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1.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 165: 104548, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359557

RESUMO

Pymetrozine is a promising chemical used to control brown planthopper, which developed resistance to imidacloprid and buprofezin in the past decade. Field efficacy indicates that pymetrozine can reduce the number of offsprings of brown planthopper, but the specific physiological mechanism is unknown. In this study, we systematically described the mating process of brown planthopper including 8 steps (abdominal vibration, following, positioning, wing extension, attempted copulation, copulation, terminated copulation and leaving) and explored the optimal mating time after adult eclosion (3-5 days) and observation time (30 mins). Also, behavioral data showed that pymetrozine can affect the mating behavior and female fecundity of brown planthopper and fruit fly. As one of the target genes for pymetrozine, Nanchung (Nan), the nan36a mutant male courtship index, female receptivity and the number of offsprings were significantly decreased. Behavioral defects in nan36a mutant flies can be rescued by expressed NlNan. Our results indicated that Nan plays essential roles in the mating behavior and female fecundity. These findings provide useful information for demonstrating that pymetrozine effectively reduce the reproduction of brown planthopper and contribute to our understanding of reproductive strategies controlled by pymetrozine in insects.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Comportamento Reprodutivo , Animais , Proteínas de Drosophila , Drosophila melanogaster , Feminino , Masculino , Canais de Receptores Transientes de Potencial , Triazinas
2.
J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol ; 41(3): 183-190, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379999

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic lifestyle change on couples of reproductive age and on their desire for parenthood.Materials and methods: A quantitative correlational research study, based on a web survey, was conducted among Italian men and women in heterosexual stable relationships, aged between 18 and 46 years. The self-administered Italian version questionnaire was created using Google Forms and posted on chats and social networks.The mood of participants before and during the quarantine was assessed using a scale from 1 to 10 (1 = no wellbeing; 10 = total wellbeing). Couples' quality of life and their reproductive desire were evaluated.Results: 1482 respondents were included: 944 women (63.7%) and 538 men (36.3%). A significant trend toward reduced mean wellbeing scores during the quarantine, compared to before, was found (p < .01). From 18.1% participants who were planning to have a child before the pandemic, 37.3% abandoned the intention, related to worries of future economic difficulties (58%) and consequences on pregnancy (58%). Of 81.9% who did not intend to conceive, 11.5% revealed a desire for parenthood during quarantine than before (p < .01), related to will for change (50%) and need for positivity (40%). 4.3% of these actually tried to get pregnant. Stratifying by age, a trend toward older ages was found in the desire for parenthood before and during the COVID-19 pandemic (p < .05).Conclusions: COVID-19 pandemic is impacting on the desire for parenthood. It is unknown whether these findings will result in a substantial modification of birth rate in the near future.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Estilo de Vida , Pandemias , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral , Qualidade de Vida , Reprodução , Comportamento Reprodutivo/psicologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Coeficiente de Natalidade/tendências , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2377, 2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398652

RESUMO

Understanding how conditions experienced during development affect reproductive timing is of considerable cross-disciplinary interest. Life-history theory predicts that organisms will accelerate reproduction when future survival is unsure. In humans, this can be triggered by early exposure to mortality. Previous studies, however, have been inconclusive due to several confounds that are also likely to affect reproduction. Here we take advantage of a natural experiment in which a population is temporarily divided by war to analyze how exposure to mortality affects reproduction. Using records of Finnish women in World War II, we find that young girls serving in a paramilitary organization wait less time to reproduce, have shorter inter-birth intervals, and have more children than their non-serving peers or sisters. These results support the hypothesis that exposure to elevated mortality rates during development can result in accelerated reproductive schedules and adds to our understanding of how participation in warfare affects women.


