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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(22): e20331, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study will investigate the effectiveness of and safety of social skills intervention (SSI) for the management of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: All potential randomized controlled trials related to the effectiveness and safety of SSI for children with ASD will be retrieved from Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. All these databases will be identified from inception to the present with no limitations of language and publication time. Two investigators will independently perform selection of study, data collection, and study quality assessment, respectively. A third investigator will help to solve any different views between 2 investigators. RevMan 5.3 software will be used for data pooling and statistical analysis. RESULTS: This study will provide synthesis of present evidence on assessing the effectiveness and safety of SSI for children with ASD. CONCLUSION: This study will provide helpful references for the effectiveness and safety of SSI on the management of ASD, which may benefit both patients and clinicians. STUDY REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202040090.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Habilidades Sociais , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa
2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD009829, 2020 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Around 1 in 1000 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years old display problematic or harmful sexual behaviour (HSB). Examples include behaviours occurring more frequently than would be considered developmentally appropriate; accompanied by coercion; involving children of different ages or stages of development; or associated with emotional distress. Some, but not all, young people engaging in HSB come to the attention of authorities for investigation, prosecution or treatment. Depending on policy context, young people with HSB are those whose behaviour has resulted in a formal reprimand or warning, conviction for a sexual offence, or civil measures. Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) interventions are based on the idea that by changing the way a person thinks, and helping them to develop new coping skills, it is possible to change behaviour. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of CBT for young people aged 10 to 18 years who have exhibited HSB. SEARCH METHODS: In June 2019, we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, 12 other databases and three trials registers. We also examined relevant websites, checked reference lists and contacted authors of relevant articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using parallel groups. We evaluated CBT treatments compared with no treatment, waiting list or standard care, irrespective of mode of delivery or setting, given to young people aged 10 to 18 years, who had been convicted of a sexual offence or who exhibited HSB. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS: We found four eligible RCTs (115 participants). Participants in two studies were adolescent males aged 12 to 18 years old. In two studies participants were males simply described as "adolescents." Three studies took place in the USA and one in South Africa. The four studies were of short duration: one lasted two months; two lasted three months; and one lasted six months. No information was available on funding sources. Two studies compared group-based CBT respectively to no treatment (18 participants) or treatment as usual (21 participants). The third compared CBT with sexual education (16 participants). The fourth compared CBT (19 participants) with mode-deactivation therapy (21 participants) and social skills training (20 participants). Three interventions delivered treatment in a residential setting by someone working there, and one in a community setting by licensed therapist undertaking a PhD. CBT compared with no treatment or treatment as usual Primary outcomes No study in this comparison reported the impact of CBT on any measure of primary outcomes (recidivism, and adverse events such as self-harm or suicidal behaviour). Secondary outcomes There was little to no difference between CBT and treatment as usual on cognitive distortions in general (mean difference (MD) 1.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) -11.54 to 14.66, 1 study, 18 participants; very low-certainty evidence), assessed with Abel and Becker Cognition Scale (higher scores indicate more problematic distortions); and specific cognitive distortions about rape (MD 8.75, 95% CI 2.83 to 14.67, 1 study, 21 participants; very low-certainty evidence), measured with the Bumby Cardsort Rape Scale (higher scores indicate more justifications, minimisations, rationalisations and excuses for HSB). One study (18 participants) reported very low-certainty evidence that CBT may result in greater improvements in victim empathy (MD 5.56, 95% CI 0.94 to 10.18), measured with the Attitudes Towards Women Scale, compared with no treatment. One additional study also measured this, but provided no usable data. CBT compared with alternative interventions Primary outcomes One study (59 participants) found little to no difference between CBT and alternative treatments on post-treatment sexual aggression scores (MD 0.09, 95% CI -0.18 to 0.37, very low-certainty evidence), assessed using Daily Behaviour Reports and Behaviour Incidence Report Forms. No study in this comparison reported the impact of CBT on any measure of our remaining primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes One study (16 participants) provided very low-certainty evidence that, compared to sexual education, mean cognitive distortions pertaining to justification or taking responsibility for actions (MD 3.27, 95% CI -4.77 to -1.77) and apprehension confidence (MD 2.47 95% CI -3.85 to -1.09) may be lower in the CBT group. The same study indicated that mean cognitive distortions pertaining to social-sexual desirability may be lower in the CBT group, and there may be little to no difference between the groups for cognitive distortions pertaining to inappropriate sexual fantasies measured with the Multiphasic Sex Inventory. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: It is uncertain whether CBT reduces HSB in male adolescents compared to other treatments. All studies had insufficient detail in what they reported to allow for full assessment of risk of bias. 'Risk of bias' judgements were predominantly rated as unclear or high. Sample sizes were very small, and the imprecision of results was significant. There is very low-certainty evidence that group-based CBT may improve victim empathy when compared to no treatment, and may improve cognitive distortions when compared to sexual education, but not treatment as usual. Further research is likely to change the estimate. More robust evaluations of both individual and group-based CBT are required, particularly outside North America, and which look at the effects of CBT on diverse participants.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Atitude , Criança , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Dessensibilização Psicológica , Fantasia , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estupro/psicologia , Reincidência , Autoimagem , Educação Sexual , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Habilidades Sociais
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(25): 14073-14076, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513710

