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1.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 963, 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 caused by a new form of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) first appeared in China end of 2019 and quickly spread to all counties of the world. To slow down the spread of the virus and to limit the pressure on the health care systems, different regulations and recommendations have been implemented by authorities, comprising amongst others the closure of all entertainment venues and social distancing. These measures have received mixed reactions, particularly from young individuals, with many not following available advice. Drawing on the information in social media discussion forums, the present study explores the reasons why people ignore the orders and recommendations of the authorities and why the authorities are unable to produce a shared sense of inclusion concerning protective measures against the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: Three open-access social media forums (Reddit, Twitter, and YouTube comments) were systematically searched with respect to COVID-19-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours of individuals. The data was retrieved in the first 3 weeks of March 2020. Qualitative document analysis and qualitative content analysis were used as the methodical approach. The data was reviewed by all authors and jointly interpreted to minimise inconsistencies. RESULTS: The study reveals that reasons such as information pollution on social media, the persistence of uncertainty about the rapidly spreading virus, the impact of the social environment on the individual, and fear of unemployment associated with inequality in the distribution of income lead people to ignore the orders and recommendations of the authorities. The findings suggest that government representatives and politicians could not produce a shared sense of inclusion concerning protective measures against the COVID-19 outbreak, due to not building trust among the public and taking concrete economic steps to satisfy them. CONCLUSION: In uncertain crises, transparency in the presentation of information and government policies emerge as influential determinants in creating social susceptibility and solidarity. The differences between social classes constitute one of the important factors that affect the decision-making mechanisms of individuals in determining the necessary steps to be undertaken in times of crisis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Pública/métodos , Mídias Sociais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Distância Social , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Cad Saude Publica ; 36(5): e00099920, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520073

RESUMO

We sought to evaluate contact rate reduction goals for household and close contacts and to provide preventive recommendations during the coronavirus pandemic. We applied an agent-based model to simulate the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 within household or close contacts through a social network of 150 nodes. there is no great difference in total infected people within modifications in number of links per node for networks with average number of links per node greater than three. For six nodes, total infected people are 149.85; for five nodes, 148.97; and for four nodes, 141.57. On the other hand, for three nodes, total infected are 82.39, for two nodes, 13.95; and for one node, 2.96. This model indicates a possible pitfall if social distancing measures are not stepwise suspended and close surveillance of cases are not provided, since the relationship between average links per node and number of infected people seems to be s-shaped, and not linear.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Características da Família , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Vírus da SARS , Distância Social , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Isolamento Social
4.
Eur Psychiatry ; 63(1): e52, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475365

RESUMO

As COVID-19 has plagued our world, the term "social distancing" has been widely used with the aim to encourage the general population to physically distance themselves from others in order to reduce the spread of the virus. However, this term can have unintended but detrimental effects, as it evokes negative feelings of being ignored, unwelcome, left alone with one's own fears, and even excluded from society. These feelings may be stronger in people with mental illnesses and in socio-economically disadvantaged groups, such as stigmatized minorities, migrants, and homeless persons [1], many of them also having high risk for suicidal behaviors [2]. Mental health disorders are pervasive worldwide; the global burden accounting for approximately 21.2-32.4% of years lived with disability-more than any other group of illnesses [3]. So, the vulnerable group of people with mental health disorders represents a considerable share of the total global population.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Emoções , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Distância Social , Terminologia como Assunto , Criança , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Estereotipagem , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Cytokine Growth Factor Rev ; 53: 1-9, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487439

RESUMO

The coronavirus pandemic has engulfed the nations of the world for the first five months of 2020 and altered the pace, fabric and nature of our lives. In this overview accompanying the Special Issue of Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews, we examine some of the many social and scientific issues impacted by SARS-CoV2 - personal lives, economy, scientific communication, the environment. International members of Istituto Pasteur in Rome and INITIATE, the Marie Curie Training Network reflect on the lasting global impact of the coronavirus pandemic.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Humanos , Distância Social
7.
Br J Community Nurs ; 25(6): 294-298, 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496851

RESUMO

This paper discusses social prescribing as part of the wider NHS England universal personalised care model, and it describes how community nurses can engage with social prescribing systems to support community resilience. A case study based on the example of gardening, as a nature-based social prescription provided by the RHS Bridgewater Wellbeing Garden, is provided to illustrate the scope, reach and impact of non-medical, salutogenic approaches for community practitioners. The authors argue that social prescribing and, in particular, nature-based solutions, such as gardening, can be used as a non-medical asset-based approach by all health professionals working in the community as a way to promote health and wellbeing. They consider how the negative impact of social distancing resulting from COVID-19 restrictions could be diluted through collaboration between a holistic, social prescribing system and community staff. The paper presents a unique perspective on how community nurses can collaborate with link workers through social prescribing to help combat social isolation and anxiety and support resilience.