Assuntos
Adultos Sobreviventes de Eventos Adversos na Infância/psicologia , Militares/psicologia , Comportamento Reprodutivo/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Exposição à Guerra , Adolescente , Adulto , Adultos Sobreviventes de Eventos Adversos na Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Criança , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade , Comportamento Reprodutivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Irmãos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo , Voluntários/psicologia , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos , II Guerra Mundial , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231181, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348303

RESUMO

This paper explores reproductive decision-making among young women in South Africa's informal settlements and considers whether and how agency and social norm theory inform their decisions. Understanding whether, when and how young women make decisions about conception and motherhood is critical for supporting women to avoid unplanned, early motherhood. Qualitative data were collected from 15 young women in informal settlements in eThekwini, South Africa at three time points over 18 months, using in-depth interviews, participant observation and photovoice, and were analysed inductively. When the young women were teenagers and into their early twenties, and had not yet had a child, most paid little attention to whether or not they conceived. This shifted as they grew older and/or after having a first child, at which point many of the women began to express, and sometimes act upon, a greater desire to control whether and when they conceived and delay further pregnancies. At different times in their lives, both social norms and reproductive agency, specifically 'distributed agency' played significant roles in influencing their reproductive decision-making. Social norms held the most influence when they were teenagers and experiencing normative pressures to have a baby while young. As they grew older and/or had a first child they began to assert some agentic control around their reproduction. We therefore recommend that in order to improve the effectiveness of services and interventions supporting young women to delay unplanned pregnancies, programmers, researchers and policy makers must develop a better understanding of the role of social norms and agency at different stages of women's lives.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões , Comportamento Reprodutivo/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva/organização & administração , Normas Sociais/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Características da Família/etnologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez , Gravidez não Planejada/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Substâncias para o Controle da Reprodução/administração & dosagem , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(12): 6300-6307, 2020 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165543

RESUMO

We consider two aspects of the human enterprise that profoundly affect the global environment: population and consumption. We show that fertility and consumption behavior harbor a class of externalities that have not been much noted in the literature. Both are driven in part by attitudes and preferences that are not egoistic but socially embedded; that is, each household's decisions are influenced by the decisions made by others. In a famous paper, Garrett Hardin [G. Hardin, Science 162, 1243-1248 (1968)] drew attention to overpopulation and concluded that the solution lay in people "abandoning the freedom to breed." That human attitudes and practices are socially embedded suggests that it is possible for people to reduce their fertility rates and consumption demands without experiencing a loss in wellbeing. We focus on fertility in sub-Saharan Africa and consumption in the rich world and argue that bottom-up social mechanisms rather than top-down government interventions are better placed to bring about those ecologically desirable changes.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Comportamento do Consumidor , Comportamento Reprodutivo , Mudança Social , África ao Sul do Saara , Países Desenvolvidos , Fertilidade , Humanos , Renda , Crescimento Demográfico , Conformidade Social , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Tecnologia
6.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229333, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097433

RESUMO

To understand the relationship between pregnancy intentions and contraceptive use, a growing body of research has begun to examine various domains of women's attitudes towards pregnancy, acknowledging that these attitudes may contradict one another, and women may be ambivalent. This study examines pregnancy ambivalence and assesses the relationship between attitudes towards pregnancy and contraceptive continuation after nine months among a sample of women in Odisha and Haryana, India. Data come from a longitudinal study of married women age 15-49 who began using a modern reversible method of contraception at the time of study enrollment. To assess their cognitive attitudes (beliefs/knowledge) towards pregnancy, women were asked "how important is it you to avoid a pregnancy now?" To assess their affective attitudes (feelings/emotions), women were asked about their agreement with the statement: "If I found out I was pregnant in the next several weeks, I would be happy." A joint, 4-category measure combining these cognitive and affective attitudes towards pregnancy was created to measure concordance and ambivalence in attitudes towards pregnancy. Multivariate random-effects logistic regression models were employed to examine the relationship of these two measures with method-specific contraceptive continuation nine months later. Two models were conducted, one with the two attitude variables included independently and the second with the joint, 4-category measure included. Results showed that affective and cognitive attitudes were both significantly associated with continuation, but that there were no significant differences between those that were ambivalent and those whose attitudes were concordantly anti-pregnancy. This study suggests that attitudes towards pregnancy are multifaceted and both cognitive and affective attitudes towards pregnancy may play an important role in contraceptive use in India.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/psicologia , Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Reprodutivo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Intenção , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
7.
Fertil Steril ; 113(2): 392-399, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106992