RESUMO

It is well known that far fewer men than women enroll in tertiary education in the United States and other Western nations. Developed nations vary in the degree to which men are underrepresented, but the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) average lies around 45% male students. We use data from the OECD Education at a Glance statistical reports, the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), and the World Values Survey to explain the degree to which men are underrepresented. Using a multiple regression model, we show that the combination of both the national reading proficiency levels of 15-y-old boys and girls and the social attitudes toward girls attending university can predict the enrollment in tertiary education 5 y later. The model also shows that parity in some countries is a result of boys' poor reading proficiency and negative social attitudes toward girls' education, which suppresses college enrollment in both sexes, but for different reasons. True equity will at the very least require improvement in boys' reading competencies and the liberalization of attitudes regarding women's pursuit of higher education. At this time, there is little reason to expect that the enrollment gap will decrease, given the stagnating reading competencies in most countries.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação Profissionalizante/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Leitura , Habilidades Sociais , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 270: 287-291, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570392

RESUMO

Eye tracking studies have demonstrated deficits in attention in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) for a range of different social attention-based tasks. Here we examined social attention skills in a large sample of ASD participants (n = 120), using eye tracking data from a social information processing task, and compared them with a typically developing (TD) group (n = 35). Assuming eye movement parameters are random variables generated by an underlying stochastic process, we modeled the fixation sequences of participants in ASD and TD groups with a Hidden Markov Model. The Regions of Interests (ROIs), modeled as hidden states, corresponded to the true ROIs with a prediction accuracy of >90% for each group. The transition between ROIs revealed bias towards a specific area in the scene in ASD group, which deviated from the TD group. Objective time-dynamic measures of gaze patterns can potentially serve as useful endpoints in ASD diagnosis. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT02299700.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Cadeias de Markov , Comportamento Social , Habilidades Sociais , Processos Estocásticos
5.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234109, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502163

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Depression is a public health concern among youth, and it is pertinent to identify factors that can help prevent development of depressive symptoms in adolescence. This study aimed to investigate the association between negative life events and depressive symptoms among adolescents, and to examine the influence and relative contributions of personal, social and family protective factors related to resilience. METHODS: Data stem from the cross-sectional youth@hordaland-survey, conducted in Hordaland, Norway. In all, 9,546 adolescents, aged 16-19 years old (52.8% girls) provided self-report information on depressive symptoms, negative life events and protective factors related to resilience. RESULTS: Experiencing a higher number of negative life events was related to increases in depressive symptoms, while the potential protective factors goal orientation, self-confidence, social competence, social support, and family cohesion individually were associated with fewer symptoms. Although there were small moderating effects of goal orientation and self-confidence, the results mainly supported a compensatory resilience model. When considering the potential protective factors jointly, only self-confidence and family cohesion were significantly associated with fewer depressive symptoms for both genders, with the addition of social support for girls. There were significant interactions between all the potential protective factors and gender, indicating a greater reduction of depressive symptoms with higher levels of protective factors among girls. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions aimed at fostering self-confidence and family cohesion could be effective in preventing depressive symptoms for adolescent boys and girls, regardless of their exposure to negative events. Results further indicate that preventive interventions targeting these potential protective factors could be especially beneficial for adolescent girls.


