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1.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(704): 1582-1585, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880117

RESUMO

Our medical practice brings us to meet people from all walks of life. Some of our patients experience multiple vulnerabilities and are at greater risk of stigma and discrimination. In the field of asylum, they are often firstly designated by words reflecting their socio-administrative reality. These words are supposed to define their identity. The individual is dehumanized because reduced to an administrative status. These terms carry a denotative meaning, valuable in understanding the context in which the patient evolves ; but also a connotative meaning, which through implicit bias leads the caregiver to adopt attitudes that may be detrimental to the proper care of the patient. Words must be carefully chosen and brought in a timely manner, because words matter.


Assuntos
Hospitais Psiquiátricos , Idioma , Saúde Mental , Preconceito , Humanos , Vergonha , Estigma Social
4.
Pediatrics ; 146(Suppl 1): S48-S53, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737232

RESUMO

In this article, I review the ethical issues that arise in the allocation of deceased-donor organs to children and young adults. By analyzing the public media cases of Sarah Murnaghan, Amelia Rivera, and Riley Hancey, I assess whether public appeals to challenge inclusion and exclusion criteria for organ transplantation are ethical and under which circumstances. The issues of pediatric allocation with limited evidence and candidacy affected by factors such as intellectual disability and marijuana use are specifically discussed. Finally, I suggest that ethical public advocacy can coexist with well-evidenced transplant allocation if and when certain conditions (morally defensible criteria, expert evidence, nonprioritization of the poster child, and greater advocacy for organ transplantation in general) are met.


Assuntos
Doação Dirigida de Tecido/ética , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/ética , Defesa do Paciente/ética , Alocação de Recursos/ética , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fibrose Cística/cirurgia , Doação Dirigida de Tecido/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual , Transplante de Rim , Transplante de Pulmão/ética , Transplante de Pulmão/legislação & jurisprudência , Masculino , Redes Sociais Online , Pais , Defesa do Paciente/legislação & jurisprudência , Pneumonia/cirurgia , Preconceito , Opinião Pública , Alocação de Recursos/legislação & jurisprudência , Alocação de Recursos/organização & administração , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/ética , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/organização & administração , Listas de Espera , Síndrome de Wolf-Hirschhorn/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nature ; 583(7815): 202, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636519
6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235436, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609765

RESUMO

Modern psychological theories postulate that individual differences in prejudice are determined by social and ideological attitudes instead of personality. For example, the dual-process motivational (DPM) model argues that personality does not directly associate with prejudice when controlling for the attitudinal variables that capture the authoritarian-conservatism motivation and the dominance motivation. Previous studies testing the DPM model largely relied on convenience samples and/or European samples, and have produced inconsistent results. Here we examined the extent to which anti-black prejudice was associated with the Big Five personality traits and social and ideological attitudes (authoritarianism, social dominance orientation, political party affiliation) in two large probability samples of the general population (N1 = 3,132; N2 = 2,483) from the American National Election Studies (ANES). We performed structural equation modeling (SEM) to test the causal assumptions between the latent variables and used survey weights to generate estimates that were representative of the population. Different from prior theories, across both datasets we found that two personality traits, agreeableness and conscientiousness, were directly associated with anti-black prejudice when controlling for authoritarianism, social dominance orientation, and political party affiliation. We also found that a substantial part of the associations between personality traits and anti-black prejudice were mediated through those social and ideological attitudes, which might serve as candidates for prejudice-reduction interventions in the real world.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Personalidade , Preconceito/psicologia , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atitude , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Política , Poder Psicológico , Teoria Psicológica , Predomínio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234540, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584831