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between prior cancer treatments, medical comorbidities, and voluntary childlessness in reproductive-age women who are survivors of cancers diagnosed as adolescents and young adults (AYA survivors). DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis. SETTING: Participants were recruited from California and Texas cancer registries, fertility preservation programs, and cancer advocacy groups. PATIENT(S): Women (n = 413) ages 18-40 who were diagnosed with cancer between ages 15 and 35, completed primary cancer treatments, had at least one ovary, and were nulliparous. INTERVENTION(S): Cancer treatment gonadotoxicity and medical comorbidities. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Voluntary childlessness. RESULT(S): The mean age of survivors was 31.8 years (SD, 4.9) with a mean of 6.5 years (SD, 4.4) since cancer diagnosis. Breast (26%), thyroid (19%), and Hodgkin lymphoma (18%) were the most common cancers. Twenty-two percent of the cohort was voluntarily childless. Medical comorbidities, cancer diagnosis, prior surgery, prior chemotherapy, and prior gonadotoxic treatments were not significantly associated with voluntary childlessness. In adjusted analysis, survivors of older reproductive age (adjusted odds ratio = 2.97 [1.71-5.18]) and nonheterosexual participants (adjusted odds ratio = 4.71 [2.15-10.32]) were more likely to report voluntary childlessness. CONCLUSION(S): A moderate proportion of AYA cancer survivors are voluntarily childless, but reproductive intentions were not related to cancer type or cancer treatments. AYA survivors of older age and nonheterosexual identification were more likely to be voluntarily childless. These data support assessing reproductive intentions and tailoring reproductive care such as fertility and contraception counseling that is appropriate for a survivor's intentions.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Neoplasias/terapia , Reprodução , Comportamento Reprodutivo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , California/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Fatores Sexuais , Sexualidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Texas/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Reprod Health ; 16(1): 180, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early marriage and early childbearing are highly prevalent in Niger with 75% of girls married before age 18 years and 42% of girls giving birth between ages 15 and 18 years. In 2012, only 7% of all 15-19-year-old married adolescents (male and female) reported use of a modern contraceptive method with barriers including misinformation, and social norms unsupportive of contraception. To meet the needs of married adolescents and their husbands in Niger, the Reaching Married Adolescents (RMA) program was developed with the goal of improving modern contraceptive method uptake in the Dosso region of Niger. METHODS: Using a four-arm cluster randomized control design, the RMA study seeks to assess whether household visits only (Arm 1), small group discussions only (Arm 2), or a combination of both (Arm 3), as compared to controls (no intervention - Arm 4), improve modern contraceptive method use among married adolescent girls and young women (AGYW), age 13-19 years-old, in three districts of the Dosso region. Intervention conditions were randomly assigned across the three districts, Dosso, Doutchi, and Loga. Within each district, eligible villages were assigned to either that intervention condition or to the control condition (12 intervention and 4 control per district). Across the three intervention conditions, community dialogues regarding modern contraceptive use were also implemented. Data for the study was collected at baseline (April - June 2016), at 24 months post-intervention (April - June 2018), and a final round of data collection will occur at 40 months post-intervention (October - December 2019). DISCUSSION: The RMA intervention is a gender-synchronized and community-based program implemented among married adolescent girls and their husbands in the context of rural Niger. The intervention is designed to provide education about modern contraception and to promote gender equity in order to increase uptake of modern contraceptive methods. Results from this cluster randomized control study will contribute to the knowledge base regarding the utility of male engagement as a strategy within community-level approaches to promote modern contraceptive method use in the high need context of West Africa. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered October 2017 - ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03226730.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/psicologia , Anticoncepção/psicologia , Características da Família , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Casamento , Comportamento Reprodutivo/psicologia , Educação Sexual/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
9.
Semin Reprod Med ; 37(2): 56-63, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847025