Assuntos
Depressão/patologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Relações Familiares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega , Fatores de Proteção , Autoimagem , Habilidades Sociais , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235149, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574215

RESUMO

Despite the multitude of adverse physical and psychosocial consequences of sports injury, evidence also highlights the potential for positive benefits in the injury aftermath. The purpose of this study is to address this gap by exploring the dimensions of personal growth following a severe sports injury. A 3-rounds e-Delphi method was utilized to develop a consensual understanding of the dimensions of sport-injury related growth. A panel of 24 psychology of sport injury experts participated in the process. The final list of items obtained was subjected to conventional content analysis to identify general themes. The process led to the development of a 5-dimension model capable of describing athletes' experiences of personal growth following a severe sports-related injury: personal strength, improved social life, health benefits, sport benefits, and social support and recognition. The domains of sport-injury related growth identified here are consistent with growth-domains identified in previous personal growth literature. However, they also highlight the importance of contextualizing the experience of growth. We have captured key elements of sport-injury related growth, domains that can be used as the basis for further psychometric testing and for further interventions to increase adjustment and well-being during the rehabilitation process.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/psicologia , Técnica Delfos , Medicina Esportiva/métodos , Esportes/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/reabilitação , Humanos , Psicologia do Esporte/métodos , Psicologia do Esporte/estatística & dados numéricos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Habilidades Sociais , Esportes/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 69(3): 218-235, 2020 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394820

RESUMO

Do Children and Adolescents with Different Reasons for Admission Equally Benefit from Institutional Care? Currently, almost 150.000 children and adolescents are placed in institutional care in Germany with the aim to improve their living conditions. Various studies showed positive effects concerning the development of those institutionalized children and adolescents. Within the present study, 500 children and adolescents in institutional care were examined regarding the improvement of quality of life and social competencies during their care placement depending on the respective reason for admission (group A: admission due to mental health and behavior problems; group S: problems in the context of the school; group O: no mental health problems, but other reasons). Furthermore, differences in the development of children and adolescents who initiated the placement by themselves and those who did not were examined. Results show that over a period of 18-24 months, all three groups developed effectively equally. Group A had a lower initial level regarding quality of life and social competencies compared to group S and group O and therefore reached lower outcomes within the investigation period. Development was irrespective of whether or not children and adolescents initiated the institutional placement by themselves. The results demonstrate that all three groups were able to benefit from institutional care, although children and adolescents with mental health problems had a notable potential for further development.