RESUMO

The importance of social connection to well-being is underscored by individuals' reactivity to events highlighting the potential for rejection and exclusion, which extends even to observing the social exclusion of others ("vicarious ostracism"). Because responses to vicarious ostracism depend at least in part on empathy with the target, and individuals tend to empathize less readily with outgroup than ingroup members, the question arises as to whether there is a boundary condition on vicarious ostracism effects whereby individuals are relatively immune to observing ingroup-on-outgroup ostracism. Of particular interest is the case where members of a dominant ethnic group observe fellow ingroup members ostracize a member of a disadvantaged ethnic minority group, as here there is a compelling potential alternative: Perceived violation of contemporary social norms condemning prejudice and discrimination might instead lead dominant group members to be especially upset by "dominant-on-disadvantaged" ostracism. Accordingly, the present research examines, across four studies and 4413 participants, individuals' affective reactions to observing dominant-on-disadvantaged versus dominant-on-dominant ostracism. In each study, dominant group members (White/Europeans) observed dominant group members include or ostracize a fellow dominant group member or a disadvantaged ethnic minority group member (a Black individual) in an online Cyberball game. Results revealed that dominant group members felt more guilt, anger, and sadness after observing severe ostracism of a disadvantaged as opposed to dominant group member. Although no direct effects emerged on behavioral outcomes, exploratory analyses suggested that observing ostracism of a disadvantaged (versus dominant) group member had indirect effects on behavior via increased feelings of anger. These results suggest that observing ostracism may be a sufficiently potent and relatable experience that when it occurs across group boundaries it awakens individuals' sensitivity to injustice and discrimination.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Distância Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Ira/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Preconceito , Identificação Social , Adulto Jovem
9.
N Z Med J ; 133(1517): 18-23, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32595218

RESUMO

AIM: To consider the possibility of consequences beyond the alleviation of perceived individual suffering, for families left behind, communities and society as a whole should the End of Life Choice Act gain public support in the September 2020 referendum in New Zealand. METHOD: This study used the Yin case study approach to undertake a single semi-structured in-depth interview with a participant who self-identified as having first-hand experience of assisted dying from a relative's perspective (in a country where this is legal). Thematic analysis was used to identify themes and trends from the interview transcript. RESULTS: Three key themes emerged from the interview: the potential for assisted dying becoming an expectation for others to pursue when unwell and possibly facing a life-threatening illness; the notion of stigma being associated with the individual using assisted dying legislation and the family left behind; and that there may be the potential for such legislation to produce a contagion effect. CONCLUSION: The introduction of assisted dying legislation into New Zealand culture provides a potential hotspot for family, community and social discord that may not be easily remedied. Further study in New Zealand is required to investigate whether a contagion effect of assisted dying is possible, and how as a society, we negotiate what could become a conflicted pathway potentially complicated by prejudice, judgement and stigma.


Assuntos
Preconceito/psicologia , Estigma Social , Suicídio Assistido/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Nova Zelândia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233746, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497044

RESUMO

Discrimination in the workplace is illegal, yet discriminatory practices remain a persistent global problem. To identify discriminatory practices in the workplace, job advertisement analysis was used by previous studies. However, most of those studies adopted content analysis by manually coding the text from a limited number of samples since working with a large scale of job advertisements consisting of unstructured text data is very challenging. Encountering those limitations, the present study involves text mining techniques to identify multiple types of direct discrimination on a large scale of online job advertisements by designing a method called Direct Discrimination Detection (DDD). The DDD is constructed using a combination of N-grams and regular expressions (regex) with the exact match principle of a Boolean retrieval model. A total of 8,969 online job advertisements in English and Bahasa Indonesia, published from May 2005 to December 2017 were collected from bursakerja-jateng.com as the data. The results reveal that the practices of direct discrimination still exist during the job-hunting process including gender, marital status, physical appearances, and religion. The most recurrent type of discrimination which occurs in job advertisements is based on age (66.27%), followed by gender (38.76%), and physical appearances (18.42%). Additionally, female job seekers are found as the most vulnerable party to experience direct discrimination during recruitment. The results exhibit female job seekers face complex jeopardy in particular job positions comparing to their male counterparts. Not only excluded because of their gender, but female job seekers also had to fulfil more requirements for getting an opportunity to apply for the jobs such as being single, still at a young age, complying specific physical appearances and particular religious preferences. This study illustrates the power and potential of optimizing computational methods on a large scale of unstructured text data to analyze phenomena in the social field.