RESUMO

Successful reproduction is dependent not only on hormonal endocrine responses but also on suitable partner selection, copulatory acts, as well as associated emotional, behavioral, and cognitive processes many of which are supported by the limbic system. The reproductive hormone kisspeptin (encoded by the KISS1/kiss1 gene) is now recognized as the key orchestrator of the reproductive axis. In addition to the hypothalamus, prominent kisspeptin neuronal populations have been identified throughout limbic and paralimbic brain regions across an assortment of species. In this review, we detail the emerging roles of kisspeptin signaling in the broader aspects of behavioral, emotional, and cognitive control. Recent studies from zebrafish through humans have provided new molecular and neural insights into the complex role of kisspeptin in interpreting olfactory and auditory cues to govern sexual partner preference, in regulating copulatory behaviors and in influencing mood and emotions. Furthermore, emerging roles for kisspeptin in facilitating memory and learning are also discussed. To this end, these findings shed new light onto the importance of kisspeptin signaling, while informing the pharmacological development of kisspeptin as a potential therapeutic strategy for individuals suffering from associated reproductive, emotional, and cognitive disorders.


Assuntos
Kisspeptinas/metabolismo , Comportamento Reprodutivo/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Animais , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Kisspeptinas/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Receptores Odorantes/fisiologia , Comportamento Reprodutivo/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Semin Reprod Med ; 37(2): 64-70, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847026

RESUMO

The hypothalamic hormone kisspeptin (encoded by the KISS1/kiss1 gene) is the master regulator of the reproductive axis with its role in controlling gonadotrophin hormone secretion now well characterized. However, identification of kisspeptin and its cognate receptor expression within the amygdala, a key limbic brain region whose functions contribute to a broad range of physiological and behavioral processes, has heightened interest concerning kisspeptins' role in the broader aspects of reproductive physiology. In this review, we detail the important developments and key studies examining the emerging functions of this kisspeptin population. These studies provide novel advances in our understanding of the mechanisms controlling reproductive neuroendocrinology by defining the crucial role of the amygdala kisspeptin system in modulating pubertal timing, reproductive hormone secretion, and pulsatility, as well as its influence in governing-related behaviors. To this end, the role of the amygdala kisspeptin system in integrating reproductive hormone secretion with behavior sheds new light onto the potential use of kisspeptin-based therapeutics for reproductive and related psychosexual disorders.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/metabolismo , Kisspeptinas/metabolismo , Comportamento Reprodutivo/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Puberdade/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
11.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(36): 5423-5433, 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576090

RESUMO

The impact of a chronic disease such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) on sexual functioning and body image can significantly impair the quality of life of patients. This review considers the sexual and fertility aspects of IBD patients and their daily management. Modern IBD healthcare management should include appropriate communication on sexuality and consider psychological, physiological, and biological issues. Patients with IBD have less children than the general population, and voluntary childlessness is frequent. The most influential factors reported by IBD patients who experience fertility alteration are psychological and surgery-related problems. Pregnancy is a major concern for patients, and any pregnancy for IBD patients should be closely followed-up to keep the chronic disease in a quiescent state. Preconceptional consultation is of great help.


Assuntos
Fertilidade/fisiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/fisiopatologia , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/fisiopatologia , Saúde Sexual , Doença Crônica/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/psicologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida , Comportamento Reprodutivo/psicologia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/etiologia , Exacerbação dos Sintomas
12.
Reprod Health ; 16(1): 135, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intentions-oriented approaches to measuring pregnancy do not necessarily align with how people view and approach pregnancy. Our objective was to obtain an in-depth understanding of the notions women and men hold regarding pregnancy. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with 176 heterosexual women and men ages 18-35, in the United States. Data were analyzed using grounded theory methodology. RESULTS: Participants described notions of getting pregnant in one of three ways. One group of participants used language that solely described pregnancy as a deliberate process, either premeditated or actively avoided. Another described pregnancy as a predetermined phenomenon, due to fate or something that 'just happens.' The third group represented a blending of both notions. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings underscore the need to shift the current paradigm of deliberate intentions to one that recognizes that pregnancy can also be viewed as predetermined. These findings can be used to improve measurement, health services, and better direct public health resources.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/tendências , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Intenção , Gravidez não Planejada , Comportamento Reprodutivo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
13.
Elife ; 82019 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418688