Assuntos
Criança Institucionalizada/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/reabilitação , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Habilidades Sociais , Adolescente , Criança , Alemanha , Humanos , Saúde Mental
8.
J Sport Health Sci ; 9(3): 228-239, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One main purpose of the World Anti-Doping Agency was to harmonize anti-doping efforts, including the provision of anti-doping education. A multifaceted approach to doping prevention can play a key role in preventing intentional and unintentional doping. This article aimed to systematically record and evaluate doping prevention approaches in the form of information and education activities of national anti-doping organizations (NADOs) and assess the extent to which a multifaceted doping prevention approach has been realized. METHODS: Data on anti-doping information and education activities of 53 NADOs were collected via a survey and an online search of the NADOs' websites. Prevention activities were classified into knowledge focused, affective focused, social skills, life skills, and ethic- and value- based. The implementation of the prevention activities was assessed by 4 independent raters using a modified visual analogue scale. RESULTS: In total, 59% of the NADOs (n = 38) returned the survey and 70% (n = 45) had information available online. The data were combined for the visual analogue scale assessment. Overall, 58% of the NADOs (n = 37) reported offering activities including elements of all 5 approaches. Results of the raters' assessments indicated that the knowledge-focused approach was best implemented; the implementation of the other 4 approaches was largely unsatisfactory. The most common barriers to implementing doping prevention programs reported by the NADOs were lack of resources (n = 26) and difficulties in collaborating with sports organizations (n = 8). CONCLUSION: Results show a discrepancy between NADOs' self-report data and the implementation assessment. Even though the NADOs indicated otherwise, most of their education-based approaches did not address aspects of the visual analogue scale (e.g., resisting peer pressure) and only a few programs were ongoing. Possible explanations might be found in the reported barriers (e.g., financial). Concrete guidelines defining multifaceted, values-based education, and best practice examples should be developed to indicate how to include all 5 approaches in prevention.


Assuntos
Doping nos Esportes/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde , Agências Internacionais/organização & administração , Adolescente , Adulto , Apoio Financeiro , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Agências Internacionais/economia , Agências Internacionais/ética , Colaboração Intersetorial , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Habilidades Sociais , Esportes/economia , Esportes/ética
9.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232968, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401789

RESUMO

This study investigated the relationships among psychosocial factors that contribute to smartphone dependency among South Korean adolescents. This cross-sectional study involved the secondary data analysis of the 2016 Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey, a nationwide multistage cluster survey. Data were collected from 1,840 7th grade students in South Korea and analyzed with descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation coefficients, and a path analysis using SPSS 21.0 and AMOS 23.0. The path analysis showed that self-esteem and aggressiveness directly influenced smartphone dependency, while affective parenting attitude, peer attachment, resilience, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms indirectly influenced it. The explanatory variables accounted for 18.3% of the total variance. In conclusion, parents' education on positive parenting and guidance concerning adolescents' smartphone use is necessary to reduce adolescents' smartphone dependency. It may also prove effective to promote adolescents' interpersonal skills and self-esteem to foster positive peer relationships and self-control concerning smartphone use.


Assuntos
Smartphone , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Psicologia , Psicologia do Adolescente , República da Coreia , Autoimagem , Mídias Sociais , Habilidades Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 23(8): 519-525, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267163

RESUMO

This study implements a computer-assisted content analysis to identify which social grooming factors reduce social media users' incivility when commenting or posting about the COVID-19 situation in South Korea. In addition, this study conducts semantic network analysis to interpret qualitatively how people express their thoughts. The findings suggest that social network size is a negative predictor of incivility. Moreover, Twitter users who have built larger networks and gained positive responses from others are less likely to use uncivil language. Lastly, linguistic choice among users is different depending on the size of their social network.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Incivilidade , Redes Sociais Online , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Mídias Sociais , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pesquisa Qualitativa , República da Coreia , Semântica , Habilidades Sociais
11.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 39, 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32326983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preschoolers regularly display disruptive behaviors in child care settings because they have not yet developed the social skills necessary to interact prosocially with others. Disruptive behaviors interfere with daily routines and can lead to conflict with peers and educators. We investigated the impact of a social skills training program led by childcare educators on children's social behaviors and tested whether the impact varied according to the child's sex and family socio-economic status. METHODS: Nineteen public Child Care Centers (CCC, n = 361 children) located in low socio-economic neighborhoods of Montreal, Canada, were randomized into one of two conditions: 1) intervention (n = 10 CCC; 185 children) or 2) wait list control (n = 9 CCC; 176 children). Educators rated children's behaviors (i.e., disruptive and prosocial behaviors) before and after the intervention. Hierarchical linear mixed models were used to account for the nested structure of the data. RESULTS: At pre-intervention, no differences in disruptive and prosocial behaviors were observed between the experimental conditions. At post-intervention, we found a significant sex by intervention interaction (ß intervention by sex = - 1.19, p = 0.04) indicating that girls in the intervention condition exhibited lower levels of disruptive behaviors compared to girls in the control condition (f2 effect size = - 0.15). There was no effect of the intervention for boys. CONCLUSIONS: Girls may benefit more than boys from social skills training offered in the child care context. Studies with larger sample sizes and greater intervention intensity are needed to confirm the results. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current clinical trial number is ISRCTN84339956 (Retrospectively registered in March 2017). No amendment to initial protocol.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Creches , Educação , Comportamento Social , Habilidades Sociais , Canadá , Cuidado da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Problema
13.
Am J Occup Ther ; 74(2): 7402180070p1-7402180070p19, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204778

