Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.935
Filtrar
1.
Sch Psychol ; 35(4): 227-232, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673051

RESUMO

School Psychology is an outlet for research on children, youth, educators, and families that has scientific, practice, and policy implications. The novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly disrupted K-12 schooling as well as university training, impacting educational attainment and highlighting longstanding inequality. Furthermore, the killing of Breonna Taylor and George Floyd has precipitated worldwide protests against antiblack racism, white supremacy, and police brutality. In this editorial, we highlight the potential impacts to our field, including prioritizing research related to educational equity, identifying new research questions related to technology, and utilizing new research methods. We also consider the impact of gender and racial disparities in publications during this time. Finally, given these events, we discuss how best our editorial team can serve the field. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Políticas Editoriais , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Racismo/psicologia , Sexismo/psicologia , Sucesso Acadêmico , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Pandemias , Racismo/prevenção & controle , Sexismo/prevenção & controle
6.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 66, 2020 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404178

RESUMO

The COVID-19 outbreak has been declared a global pandemic and cases are being reported among displaced populations that are particularly vulnerable to infection. Humanitarian workers on the frontlines of the response are working in some of the most challenging contexts and also face elevated risk of contracting COVID-19 and potential stigmatization or violence in the community. Women humanitarians may be at even greater risk, but their protection is dependent on organization-specific policies and procedures. Without gender balance in leadership positions, the specific needs of women may not be prioritized and women may not be included in decision-making or design of responses. Ensuring gender equitable access to personal protective equipment and information is imperative, but additional measures must be put into place to ensure the protection of women on the frontlines while reducing COVID-19 deaths and adverse health effects among displaced populations.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Populações Vulneráveis , Betacoronavirus , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Fatores Sexuais , Sexismo
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423095

RESUMO

(1) Background: Combating viral disease outbreaks has doubtlessly been one of the major public health challenges for the 21st century. (2) Methods: The host entry machinery required for COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was examined for the gene expression profiles and polymorphism. (3) Results: Lung, kidney, small intestine, and salivary glands were among the tissues which expressed the entry machinery coding genes Ace2, Tmprss2, CtsB, and CtsL. The genes had no significant expression changes between males and females. The four human population groups of Europeans, Africans, Asians, and Americans had specific and also a common pool of rare variants for the X-linked locus of ACE2 receptor. Several specific and common ACE2 variants including S19P, I21T/V, E23K, A25T, K26R, T27A, E35D/K, E37K, Y50F, N51D/S, M62V, N64K, K68E, F72V, E75G, M82I, T92I, Q102P, G220S, H239Q, G326E, E329G, G352V, D355N, H378R, Q388L, P389H, E467K, H505R, R514G/*, and Y515C were of the utmost importance to the viral entry and infection. The variants of S19P, I21T, K26R, T27A, E37K, N51D, N64K, K68E, F72V, M82I, G326E, H378R, Q388L, and P389H also had significant differences in frequencies among the population groups. Most interestingly, the analyses revealed that more than half of the variants can exist in males, i.e., as hemizygous. (4) Conclusions: The rare variants of human ACE2 seem to be one of the determinant factors associated with fitness in the battle against SARS viruses. The hemizygous viral-entry booster variants of ACE2 describe the higher SARS-CoV-2 mortality rate in males. This is also supported by the lack of gender bias for the gene expression profiles of entry machinery. A personalized medicine strategy is conceived for isolating high-risk individuals in epidemic circumstances.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Polimorfismo Genético , Grupos Populacionais , Receptores Virais , Sexismo , Internalização do Vírus , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/enzimologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Serina Endopeptidases , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/genética , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/metabolismo , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Fatores Sexuais
8.
Health Educ Behav ; 47(4): 525-530, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443944

RESUMO

This study aims to analyze South Korea's experience during the COVID-19 outbreak through a gendered lens. We briefly introduce the COVID-19 outbreak in Korea, scrutinize gendered vulnerability in contracting the virus, and then analyze the gendered aspects of the pandemic response in two phases: quarantine policy and mitigation policy. The authors elicit four lessons from the analysis. First, gender needs to be mainstreamed at all stages of a public health emergency response. Second, in addition to medical care, all formal and informal care work should be considered as an essential component of health care systems. Third, a people-centered approach in health governance should be prioritized to make women's voices heard at every level. Fourth, medical technology and resources to cope with pandemic should be produced and distributed in an equitable manner, acknowledging differential vulnerability and susceptibility.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde da Mulher , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Sexo , Sexismo
9.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232154, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365110

RESUMO

To address pervasive measurement biases in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) research, our interdisciplinary team created an affirming, customizable electronic survey to measure experiences with contraceptive use, pregnancy, and abortion for transgender and gender nonbinary people assigned female or intersex at birth and cisgender sexual minority women. Between May 2018 and April 2019, we developed a questionnaire with 328 items across 10 domains including gender identity; language used for sexual and reproductive anatomy and events; gender affirmation process history; sexual orientation and sexual activity; contraceptive use and preferences; pregnancy history and desires; abortion history and preferences; priorities for sexual and reproductive health care; family building experiences; and sociodemographic characteristics. Recognizing that the words people use for their sexual and reproductive anatomy can vary, we programmed the survey to allow participants to input the words they use to describe their bodies, and then used those customized words to replace traditional medical terms throughout the survey. This process-oriented paper aims to describe the rationale for and collaborative development of an affirming, customizable survey of the SRH needs and experiences of sexual and gender minorities, and to present summary demographic characteristics of 3,110 people who completed the survey. We also present data on usage of customizable words, and offer the full text of the survey, as well as code for programming the survey and cleaning the data, for others to use directly or as guidelines for how to measure SRH outcomes with greater sensitivity to gender diversity and a range of sexual orientations.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Saúde Reprodutiva , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva , Sexismo/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231189, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315320