RESUMO

Modern humans have more fragile skeletons than other hominins, which may result from physical inactivity. Here, we test whether reproductive effort also compromises bone strength, by measuring using computed tomography thoracic vertebral bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture prevalence among physically active Tsimane forager-horticulturalists. Earlier onset of reproduction and shorter interbirth intervals are associated with reduced BMD for women. Tsimane BMD is lower versus Americans, but only for women, contrary to simple predictions relying on inactivity to explain skeletal fragility. Minimal BMD differences exist between Tsimane and American men, suggesting that systemic factors other than fertility (e.g. diet) do not easily explain Tsimane women's lower BMD. Tsimane fracture prevalence is also higher versus Americans. Lower BMD increases Tsimane fracture risk, but only for women, suggesting a role of weak bone in women's fracture etiology. Our results highlight the role of sex-specific mechanisms underlying skeletal fragility that operate long before menopause.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Grupos Étnicos , Comportamento Alimentar , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Comportamento Reprodutivo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bolívia , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Estados Unidos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412544

RESUMO

Recent research has found that most U.S. state policies related to alcohol use during pregnancy adversely impact health. Other studies indicate that state policymaking around substance use in pregnancy-especially in the U.S.-appears to be influenced by an anti-abortion agenda rather than by public health motivations. This commentary explores the ways that scientists' aversion to abortion appear to influence science and thus policymaking around alcohol and pregnancy. The three main ways abortion aversion shows up in the literature related to alcohol use during pregnancy include: (1) a shift from the recommendation of abortion for "severely chronic alcoholic women" to the non-acknowledgment of abortion as an outcome of an alcohol-exposed pregnancy; (2) the concern that recommendations of abstinence from alcohol use during pregnancy lead to terminations of otherwise wanted pregnancies; and (3) the presumption of abortion as a negative pregnancy outcome. Thus, abortion aversion appears to influence the science related to alcohol use during pregnancy, and thus policymaking-to the detriment of developing and adopting policies that reduce the harms from alcohol during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Comportamento Reprodutivo/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Políticas , Gravidez , Comportamento Reprodutivo/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 374, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Delayed childbearing is an emerging public health issue in developing countries compared with more developed countries, where it is already a major clinical and public health concern. Previous studies have mostly focused on either the health risks associated with delayed childbearing or the reasons for it with little done around the socio-demographic factors associated with it in developing countries. The objective of the study was to examine associated socio-demographic factors of delayed childbearing in Nigeria. RESULTS: The study used secondary data pooled from 2003 to 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Surveys. The outcome variable was delayed childbearing. The explanatory variables are selected individual socio-demographic characteristics and community characteristics. A weighted sample size of 20,550 women was analysed. Results showed a prevalence of 8.0% delayed childbearing in Nigeria. Socio-demographic factors such as higher maternal education, age at first marriage of 25 years or older, modern contraceptive use, and remarriage status were significantly associated with delayed childbearing. Significant associations were also observed with high community literacy level and high proportion of women who ever used modern contraceptive in the community.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/educação , Comportamento Reprodutivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento Contraceptivo/psicologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Estado Civil , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Comportamento Reprodutivo/psicologia
16.
J Neurol ; 266(10): 2512-2517, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256279

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of discontinuation of different disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) before pregnancy with respect to the occurrence of relapses and pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: Women with multiple sclerosis who desire to bear children were followed prospectively. Demographic data, clinical characteristics, and the information on the use of DMTs were collected. A multivariate analysis was used to assess the relationship between relapses and the prior use of different DMTs. RESULTS: The present study assessed 75 consecutive pregnancy plans (66 women), 65 of which resulted in pregnancy. The mean age of the participants was 32.1 ± 4.2 years, and the mean disease duration was 6.1 ± 4.2 years. No relapses before pregnancy were reported in the group of women who maintained their DMT until pregnancy confirmation, while 14 relapses were reported in 12/42 women (29%) who discontinued DMT before pregnancy. During pregnancy, patients on natalizumab or fingolimod before pregnancy had a higher rate of relapses. Most women restarted their previous DMT after delivery within the first trimester. The relapse rate in postpartum was 0.07. CONCLUSIONS: Disease-modifying therapies received influences the risk of relapse and disease progression from women who are planning pregnancy. The risk of relapse during pregnancy was significantly higher in the group of women treated with natalizumab or fingolimod compared to the group of women treated with interferon beta or glatiramer acetate. The postpartum risk of relapses was lower than that found in previous reports.