Assuntos
Publicidade/métodos , Mineração de Dados/métodos , Candidatura a Emprego , Preconceito , Discriminação Social , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia , Masculino , Estado Civil , Aparência Física , Religião , Fatores Sexuais
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(26): 14864-14872, 2020 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527858

RESUMO

People's actions toward a competitive outgroup can be motivated not only by their perceptions of the outgroup, but also by how they think the outgroup perceives the ingroup (i.e., meta-perceptions). Here, we examine the prevalence, accuracy, and consequences of meta-perceptions among American political partisans. Using a representative sample (n = 1,056) and a longitudinal convenience sample (n = 2,707), we find that Democrats and Republicans equally dislike and dehumanize each other but think that the levels of prejudice and dehumanization held by the outgroup party are approximately twice as strong as actually reported by a representative sample of Democrats and Republicans. Overestimations of negative meta-perceptions were consistent across samples over time and between demographic subgroups but were modulated by political ideology: More strongly liberal Democrats and more strongly conservative Republicans were particularly prone to exaggerate meta-perceptions. Finally, we show that meta-prejudice and meta-dehumanization are independently associated with the desire for social distance from members of the outgroup party and support for policies that harm the country and flout democratic norms to favor the ingroup political party. This research demonstrates that partisan meta-perceptions are subject to a strong negativity bias with Democrats and Republicans agreeing that the shadow of partisanship is much larger than it actually is, which fosters mutual intergroup hostility.


Assuntos
Atitude , Hostilidade , Política , Adulto , Desumanização , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Motivação , Preconceito , Estados Unidos
13.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(S1): S28-S30, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496097

RESUMO

This article provides an analysis of the psychological and moral transformations as people confront the risk of infection, using Hong Kong as a case example. In the face of an unfamiliar threat, the need for uncertainty reduction gives rise to hasty, uncritical, and oversimplified assumptions about risk reduction, while prejudice against people and nations who do not share similar practices, as well as those symptomatic or at risk of catching the virus, ensue. The pandemic is eroding basic human decency and our compassion for one another while the human race battles a common threat to our destiny. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Empatia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Preconceito/etnologia , Adulto , Hong Kong/etnologia , Humanos
14.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233515, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492028

RESUMO

Tenure-track faculty members in the United States are evaluated on their performance in both research and teaching. In spite of accusations of bias and invalidity, student evaluations of teaching have dominated teaching evaluation at U.S. universities. However, studies on the topic have tended to be limited to particular institutional and disciplinary contexts. Moreover, in spite of the idealistic assumption that research and teaching are mutually beneficial, few studies have examined the link between research performance and student evaluations of teaching. In this study, we conduct a large scale exploratory analysis of the factors associated with student evaluations of teachers, controlling for heterogeneous institutional and disciplinary contexts. We source public student evaluations of teaching from RateMyProfessor.com and information regarding career and contemporary research performance indicators from the company Academic Analytics. The factors most associated with higher student ratings were the attractiveness of the faculty and the student's interest in the class; the factors most associated with lower student ratings were course difficulty and whether student comments mentioned an accent or a teaching assistant. Moreover, faculty tended to be rated more highly when they were young, male, White, in the Humanities, and held a rank of full professor. We observed little to no evidence of any relationship, positive or negative, between student evaluations of teaching and research performance. These results shed light on what factors relate to student evaluations of teaching across diverse contexts and contribute to the continuing discussion teaching evaluation and faculty assessment.


Assuntos
Docentes/normas , Estudantes , Ensino/normas , Universidades/normas , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Docentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Preconceito/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa/normas , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Estudantes/psicologia , Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Phys Med ; 75: 83-84, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559649

RESUMO

In the current pandemic times, medical physicists may not be aware that there is an interesting story on two significant discoveries related to the coronavirus. One is the invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the other is the first electron microscopic observation and identification of the coronavirus. Both of them were disregarded by the reviewers and major journals declined to publish these discoveries. These days, PCR, for example, is a widespread method for analyzing DNA, having a profound effect on healthcare, especially now during the Covid-19 pandemic. Prejudice or perhaps ignorance prevail in every aspect of our society, and there is no exception in scientific research. We need to, however, learn from these two stories and be open-minded about novel discoveries and findings - as they may be just disruptive in the "right" way to lead to an unexpected breakthrough.