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Few studies examining the use of peers during interventions have been published, and no systematic review has been conducted to evaluate the available literature. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness of social skills interventions incorporating peers for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to improve social interactions. DATA SOURCES: A search of five databases (CINAHL, PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and PsycINFO) produced 697 articles. Sixty-one were retrieved for full-text review, and 15 articles met inclusion criteria. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA COLLECTION: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were used to abstract data. Inclusion criteria: Participants younger than age 18 yr with any ADHD pattern, social skills interventions with peer involvement, outcome measures within the domain of occupational therapy, written in English, and involved a peer as the sole or primary component at some point in the social skills intervention. Exclusion criteria: Studies older than 20 yr or that used participants with comorbidities or multiple conditions. FINDINGS: Interventions incorporating both peer categories were effective for increasing play skills, reducing undesirable social behaviors (e.g., inappropriate verbalizations, dominant behaviors, aggression), and improving communication (e.g., pragmatic language, collaboration, joint participation) and social participation. Improvements were maintained over time, as evidenced by follow-up studies. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Outcomes of these studies demonstrate moderate evidence that supports the use of social skills interventions incorporating peers for children with ADHD to improve social interactions, supporting their use by occupational therapists and the need for more studies. WHAT THIS ARTICLE ADDS: This article provides guidance to occupational therapy practitioners on social skills intervention options for children with ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Criança , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Grupo Associado , Comportamento Social , Habilidades Sociais
14.
Occup Ther Int ; 2020: 1427169, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32206046

RESUMO

Objective: Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects communication, social skills, and behavior and can present in early childhood. The present study is aimed at investigating the effects of family-centered early intervention on the quality of social interaction and social interaction skills in infants with suspected autism spectrum disorder using a single-subject design. Method: As a single-subject design study, evaluations were conducted at baseline phase A, intervention phase B, baseline phase A', and follow-up phase. The family-centered early intervention program was implemented during the intervention phase. Family-centered early intervention programs included home environmental modification, play video recording and training, task and feedback, related information training, and question and answer. The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers, Revised, with Follow-Up and Evaluation of Social Interaction was used for evaluation. Result: Three participants completed the study. After applying the family-centered early intervention program, the quality of social interaction and social interaction skills of all participants improved. In addition, the risk of autism spectrum disorder in all participants was reduced. Conclusion: Family-centered early intervention was confirmed to have a positive effect on the improvement of social interaction skills in infants with suspected autism spectrum disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Intervenção Educacional Precoce , Família , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Terapia Ocupacional , Habilidades Sociais
16.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 88(3): 269-282, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loneliness is a transdiagnostic clinical phenomenon that can significantly impact mental health and well-being across the lifespan. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to combine existing theory and evidence-based treatment approaches to propose a comprehensive transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral analysis of the maintenance of chronic loneliness relevant across disorders, age groups, and populations. METHOD: A distillation and matching model-framework approach was taken to identify interventions designed to reduce loneliness. Eligible studies were coded for the presence of practice elements. The findings were combined with an analysis of the broader literature on loneliness and psychopathology to derive a comprehensive cognitive-behavioral analysis of the maintenance of loneliness over time across populations. RESULTS: The search yielded 11 studies containing 14 practice elements with relative frequencies ranging from 7% to 64%. The identified practice elements target putative mechanisms such as negative interpersonal appraisals, anxiety, and social skills deficits. Counterproductive behavior and cognitive processes such as self-focused attention were identified as maintenance factors based on the broader literature. A modular transdiagnostic model with multiple pathways is proposed to be consistent with the existing theoretical and treatment literature. CONCLUSIONS: Combining the distillation and matching model framework with existing theory from the literature is a novel approach for developing a model of factors that maintain loneliness over time. The model has varying treatment implications for different populations including children with autism spectrum disorders and bereaved older adults. Targeting transdiagnostic processes has the potential to transform interventions for loneliness across a range of formats and settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Cognição , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Solidão/psicologia , Habilidades Sociais , Ansiedade/psicologia , Humanos
17.
Codas ; 32(1): e20190017, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049153

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance in gross motor, fine motor-adaptive, language, cognitive and personal-social development skills of girls with a mean age of 36 to 71 months with Congenital Hypothyroidism treated from the neonatal period with that of their peers without thyroid alterations. METHODS: The participants included in the study were 30 children aged between 36 and 70 months divided into two groups paired for chronological age and socioeconomic status: 15 girls diagnosed with Congenital Hypothyroidism - Experimental Group (EG) and 15 girls without thyroid changes - Control Group (CG). The following assessment instruments were used: Interview with parents, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - Revised (PPVT-R), and Denver Developmental Screening Test - 2nd edition (DDST-II). Psychological testing of intellectual functioning was conducted with application of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (SBIS). The descriptive statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test and the Mann-Whitney test at a significance level of 5% (p<0.05). RESULTS: Comparison of the PPVT-R and SBIS results showed a statistically significant difference between the EG and CG. Comparison of the DDST-II results showed a statistically significant difference between the groups for the fine motor-adaptive, language and gross motor areas. CONCLUSION: The present study confirms that Congenital Hypothyroidism affects child development, even when children are diagnosed and treated early, leading to alterations that can impair their motor, cognitive and language development.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Comunicação , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/fisiopatologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Linguagem Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Transtornos Cognitivos , Feminino , Humanos , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Habilidades Sociais
18.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228538, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084153

RESUMO

Irony is one of the linguistic means in which intended and expressed meaning diverge. It serves social-communicative functions, requires the understanding of the speaker's mental state and its comprehension takes place at an advanced stage of language acquisition. In the present study, we investigated 8-year old's irony comprehension and social skills and asked their parents about their preferred use of irony towards their children. We then compared children with the highest scores in irony comprehension test with those with lower scores. The full sample included 46 families from Poland. Results show positive associations between children's levels of irony comprehension and levels of mothers irony use. No such relations were found for fathers. No differences were found in ToM scores between proficient and non-proficient irony comprehenders. Our findings provide a base for future studies to study the use of irony in child-parent talk in more diverse culturally and linguistically diverse populations.


Assuntos
Compreensão/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Linguística , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar , Senso de Humor e Humor como Assunto , Adulto , Criança , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Linguística/educação , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho/etnologia , Poder Familiar/etnologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Psicologia da Criança , Psicometria , Habilidades Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Senso de Humor e Humor como Assunto/psicologia
19.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 50(4): 1434-1442, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925670

RESUMO

We investigated the early sociocognitive battery (ESB), a novel measure of preverbal social communication skills, in children with autism participating in the Paediatric Autism Communication Trial-Generalised (PACT-G). The associations between ESB scores, language and autism symptoms were assessed in 249 children aged 2-11 years. The results show that ESB subscale scores (social responsiveness, joint attention and symbolic comprehension) were significantly associated with concurrent autism symptoms and receptive and expressive language levels. The pattern of association between the ESB subscale scores differed between the ADOS-2 symptom domains and expressive and receptive language. These findings indicate the potential utility of the ESB as a measure of preverbal social communication in children with autism.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas , Habilidades Sociais , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Compreensão , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino
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