Assuntos
Cloridrato de Fingolimode/administração & dosagem , Acetato de Glatiramer/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Interferon beta/administração & dosagem , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Natalizumab/administração & dosagem , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Comportamento Reprodutivo , Adulto , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Gravidez , Transtornos Puerperais/etiologia , Recidiva
17.
Obstet Gynecol ; 134(2): 351-359, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306331

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate demographic differences and evaluate how reproductive coercion and relationship abuse influences young females' care-seeking and sexual health behaviors. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of cross-sectional baseline survey data from sexually active female students (aged 14-19 years) who sought care from school health centers. Outcomes included recent (previous 3 months) reproductive coercion, physical or sexual adolescent relationship abuse, and nonpartner sexual violence victimization. Cluster-adjusted χ tests compared demographics and generalized linear mixed models estimated associations among reproductive coercion, adolescent relationship abuse (physical and sexual abuse in romantic relationships), and care-seeking and sexual health behaviors. RESULTS: Of 550 sexually active high school females, 12% reported recent reproductive coercion and 17% reported physical or sexual adolescent relationship abuse, with no significant demographic differences. Prevalence of recent nonpartner sexual violence was 17%. There were no observed significant differences in care-seeking behaviors among those with recent reproductive coercion compared with those without. Physical or sexual adolescent relationship abuse was associated with increased odds of seeking testing or treatment for sexually transmitted infections (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.08, 95% CI 1.05-4.13). Females exposed to both adolescent relationship abuse and reproductive coercion had higher odds of having a partner who was 5 or more years older (aOR 4.66, 95% CI 1.51-14.4), having two or more recent sexual partners (aOR 3.86, 95% CI 1.57-9.48), and using hormonal contraception only (aOR 3.77, 95% CI 1.09-13.1 vs hormonal methods with condoms). CONCLUSION: Almost one in eight females experienced recent reproductive coercion. We did not observe significant demographic differences in reproductive coercion. Partner age and number of sexual partners may elevate risk for abusive relationships. Relationship abuse is prevalent among high school students seeking care, with no clear pattern for case identification. By failing to identify factors associated with harmful partner behaviors, our results support universal assessment for reproductive coercion and relationship abuse among high school-aged adolescents, involving education, resources, and harm-reduction counseling to all patients. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01678378.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Comportamento Reprodutivo/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Análise por Conglomerados , Coerção , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Prevalência , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Reprod Health ; 16(Suppl 1): 64, 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many people living with HIV would like to have children but family planning (FP) services often focus on only contraception. Availability of safer conception services is still very low in most low income countries. In this study we assessed the knowledge and use of safer conception methods (SCM) among HIV infected women in HIV care in Uganda to inform integration of safer conception in existing FP services. METHODS: Data were accrued from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 5198 HIV+ women aged 15-49 years from 245 HIV clinics in Uganda. Knowledge and use of safer conception methods and associated factors were determined. The measure of association was prevalence ratio (PR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals, obtained using a modified Poisson regression via generalized linear models. All the analyses were conducted using STATA version 12.0. RESULTS: Overall knowledge of any safer conception method was 74.1% (3852/5198). However only 13.2% knew 3 to 4 methods, 18.9% knew only 2 methods and 42% knew only one method. Knowledge of specific SCM was highest for timed unprotected intercourse (TUI) at 39% (n = 2027) followed by manual self-insemination (MSI) at 34.8% (n = 1809), and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) at 24.8% (n = 1289). Knowledge of SCM was higher in the Eastern region (84.8%, P < 0.001), among women in HIV-discordant relationships (76.7%, p < 0.017), and those on ART (74.5%, p < 0.034). Overall, 1796 (34.6%) women were pregnant or reported a birth in the past 2 years-overall use of SCM in this group was 11.6% (209/1796). The odds of use of SCM were significantly lower in Kampala [adj. PR = 0.489(0.314, 0.764)] or Eastern region [adj.PR = 0.244; (0.147, 0.405)] compared to Northern region. Higher odds of SCM use were associated with HIV status disclosure to partner [adj.PR = 2.613(1.308, 5.221)] and sero-discordant compared to HIV+ concordant relationship [adj.PR = 1.637(1.236, 2.168)]. Pre-existing knowledge of any one SCM did not influence SCM use. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge and use of SCM among HIV+ women in care is low. Efforts to improve HIV status disclosure, integration of safer conception into FP and HIV services and regional efforts to promote sensitization and access to safer conception can help to increase uptake of safer conception methods.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção/métodos , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Tomada de Decisões , Fertilização , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Sexo Seguro/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Comportamento Reprodutivo , Sexo Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Life Sci Soc Policy ; 15(1): 3, 2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049743