Assuntos
Enfermagem em Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Distância Social , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Participação Social , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
9.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(suppl 1): 2423-2446, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520287

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has challenged researchers and policy makers to identify public safety measures forpreventing the collapse of healthcare systems and reducingdeaths. This narrative review summarizes the available evidence on the impact of social distancing measures on the epidemic and discusses the implementation of these measures in Brazil. Articles on the effect of social distancing on COVID-19 were selected from the PubMed, medRXiv and bioRvix databases. Federal and state legislation was analyzed to summarize the strategies implemented in Brazil. Social distancing measures adopted by the population appear effective, particularly when implemented in conjunction with the isolation of cases and quarantining of contacts. Therefore, social distancing measures, and social protection policies to guarantee the sustainability of these measures, should be implemented. To control COVID-19 in Brazil, it is also crucial that epidemiological monitoring is strengthened at all three levels of the Brazilian National Health System (SUS). This includes evaluating and usingsupplementary indicators to monitor the progression of the pandemic and the effect of the control measures, increasing testing capacity, and making disaggregated notificationsand testing resultstransparentand broadly available.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Espaço Pessoal , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Distância Social , Brasil/epidemiologia , Fortalecimento Institucional , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Assistência à Saúde , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Comportamento de Massa , Modelos Teóricos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Política Pública , Isolamento Social
10.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(23): e220, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32537955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The absence of effective antiviral medications and vaccines increased the focus on non-pharmaceutical preventive behaviors for mitigating against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. To examine the current status of non-pharmaceutical preventive behaviors practiced during the COVID-19 outbreak and factors affecting behavioral activities, we compared to the 2015 Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) outbreak in Korea. METHODS: This was a serial cross-sectional population-based study in Korea with four surveys conducted on June 2 and 25, 2015 (MERS-CoV surveys), and February 4, and April 2, 2020 (COVID-19 surveys). Of 25,711 participants selected using random digit dialing numbers, 4,011 participants (aged ≥ 18 years) were successfully interviewed, for the 2020 COVID-19 (n = 2,002) and 2015 MERS-CoV (n = 2,009) epidemics were included. Participants were selected post-stratification by sex, age, and province. The total number of weighted cases in this survey equaled the total number of unweighted cases at the national level. We measured the levels of preventive behaviors (social distancing [avoiding physical contact with others]), and practicing transmission-reducing behaviors such as wearing face mask and handwashing. RESULTS: Between the surveys, respondents who reported practicing social distancing increased from 41.9%-58.2% (MERS-CoV) to 83.4%-92.3% (COVID-19). The response rate for the four surveys ranged between 13.7% and 17.7%. Practicing transmission-reducing behaviors (wearing face masks and handwashing) at least once during COVID-19 (78.8%, 80.2%) also increased compared to that during MERS-CoV (15.5%, 60.3%). The higher affective risk perception groups were more likely to practice transmission-reducing measures (adjusted odds ratio, 3.24-4.81; 95 confidence interval, 1.76-6.96) during both COVID-19 and MERS-CoV. CONCLUSION: The study findings suggest markedly increased proportions of non-pharmaceutical behavioral practices evenly across all subgroups during the two different novel virus outbreaks in Korea. Strategic interventions are needed to attempt based on preventive behavior works.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Roupa de Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Distância Social , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Primária/métodos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Res Notes ; 13(1): 293, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546245

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Establishing a social contact data sharing initiative and an interactive tool to assess mitigation strategies for COVID-19. RESULTS: We organized data sharing of published social contact surveys via online repositories and formatting guidelines. We analyzed this social contact data in terms of weighted social contact matrices, next generation matrices, relative incidence and R[Formula: see text]. We incorporated location-specific physical distancing measures (e.g. school closure or at work) and capture their effect on transmission dynamics. All methods have been implemented in an online application based on R Shiny and applied to COVID-19 with age-specific susceptibility and infectiousness. Using our online tool with the available social contact data, we illustrate that physical distancing could have a considerable impact on reducing transmission for COVID-19. The effect itself depends on assumptions made about disease-specific characteristics and the choice of intervention(s).


