, as appropriate, in addition to assessing convergence and agreement among measures. Every evaluative method showed a positive outcome from call center implementation, although individual pharmacies may have accrued greater benefit from call reduction than others. CONCLUSION: Multiple analysis methods can be used to evaluate the impact of workflow changes.


Assuntos
Call Centers/organização & administração , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração , Erros de Medicação/prevenção & controle , Segurança do Paciente , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/organização & administração , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Eficiência Organizacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Humanos , Auditoria Administrativa/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Multitarefa , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Farmacêuticos/psicologia , Farmacêuticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Técnicos em Farmácia/organização & administração , Técnicos em Farmácia/psicologia , Técnicos em Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Papel Profissional/psicologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Gestão da Segurança/organização & administração , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Telefone , Estados Unidos , United States Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Carga de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Nat Hum Behav ; 3(7): 746-757, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160812

RESUMO

Attention is a fundamental cognitive process that is critical for essentially all aspects of higher-order cognition and real-world activities. Younger generations have deeply embraced information technology and multitasking in their personal lives, school and the workplace, creating myriad challenges to their attention. While improving sustained attention in healthy young adults would be beneficial, enhancing this ability has proven notoriously difficult in this age group. Here we show that 6 weeks of engagement with a meditation-inspired, closed-loop software program (MediTrain) delivered on mobile devices led to gains in both sustained attention and working memory in healthy young adults. These improvements were associated with positive changes in key neural signatures of attentional control (frontal theta inter-trial coherence and parietal P3b latency), as measured by electroencephalography. Our findings suggest the utility of delivering aspects of the ancient practice of focused-attention meditation in a modern, technology-based approach and its benefits on enhancing sustained attention.


Assuntos
Atenção , Potencial Evocado P300 , Meditação , Memória de Curto Prazo , Aplicativos Móveis , Adolescente , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Multitarefa , Adulto Jovem
13.
Brain Struct Funct ; 224(5): 1845-1869, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037397

RESUMO

Although there are well-known limitations of the human cognitive system in performing two tasks simultaneously (dual-tasking) or alternatingly (task-switching), the question for a common vs. distinct neural basis of these multitasking limitations is still open. We performed two Activation Likelihood Estimation meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies on dual-tasking or task-switching and tested for commonalities and differences in the brain regions associated with either domain. We found a common core network related to multitasking comprising bilateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS), left dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC), and right anterior insula. Meta-analytic contrasts revealed eight fronto-parietal clusters more consistently activated in dual-tasking (bilateral frontal operculum, dPMC, and anterior IPS, left inferior frontal sulcus and left inferior frontal gyrus) and, conversely, four clusters (left inferior frontal junction, posterior IPS, and precuneus as well as frontomedial cortex) more consistently activated in task-switching. Together with sub-analyses of preparation effects in task-switching, our results argue against purely passive structural processing limitations in multitasking. Based on these findings and drawing on current theorizing, we present a neuro-cognitive processing model of multitasking.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Comportamento Multitarefa/fisiologia , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Humanos , Neuroimagem
14.
Appl Ergon ; 79: 45-53, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109461

RESUMO

We present a unique data visualisation approach, called workflow time charts, to illustrate the sequential and multi-dimensional nature of work in emergency departments. Using 40 h of data from direct observations of emergency physicians, we applied the charts to visualise patient-stratified physicians' work as a continuous temporal process, including distinguishing tasks of different types and representing external prompts (similar to interruptions) and multitasking performance. The charts showed frequent changes in the nature of observed activities, with interleaved multitasking a constant feature and external prompts often clustered in time. Evidence of seniority-related differences in work were apparent with consultants switching between more concurrent patients and receiving more frequent clinical prompts than junior physicians, illustrating their overseeing and advice-giving role. The ubiquity of interleaved multitasking suggests a need to focus on developing individual strategies to support frequent cognitive switching. Work that appears fragmented at physician level may form part of a flexible and robust system, rather than an error-prone set of isolated individual behaviours.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos/psicologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Fluxo de Trabalho , Adulto , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Multitarefa , Relações Médico-Paciente , Fatores de Tempo , Carga de Trabalho
15.
JAMA ; 321(18): 1780-1787, 2019 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087021

RESUMO

Importance: Recommendations in the United States suggest limiting the number of patient records displayed in an electronic health record (EHR) to 1 at a time, although little evidence supports this recommendation. Objective: To assess the risk of wrong-patient orders in an EHR configuration limiting clinicians to 1 record vs allowing up to 4 records opened concurrently. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial included 3356 clinicians at a large health system in New York and was conducted from October 2015 to April 2017 in emergency department, inpatient, and outpatient settings. Interventions: Clinicians were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to an EHR configuration limiting to 1 patient record open at a time (restricted; n = 1669) or allowing up to 4 records open concurrently (unrestricted; n = 1687). Main Outcomes and Measures: The unit of analysis was the order session, a series of orders placed by a clinician for a single patient. The primary outcome was order sessions that included 1 or more wrong-patient orders identified by the Wrong-Patient Retract-and-Reorder measure (an electronic query that identifies orders placed for a patient, retracted, and then reordered shortly thereafter by the same clinician for a different patient). Results: Among the 3356 clinicians who were randomized (mean [SD] age, 43.1 [12.5] years; mean [SD] experience at study site, 6.5 [6.0] years; 1894 females [56.4%]), all provided order data and were included in the analysis. The study included 12 140 298 orders, in 4 486 631 order sessions, placed for 543 490 patients. There was no significant difference in wrong-patient order sessions per 100 000 in the restricted vs unrestricted group, respectively, overall (90.7 vs 88.0; odds ratio [OR], 1.03 [95% CI, 0.90-1.20]; P = .60) or in any setting (ED: 157.8 vs 161.3, OR, 1.00 [95% CI, 0.83-1.20], P = .96; inpatient: 185.6 vs 185.1, OR, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.89-1.11]; P = .86; or outpatient: 7.9 vs 8.2, OR, 0.94 [95% CI, 0.70-1.28], P = .71). The effect did not differ among settings (P for interaction = .99). In the unrestricted group overall, 66.2% of the order sessions were completed with 1 record open, including 34.5% of ED, 53.7% of inpatient, and 83.4% of outpatient order sessions. Conclusions and Relevance: A strategy that limited clinicians to 1 EHR patient record open compared with a strategy that allowed up to 4 records open concurrently did not reduce the proportion of wrong-patient order errors. However, clinicians in the unrestricted group placed most orders with a single record open, limiting the power of the study to determine whether reducing the number of records open when placing orders reduces the risk of wrong-patient order errors. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02876588.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Erros Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Adulto , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Erros Médicos/prevenção & controle , Sistemas Computadorizados de Registros Médicos/organização & administração , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Multitarefa , Near Miss/estatística & dados numéricos , Segurança do Paciente , Carga de Trabalho
16.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 45(7): 966-982, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021156

RESUMO

We can selectively attend to one of two simultaneous voices sharing a source location. Can we endogenously select the voice before speech is heard? Participants heard two digit names, spoken simultaneously by a male voice and a female voice, following a visual cue indicating which voice's digit to classify as odd or even. There was a substantial cost in reaction time and errors when the target voice switched from one trial to the next. In Experiment 1, with a highly familiar pair of voices, the switch cost reduced by nearly half as the cue-stimulus interval increased from 50 to 800 ms, indicating (contrary to previous reports) effective endogenous preparation for a change of voice. No further reduction in switch cost occurred with a longer preparation interval-this "residual" switch cost may be attributable to attentional "inertia." In Experiment 2, with previously unfamiliar voices, the pattern of switch costs was very similar, though repeated attention to the same target voice over a run of trials improved performance more. Delaying the onset of one voice by 366 ms improved performance, but the pattern of preparatory tuning effects was similar. Thus, endogenous preparation for a voice is possible, but it is limited in efficacy, as for some other attentional domains. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atenção , Percepção Auditiva , Estimulação Acústica , Adolescente , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Multitarefa , Tempo de Reação , Voz , Adulto Jovem
17.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 26(4): 1257-1265, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030392

RESUMO

Media multitasking is an increasingly prominent behavior in affluent societies. However, it still needs to be established if simultaneous use of several modes of media content has an influence on higher cognitive functions, such as divided attention. In this study, attention shifting was the primary focus, since switching between tasks is assumed to be necessary for media multitasking. Two tasks, the number-letter and local-global task, were used as measures of switching ability. The cognitive reflections task was included to control for possible effects of intelligence. Results from linear regression analyses showed that higher levels of media multitasking was related to lower switching costs in the two attention-shifting tasks. These findings replicate previous findings suggesting that heavy media multitaskers perform better on select measures of task switching. We suggest two possible explanations for our results: media multitasking may practice skills needed for switching between tasks, or high media multitaskers are choosing this style of technology use due to a dominating personality trait in this group.


Assuntos
Atenção , Meios de Comunicação , Função Executiva , Comportamento Multitarefa , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Parkinsons Dis ; 9(2): 335-349, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958312

RESUMO

Dance-based interventions have been proposed for the management of Parkinson's disease (PD) symptoms. This review critically appraises and synthesises the research on the effects of dance interventions on gait, cognition and dual-tasking in PD, through a meta-analysis of peer-reviewed literature from seven databases. Eligible studies included people with PD, used a parallel-group or cohort design with a dance-based intervention, reported outcome measures of gait, cognition or dual-tasking, and were published in English up until September 2017. Of the initial 1079 articles, 677 articles were reviewed for eligibility, and 25 articles were retained. Only 12 articles had sufficient common assessment items for meta-analysis. Two independent reviewers extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias of each study using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Based on pre-post change scores, gait speed, Timed Up and Go (TUG) test performance, freezing of gait questionnaire, and six-minute walk test times significantly improved after a dance intervention compared to controls. Global cognition assessed with Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and cognitive dual-tasking measured using dual-task TUG, also exhibited greater improvement in dance groups. There was limited evidence to determine the most effective intensity, frequency, duration of dance interventions or the most beneficial music. Findings must be interpreted cautiously because of the lack of randomised control trials, and the moderate to high risk of bias of studies. However, the results of papers with level-I and level-II.1 evidence suggest that dance may have the potential to ameliorate PD symptoms, particularly gait, global cognition and cognitive dual-tasking.


Assuntos
Terapia através da Dança , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/reabilitação , Doença de Parkinson/reabilitação , Cognição , Marcha , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/etiologia , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Comportamento Multitarefa , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Teste de Caminhada , Velocidade de Caminhada
19.
Gait Posture ; 70: 98-103, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30836253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that dual-task standing balance in Parkinson's disease (PD) is significantly diminished. Additionally, it is well accepted that dopaminergic medication improves dynamic balance (Berg Balance Scale, mini-BESTest), but standing balance (force platform posturography) may suffer. What remains unknown is how dopaminergic medication influences standing balance automaticity in PD. RESEARCH QUESTION: Does dopaminergic medication improve standing balance automaticity during a phoneme monitoring dual-task in PD? METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. Sixteen subjects with PD completed single- and dual-task standing with eyes open and eyes closed for 3 min each in off and on medication states. 95% confidence ellipse area, anterior-posterior sway velocity, medial-lateral sway velocity, and integrated time to boundary were calculated. Data were analyzed with a repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS: Dopaminergic medication significantly increased ellipse area (p = 0.002) and decreased the performance on the secondary task (p = 0.004). Different eyes conditions (open vs. closed) significantly increased both sway velocities (anterior-posterior = p < 0.001, medial-lateral = p < 0.001), and increased integrated time to boundary (p < 0.001). There were also task by eyes condition interaction effects for anterior-posterior velocity and integrated time to boundary (p = 0.015 and p = 0.009, respectively). Increases in sway velocity and integrated time to boundary seen in the eyes condition and interaction effects are traditionally interpreted as poorer balance performance. However, in the context of stability/maneuverability tradeoff, the changes may indicate an increase in freedom of movement instead of a decrease in stability. SIGNIFICANCE: The data did not support a medication-induced improvement in automaticity, as measured by significant medication by task interactions. An alternate interpretation for medication-induced balance changes in PD includes an increase in maneuverability without sacrificing stability after taking dopaminergic medication.


Assuntos
Dopaminérgicos/farmacologia , Comportamento Multitarefa/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Equilíbrio Postural/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Dopaminérgicos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Mil Med ; 184(Suppl 1): 174-180, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901418

RESUMO

RESEARCH OBJECTIVE: Dual-task performance, in which individuals complete two or more activities simultaneously, is impaired following mild traumatic brain injury. The aim of this project was to develop a dual-task paradigm that may be conducive to military utilization in evaluating cognitive-motor function in a standardized and scalable manner by leveraging mobile device technology. METHODS: Fifty healthy young adult civilians (18-24 years) completed four balance stances and a number discrimination task under single- and dual-task conditions. Postural stability was quantified using data gathered from iPad's native accelerometer and gyroscope. Cognitive task difficulty was manipulated by presenting stimuli at 30, 60, or 90 per minute. Performance of cognitive and balance tasks was compared between single- and dual-task trials. RESULTS: Cognitive performance from single- to dual-task paradigms showed no significant main effect of balance condition or the interaction of condition by frequency. From single- to dual-task conditions, a significant difference in postural control was revealed in only one stance: tandem with eyes closed, in which a slight improvement in postural stability was observed under dual-task conditions. CONCLUSION: The optimal dual-task paradigm to evaluate cognitive-motor performance with minimal floor and ceiling effects consists of tandem stance with eyes closed while stimuli are presented at a rate of one per second.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico , Comportamento Multitarefa , Smartphone/instrumentação , Adolescente , Análise de Variância , Concussão Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Equilíbrio Postural , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
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