RESUMO

In Western countries, a social trend toward delaying childbearing has been observed in women of reproductive age for the last two decades. This delay is due to different factors related to lifestyle, such as the development of a professional career or the absence of the right partner. As a consequence, women who defer childbearing may find themselves affected by age-related infertility when they decide to conceive. Fertility preservation techniques are, therefore, proposed as a solution for these women. Among all possible solutions, social freezing is an alternative strongly discussed from a scientific, social and ethical point of view.A survey among 930 female students at the University of Padova (Italy) investigated their knowledge and attitudes on social egg freezing and their potential intentions regarding this procedure. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the level of awareness of age-related infertility in Italian young women and their attitudes regarding acceptable indications for elective oocyte freezing, their potential personal use, the circumstances in which they would then decide to use cryopreserved eggs, and their attitudes towards cost coverage and oocyte donation.Data collected in this study revealed some important points about young women and their knowledge about social oocyte freezing in Italy as compared to other European countries and the United States.Overall, 34.3% of the students reported having heard about the possibility of oocyte cryopreservation for non-medical reasons and being aware of the meaning of this procedure; only 19.5% were in favour of social egg freezing and 48.4% thought that the cost for this procedure should be borne entirely by the woman herself. Regarding egg donation, the majority of students (64.9%) would not accept donating their eggs to a known woman or couple and 42.5% would instead accept donating to a biobank.Our study shows that young Italian women are significantly less aware of age-related decline in fertility and the possibility of using social egg freezing compared to their similarly situated counterparts in other Western countries.


Assuntos
Criopreservação , Preservação da Fertilidade/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Oócitos , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Comportamento Reprodutivo/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
20.
Work ; 62(4): 563-571, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are few correlational studies comparing family-work reconciliation between groups of women. OBJECTIVE: We intend to correlate and compare the use of time, purchasing power, and job satisfaction between two groups of working women, women with children and women without children. METHODS: This is a correlational and comparative study. The following instruments were used: Activities Diary; Brazilian Criteria for Economic Classification; and the short version of the Quality of Working Life Questionnaire. A total of 171 women participated in the study: one group was composed of 78 women with children and the other group was composed of 93 women without children. Data were analyzed using the Shapiro-Wilk test, Wilcoxon test, Student's t-test and the Kolmogorov Smirnov test. RESULTS: Women with children spent more hours/day on hygiene, taking care of elderly individuals, practicing their religion, and studying (p = 0.001), but they presented no statistical differences in job satisfaction from those women without children (p = 0.2362). Women with children belonged to a higher economic classification and had greater purchasing power than women without children. CONCLUSIONS: Having children is a variable that influences time use, purchasing power, and job satisfaction among women and the presence of children is a factor that may increase the purchasing power of a woman.


Assuntos
Emprego/psicologia , Satisfação no Emprego , Comportamento Reprodutivo/psicologia , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Emprego/normas , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Reprodutivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos
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