Assuntos
Coronavirus , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/história , Preconceito/história , Comunicação Acadêmica/história , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/ultraestrutura , Infecções por Coronavirus , História do Século XX , Humanos , Microscopia Imunoeletrônica/história , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/história
17.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(6): 873-876, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-154831

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak caused by SARS-CoV-2 has triggered global panic. We have conducted an anonymous online survey of Asian medical students in Poland to assess whether they experience any form of prejudice related to the ongoing pandemic. As demonstrated, the COVID-19 outbreak had triggered xenophobic reactions toward students of Asian-origin (n=85) before the first SARS-CoV-2 case was confirmed in Poland. Facing prejudice, including discrimination related to COVID-19, may add to feelings of isolation of students of Asian origin who study abroad, and affect career development, especially for students. We recommend that universities should proactively develop policies that support students, faculty, and staff affected by discriminatory behavior both during the current outbreak and in the future. However, preventing such behaviors should also be enforced by national authorities.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Preconceito/psicologia , Estudantes de Medicina , Xenofobia/psicologia , Adulto , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pandemias , Polônia , Preconceito/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Xenofobia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(6): 873-876, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-228672

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak caused by SARS-CoV-2 has triggered global panic. We have conducted an anonymous online survey of Asian medical students in Poland to assess whether they experience any form of prejudice related to the ongoing pandemic. As demonstrated, the COVID-19 outbreak had triggered xenophobic reactions toward students of Asian-origin (n=85) before the first SARS-CoV-2 case was confirmed in Poland. Facing prejudice, including discrimination related to COVID-19, may add to feelings of isolation of students of Asian origin who study abroad, and affect career development, especially for students. We recommend that universities should proactively develop policies that support students, faculty, and staff affected by discriminatory behavior both during the current outbreak and in the future. However, preventing such behaviors should also be enforced by national authorities.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Preconceito/psicologia , Estudantes de Medicina , Xenofobia/psicologia , Adulto , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pandemias , Polônia , Preconceito/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Xenofobia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Arch Sex Behav ; 49(5): 1725-1739, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356084

RESUMO

We conducted an experiment to assess whether targeting multiple beliefs about sexual orientation (SO) may be more effective in reducing homonegativity than focusing only on beliefs about its biogenetic origins. Participants (116 women, 85 men) were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions or a control condition. Those in the treatment conditions read essays summarizing: (1) research suggesting SO has biogenetic origins, (2) research suggesting SO is socially constructed and refuting beliefs about the discreteness, homogeneity, and informativeness of SO categories; or (3) research suggesting SO is biogenetic and research suggesting SO categories are socially constructed and not necessarily discrete, homogenous, or informative. We predicted participants in the conditions that targeted multiple beliefs related to the social construction of SO, not just its biogenetic origins, would exhibit the strongest reductions in beliefs about the discreteness, homogeneity, and informativeness of SO categories, and in homonegativity. We also predicted these participants would exhibit the greatest increases in support for gay and lesbian civil rights. We observed hypothesized shifts in SO beliefs across all experimental conditions. While there was a small main effect of time on homonegative prejudice, there was no main effect of condition and no changes in support for gay and lesbian civil rights. However, post hoc analyses suggested the two conditions addressing social constructionist beliefs accounted for most of the observed prejudice reduction. Implications for more comprehensive educational and social interventions designed to promote social justice for sexual minorities are discussed.


Assuntos
Preconceito/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
20.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 60(2): e1-e6, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437944

RESUMO

Effective prognostication for a novel disease presents significant challenges, especially given the stress induced during a pandemic. We developed a point-of-care tool to summarize outcome data for critically ill patients with COVID-19 and help guide clinicians through a thoughtful prognostication process. Two authors reviewed studies of outcomes of patients with critical illness due to COVID-19 and created a visual infographic tool based on available data. Survival data were supplemented by descriptions of best- and worst-case clinical scenarios. The tool also included prompts for clinician reflection designed to enhance awareness of cognitive biases that may affect prognostic accuracy. This online, open-source COVID-19 Prognostication Tool has been made available to all clinicians at our institution and is updated weekly to reflect evolving data. Our COVID-19 Prognostication Tool may provide a useful approach to promoting consistent and high-quality prognostic communication across a health care system.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico por Computador , Comunicação em Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Cuidados Críticos , Estado Terminal , Visualização de Dados , Diagnóstico por Computador/métodos , Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Internet , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Preconceito , Prognóstico
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