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Distância Social , Interface Usuário-Computador , África/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Internet , Modelos Estatísticos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Peru/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
J Health Psychol ; 25(7): 871-882, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375564

RESUMO

To reduce the spread of COVID-19, the World Health Organization and the majority of governments have recommended that the entire human population should 'stay-at-home'. A significant proportion of the population live alone or are vulnerable to mental health problems yet, in the vast majority of cases, individuals in social isolation have no access to mental healthcare. The only resource is people themselves using self-help, self-medication and self-care. During prolonged COVID-19 isolation, an in-built system of homeostasis can help rebalance activity, thought and feeling. Increased physical activity enables a reset of physical and mental well-being. During periods of lockdown, it is recommended that exercise should be as vigorously promoted as social distancing itself.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Quarentena , Isolamento Social , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Autocuidado , Distância Social
16.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; 9(3): 204-208, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352314

RESUMO

COVID-19 has developed into a pandemic, hitting hard on our communities. As the pandemic continues to bring health and economic hardship, keeping mortality as low as possible will be the highest priority for individuals; hence governments must put in place measures to ameliorate the inevitable economic downturn. The course of an epidemic may be defined by a series of key factors. In the early stages of a new infectious disease outbreak, it is crucial to understand the transmission dynamics of the infection. The basic reproduction number (R0), which defines the mean number of secondary cases generated by one primary case when the population is largely susceptible to infection ('totally naïve'), determines the overall number of people who are likely to be infected, or, more precisely, the area under the epidemic curve. Estimation of changes in transmission over time can provide insights into the epidemiological situation and identify whether outbreak control measures are having a measurable effect. For R0 > 1, the number infected tends to increase, and for R0 < 1, transmission dies out. Non-pharmaceutical strategies to handle the epidemic are sketched and based on current knowledge, the current situation is sketched and scenarios for the near future discussed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/tendências , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Doença Aguda , Número Básico de Reprodução , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/classificação , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Hipóxia/etiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Distância Social , Latência Viral/fisiologia
19.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(5): 460-471, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32355299

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic represents a massive global health crisis. Because the crisis requires large-scale behaviour change and places significant psychological burdens on individuals, insights from the social and behavioural sciences can be used to help align human behaviour with the recommendations of epidemiologists and public health experts. Here we discuss evidence from a selection of research topics relevant to pandemics, including work on navigating threats, social and cultural influences on behaviour, science communication, moral decision-making, leadership, and stress and coping. In each section, we note the nature and quality of prior research, including uncertainty and unsettled issues. We identify several insights for effective response to the COVID-19 pandemic and highlight important gaps researchers should move quickly to fill in the coming weeks and months.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Coronavirus , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Atividades Humanas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena , Adaptação Psicológica , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Tomada de Decisões , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Saúde Global , Humanos , Liderança , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Saúde Pública , Distância Social , Mídias Sociais , Estresse Psicológico
20.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(5): 451-459, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32377018

RESUMO

Human behaviour is central to transmission of SARS-Cov-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, and changing behaviour is crucial to preventing transmission in the absence of pharmaceutical interventions. Isolation and social distancing measures, including edicts to stay at home, have been brought into place across the globe to reduce transmission of the virus, but at a huge cost to individuals and society. In addition to these measures, we urgently need effective interventions to increase adherence to behaviours that individuals in communities can enact to protect themselves and others: use of tissues to catch expelled droplets from coughs or sneezes, use of face masks as appropriate, hand-washing on all occasions when required, disinfecting objects and surfaces, physical distancing, and not touching one's eyes, nose or mouth. There is an urgent need for direct evidence to inform development of such interventions, but it is possible to make a start by applying behavioural science methods and models.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Coronavirus , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Desinfecção das Mãos , Higiene das Mãos , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Quarentena , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Distância Social
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