RESUMO

Concerns about gender bias in word embedding models have captured substantial attention in the algorithmic bias research literature. Other bias types however have received lesser amounts of scrutiny. This work describes a large-scale analysis of sentiment associations in popular word embedding models along the lines of gender and ethnicity but also along the less frequently studied dimensions of socioeconomic status, age, physical appearance, sexual orientation, religious sentiment and political leanings. Consistent with previous scholarly literature, this work has found systemic bias against given names popular among African-Americans in most embedding models examined. Gender bias in embedding models however appears to be multifaceted and often reversed in polarity to what has been regularly reported. Interestingly, using the common operationalization of the term bias in the fairness literature, novel types of so far unreported bias types in word embedding models have also been identified. Specifically, the popular embedding models analyzed here display negative biases against middle and working-class socioeconomic status, male children, senior citizens, plain physical appearance and intellectual phenomena such as Islamic religious faith, non-religiosity and conservative political orientation. Reasons for the paradoxical underreporting of these bias types in the relevant literature are probably manifold but widely held blind spots when searching for algorithmic bias and a lack of widespread technical jargon to unambiguously describe a variety of algorithmic associations could conceivably be playing a role. The causal origins for the multiplicity of loaded associations attached to distinct demographic groups within embedding models are often unclear but the heterogeneity of said associations and their potential multifactorial roots raises doubts about the validity of grouping them all under the umbrella term bias. Richer and more fine-grained terminology as well as a more comprehensive exploration of the bias landscape could help the fairness epistemic community to characterize and neutralize algorithmic discrimination more efficiently.


Assuntos
Viés , Informática/métodos , Idioma , Afro-Americanos , Fatores Etários , Algoritmos , Coleta de Dados , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Política , Religião , Semântica , Sexismo , Comportamento Sexual , Classe Social
11.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231567, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348344

RESUMO

This study examines differences across demographic subgroups in the phenomenon of recent doctoral recipients seeking work but having no job offers for employment. Gender and race/ethnicity have been identified as two characteristics with considerable issues of representation in a number of science and engineering fields, particularly at the doctoral level. Using the NSF Survey of Earned Doctorates dataset, which includes over 298,000 respondents in the biological sciences, engineering, and physical sciences since 1977, we use logistic regression modelling to examine the likelihood of doctoral recipients having no offers at the time of graduation as a function of race, gender, family and funding variables. We find that across the fields of biology, engineering, and physical sciences, women and underrepresented minorities have a higher prevalence of having no job offers, but this relationship has notable interaction effects for family variables and doctoral program funding mechanism. Importantly, marital status accounts for differences in job offers between genders that deserves further exploration.


Assuntos
Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Engenharia/estatística & dados numéricos , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Ciência/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos
15.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229286, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231375

RESUMO

Over the last decade, Egypt's aquaculture sector has expanded rapidly, which has contributed substantially to per capita fish supply, and the growth of domestic fish markets and employment across the aquaculture value chain. Despite the growing importance of aquaculture sector in Egyptian labour force, only a few studies have explored the livelihoods of Egypt's women and men fish retailers. Even fewer studies have examined gender-based market constraints experienced by these informal fish retailers. This study uses sex-disaggregated data collected in 2013 in three governorates of Lower Egypt to examine the economic and social constraints to scale of enterprises between women (n = 162) and men informal fish retailers (n = 183). Specifically, we employ linear regression method to determine the correlates of enterprise performance. We found that both women and men retailers in the informal fish market earn low profits and face livelihood insecurities. However, women's enterprise performance is significantly lower than that of men even after controlling for individual socio-economic and retailing characteristics. Specifically, the burden of unpaid household work and lack of support therein impedes women's ability to generate higher revenues. These findings strengthen the argument for investing in understanding how gender norms and attitudes affect livelihood options and outcomes. This leads to recommendations on gender-responsive interventions that engage with both men and women and enhance the bargaining power and collective voice of fish retailers.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Direitos da Mulher/economia , Recursos Humanos/economia , Adulto , Egito , Feminino , Humanos , Setor Informal , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econômicos , Sexismo , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
Am J Nurs ; 120(5): 11, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332342

RESUMO

What our profession needs to look like in the upcoming decade.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Objetivos , Liderança , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Âmbito da Prática , Humanos , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Sexismo
20.
Minerva Med ; 111(2): 153-165, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166931

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the most common type of lower respiratory tract infection and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in adults worldwide. Sex and gender play an active role in the incidence and outcomes of major infectious diseases, including CAP. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We searched the following electronic databases from January 2001 to December 2018: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAIL, CENTRAL (Cochrane Central register of Controlled Trials), DARE (Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and ACP Journal Club database. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Several studies have reported higher male susceptibility to pulmonary infections and higher risk of death due to sepsis. Biological differences (e.g. hormonal cycles and cellular immune-mediated responses) together with cultural, behavioral and socio-economic differences are important determinants of the course and outcome of CAP. However, gender-related bias in the provision of care and use of hospital resources has been reported among women, resulting in delayed hospital admission and consequently necessary care. CONCLUSIONS: CAP is more severe in males than in females, leading to higher mortality in males, especially in older age. To identify gender differences in CAP can guide patient's prognostication and management.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Pneumonia/etiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/etiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/imunologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/mortalidade , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Pneumonia/imunologia , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Pneumonia Bacteriana/microbiologia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sexismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA