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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(22): e20331, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study will investigate the effectiveness of and safety of social skills intervention (SSI) for the management of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: All potential randomized controlled trials related to the effectiveness and safety of SSI for children with ASD will be retrieved from Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. All these databases will be identified from inception to the present with no limitations of language and publication time. Two investigators will independently perform selection of study, data collection, and study quality assessment, respectively. A third investigator will help to solve any different views between 2 investigators. RevMan 5.3 software will be used for data pooling and statistical analysis. RESULTS: This study will provide synthesis of present evidence on assessing the effectiveness and safety of SSI for children with ASD. CONCLUSION: This study will provide helpful references for the effectiveness and safety of SSI on the management of ASD, which may benefit both patients and clinicians. STUDY REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202040090.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Habilidades Sociais , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa
2.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 270: 287-291, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570392

RESUMO

Eye tracking studies have demonstrated deficits in attention in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) for a range of different social attention-based tasks. Here we examined social attention skills in a large sample of ASD participants (n = 120), using eye tracking data from a social information processing task, and compared them with a typically developing (TD) group (n = 35). Assuming eye movement parameters are random variables generated by an underlying stochastic process, we modeled the fixation sequences of participants in ASD and TD groups with a Hidden Markov Model. The Regions of Interests (ROIs), modeled as hidden states, corresponded to the true ROIs with a prediction accuracy of >90% for each group. The transition between ROIs revealed bias towards a specific area in the scene in ASD group, which deviated from the TD group. Objective time-dynamic measures of gaze patterns can potentially serve as useful endpoints in ASD diagnosis. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT02299700.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Cadeias de Markov , Comportamento Social , Habilidades Sociais , Processos Estocásticos
3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD009829, 2020 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Around 1 in 1000 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years old display problematic or harmful sexual behaviour (HSB). Examples include behaviours occurring more frequently than would be considered developmentally appropriate; accompanied by coercion; involving children of different ages or stages of development; or associated with emotional distress. Some, but not all, young people engaging in HSB come to the attention of authorities for investigation, prosecution or treatment. Depending on policy context, young people with HSB are those whose behaviour has resulted in a formal reprimand or warning, conviction for a sexual offence, or civil measures. Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) interventions are based on the idea that by changing the way a person thinks, and helping them to develop new coping skills, it is possible to change behaviour. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of CBT for young people aged 10 to 18 years who have exhibited HSB. SEARCH METHODS: In June 2019, we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, 12 other databases and three trials registers. We also examined relevant websites, checked reference lists and contacted authors of relevant articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using parallel groups. We evaluated CBT treatments compared with no treatment, waiting list or standard care, irrespective of mode of delivery or setting, given to young people aged 10 to 18 years, who had been convicted of a sexual offence or who exhibited HSB. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS: We found four eligible RCTs (115 participants). Participants in two studies were adolescent males aged 12 to 18 years old. In two studies participants were males simply described as "adolescents." Three studies took place in the USA and one in South Africa. The four studies were of short duration: one lasted two months; two lasted three months; and one lasted six months. No information was available on funding sources. Two studies compared group-based CBT respectively to no treatment (18 participants) or treatment as usual (21 participants). The third compared CBT with sexual education (16 participants). The fourth compared CBT (19 participants) with mode-deactivation therapy (21 participants) and social skills training (20 participants). Three interventions delivered treatment in a residential setting by someone working there, and one in a community setting by licensed therapist undertaking a PhD. CBT compared with no treatment or treatment as usual Primary outcomes No study in this comparison reported the impact of CBT on any measure of primary outcomes (recidivism, and adverse events such as self-harm or suicidal behaviour). Secondary outcomes There was little to no difference between CBT and treatment as usual on cognitive distortions in general (mean difference (MD) 1.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) -11.54 to 14.66, 1 study, 18 participants; very low-certainty evidence), assessed with Abel and Becker Cognition Scale (higher scores indicate more problematic distortions); and specific cognitive distortions about rape (MD 8.75, 95% CI 2.83 to 14.67, 1 study, 21 participants; very low-certainty evidence), measured with the Bumby Cardsort Rape Scale (higher scores indicate more justifications, minimisations, rationalisations and excuses for HSB). One study (18 participants) reported very low-certainty evidence that CBT may result in greater improvements in victim empathy (MD 5.56, 95% CI 0.94 to 10.18), measured with the Attitudes Towards Women Scale, compared with no treatment. One additional study also measured this, but provided no usable data. CBT compared with alternative interventions Primary outcomes One study (59 participants) found little to no difference between CBT and alternative treatments on post-treatment sexual aggression scores (MD 0.09, 95% CI -0.18 to 0.37, very low-certainty evidence), assessed using Daily Behaviour Reports and Behaviour Incidence Report Forms. No study in this comparison reported the impact of CBT on any measure of our remaining primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes One study (16 participants) provided very low-certainty evidence that, compared to sexual education, mean cognitive distortions pertaining to justification or taking responsibility for actions (MD 3.27, 95% CI -4.77 to -1.77) and apprehension confidence (MD 2.47 95% CI -3.85 to -1.09) may be lower in the CBT group. The same study indicated that mean cognitive distortions pertaining to social-sexual desirability may be lower in the CBT group, and there may be little to no difference between the groups for cognitive distortions pertaining to inappropriate sexual fantasies measured with the Multiphasic Sex Inventory. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: It is uncertain whether CBT reduces HSB in male adolescents compared to other treatments. All studies had insufficient detail in what they reported to allow for full assessment of risk of bias. 'Risk of bias' judgements were predominantly rated as unclear or high. Sample sizes were very small, and the imprecision of results was significant. There is very low-certainty evidence that group-based CBT may improve victim empathy when compared to no treatment, and may improve cognitive distortions when compared to sexual education, but not treatment as usual. Further research is likely to change the estimate. More robust evaluations of both individual and group-based CBT are required, particularly outside North America, and which look at the effects of CBT on diverse participants.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Atitude , Criança , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Dessensibilização Psicológica , Fantasia , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estupro/psicologia , Reincidência , Autoimagem , Educação Sexual , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Habilidades Sociais
4.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 69(3): 218-235, 2020 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394820

RESUMO

Do Children and Adolescents with Different Reasons for Admission Equally Benefit from Institutional Care? Currently, almost 150.000 children and adolescents are placed in institutional care in Germany with the aim to improve their living conditions. Various studies showed positive effects concerning the development of those institutionalized children and adolescents. Within the present study, 500 children and adolescents in institutional care were examined regarding the improvement of quality of life and social competencies during their care placement depending on the respective reason for admission (group A: admission due to mental health and behavior problems; group S: problems in the context of the school; group O: no mental health problems, but other reasons). Furthermore, differences in the development of children and adolescents who initiated the placement by themselves and those who did not were examined. Results show that over a period of 18-24 months, all three groups developed effectively equally. Group A had a lower initial level regarding quality of life and social competencies compared to group S and group O and therefore reached lower outcomes within the investigation period. Development was irrespective of whether or not children and adolescents initiated the institutional placement by themselves. The results demonstrate that all three groups were able to benefit from institutional care, although children and adolescents with mental health problems had a notable potential for further development.


Assuntos
Criança Institucionalizada/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/reabilitação , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Habilidades Sociais , Adolescente , Criança , Alemanha , Humanos , Saúde Mental
7.
Am J Occup Ther ; 74(2): 7402180070p1-7402180070p19, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204778

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Few studies examining the use of peers during interventions have been published, and no systematic review has been conducted to evaluate the available literature. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness of social skills interventions incorporating peers for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to improve social interactions. DATA SOURCES: A search of five databases (CINAHL, PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and PsycINFO) produced 697 articles. Sixty-one were retrieved for full-text review, and 15 articles met inclusion criteria. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA COLLECTION: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were used to abstract data. Inclusion criteria: Participants younger than age 18 yr with any ADHD pattern, social skills interventions with peer involvement, outcome measures within the domain of occupational therapy, written in English, and involved a peer as the sole or primary component at some point in the social skills intervention. Exclusion criteria: Studies older than 20 yr or that used participants with comorbidities or multiple conditions. FINDINGS: Interventions incorporating both peer categories were effective for increasing play skills, reducing undesirable social behaviors (e.g., inappropriate verbalizations, dominant behaviors, aggression), and improving communication (e.g., pragmatic language, collaboration, joint participation) and social participation. Improvements were maintained over time, as evidenced by follow-up studies. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Outcomes of these studies demonstrate moderate evidence that supports the use of social skills interventions incorporating peers for children with ADHD to improve social interactions, supporting their use by occupational therapists and the need for more studies. WHAT THIS ARTICLE ADDS: This article provides guidance to occupational therapy practitioners on social skills intervention options for children with ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Criança , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Grupo Associado , Comportamento Social , Habilidades Sociais
8.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228538, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084153

RESUMO

Irony is one of the linguistic means in which intended and expressed meaning diverge. It serves social-communicative functions, requires the understanding of the speaker's mental state and its comprehension takes place at an advanced stage of language acquisition. In the present study, we investigated 8-year old's irony comprehension and social skills and asked their parents about their preferred use of irony towards their children. We then compared children with the highest scores in irony comprehension test with those with lower scores. The full sample included 46 families from Poland. Results show positive associations between children's levels of irony comprehension and levels of mothers irony use. No such relations were found for fathers. No differences were found in ToM scores between proficient and non-proficient irony comprehenders. Our findings provide a base for future studies to study the use of irony in child-parent talk in more diverse culturally and linguistically diverse populations.


Assuntos
Compreensão/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Linguística , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar , Senso de Humor e Humor como Assunto , Adulto , Criança , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Linguística/educação , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho/etnologia , Poder Familiar/etnologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Psicologia da Criança , Psicometria , Habilidades Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Senso de Humor e Humor como Assunto/psicologia
9.
Codas ; 32(1): e20190017, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049153

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance in gross motor, fine motor-adaptive, language, cognitive and personal-social development skills of girls with a mean age of 36 to 71 months with Congenital Hypothyroidism treated from the neonatal period with that of their peers without thyroid alterations. METHODS: The participants included in the study were 30 children aged between 36 and 70 months divided into two groups paired for chronological age and socioeconomic status: 15 girls diagnosed with Congenital Hypothyroidism - Experimental Group (EG) and 15 girls without thyroid changes - Control Group (CG). The following assessment instruments were used: Interview with parents, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - Revised (PPVT-R), and Denver Developmental Screening Test - 2nd edition (DDST-II). Psychological testing of intellectual functioning was conducted with application of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (SBIS). The descriptive statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test and the Mann-Whitney test at a significance level of 5% (p<0.05). RESULTS: Comparison of the PPVT-R and SBIS results showed a statistically significant difference between the EG and CG. Comparison of the DDST-II results showed a statistically significant difference between the groups for the fine motor-adaptive, language and gross motor areas. CONCLUSION: The present study confirms that Congenital Hypothyroidism affects child development, even when children are diagnosed and treated early, leading to alterations that can impair their motor, cognitive and language development.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Comunicação , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/fisiopatologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Linguagem Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Transtornos Cognitivos , Feminino , Humanos , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Habilidades Sociais
12.
Dev Sci ; 23(2): e12880, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206980

RESUMO

Infants' understanding of the intentional nature of human action develops gradually across the first year of life. A key question is what mechanisms drive changes in this foundational social-cognitive ability. The current studies explored the hypothesis that triadic interactions in which infants coordinate attention between a social partner and an object of mutual interest promote infants' developing understanding of others as intentional agents. Infants' spontaneous tendency to participate in triadic engagement was assessed in a semi-structured play session with a researcher. Intentional action understanding was assessed by evaluating infants' ability to visually predict the goal of an intentional reaching action. Study 1 (N = 88) revealed that 8- to 9-month-olds who displayed more bouts of triadic engagement showed better concurrent reasoning about the goal of an intentional reaching action. Study 2 (N = 114) confirmed these findings using a longitudinal design and demonstrated that infants who displayed more bouts of triadic engagement at 6-7 months were better at prospectively reasoning about the goal of an intentional reaching action 3 months later. Cross-lagged path analyses revealed that intentional action understanding at 6-7 months did not predict later triadic engagement, suggesting that early triadic engagement supports later intentional action processing and not the other way around. Finally, evidence from both studies revealed the unique contribution of triadic over dyadic forms of engagement. These results highlight the importance of social interaction as a developmental mechanism and suggest that infants enrich their understanding of intentionality through triadic interactions with social partners.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Compreensão , Intenção , Atenção , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Motivação , Habilidades Sociais
13.
Int J Psychol ; 55 Suppl 1: 60-69, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452198

RESUMO

This study investigated the cross-national adaptation and implementation of Papilio, a German social-emotional learning programme, in Finnish early childhood education and care (ECEC) centres. Papilio is a developmentally focused, scientifically based intervention programme focused on preventing behavioural problems and fostering social-emotional competence in children aged 3-7. The aim of this study was to investigate and evaluate the cross-national adaptation and cross-cultural adaptation and implementation of Papilio in the Finnish ECEC context. Results from qualitative interviews with one Finnish Papilio trainer, 11 early childhood education (ECE) teachers, two ECE special education teachers and two nursery nurses are supplemented with teachers' and nursery nurses' (N = 75) questionnaire data. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed that cultural adaptations were necessary on four levels: accommodation of materials, adaptation of the contents of the materials, structure and delivery. The materials and training contents were culturally adapted, whereas the delivery of the intervention was adapted according to Finnish ECEC practices. The structural adaptation included discarding timeout, due to opposition by some educators. The educators were committed to implementing the programme as instructed and resolving the practical difficulties they encountered. Their motivation to implement Papilio increased as they observed improvements in the children's social-emotional competence during intervention.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Habilidades Sociais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Finlândia , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto
15.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 23(1): 10-15, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355673

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is categorized by deficits in social communication and interaction, alongside repetitive, restrictive behaviors or interests (RRBIs). Previous research supports the efficacy of virtual reality (VR) to train a variety of specific skills (i.e., riding a bus or crossing the street) as well as more complex social skills, such as emotion recognition and functional communication. The present reports the implementation of a VR-based air travel functional communication activity in five children diagnosed with ASD. Using an iPhone X and Google Cardboard device, researchers delivered the VR intervention once per week for 3 weeks to each participant. During these interventions, researchers measured activity completion ability on a 4-point scale. At week 4, all children participated in a real-world air travel rehearsal at the San Diego International Airport. Parents were asked to rate their child's air travel abilities before week 1 and after week 4. All children improved their air travel skills from pre- to postintervention, reflected in both the researchers' and parents' observations. All children navigated the real-world airport under their own power. This preliminary report suggests the efficacy of VR to teach basic air travel skills to young children diagnosed with autism. Clinician observations regarding attention to the VR and strategies for helping participants accept the intervention technique are discussed. Future iterations of this program will require larger sample sizes and more robust clinical measurements-such as communication samples and physiological monitoring.


Assuntos
Viagem Aérea , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Equipamentos de Autoajuda , Habilidades Sociais , Realidade Virtual , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais , Smartphone , Terapia de Exposição à Realidade Virtual
16.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 88(2): 128-136, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804094

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Research suggests that decreases in negative cognitions coincide with symptom improvements over the course of cognitive therapy (CT) of depression, but the role cognitive change (CC) plays in reducing symptoms remains controversial. METHOD: A total of 126 adults (mean age = 31.7, SD = 13.35; 60% female; 83% Caucasian) participated in CT for depression. Patients completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II and the Immediate Cognitive Change Scale at each session. At intake evaluation, maladaptive personality traits (Personality Inventory for DSM-5, Brief Form) and interpersonal problems (Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, Short Version) were assessed via self-report, and social skills were assessed through patients' evaluation of their performance following a series of behavioral role-plays (standardized interaction task). To rule out between-patient differences as potential confounds, our model disaggregated within- and between-patient components of CC and depression scores. RESULTS: Within-patient CC significantly predicted within-patient change in depressive symptoms. This relation was moderated by patients' evaluations of their social skills and patients' level of interpersonal problems, with CC predicting symptoms more robustly for patients with fewer perceived social skills and for those with greater interpersonal problems. Maladaptive personality traits did not emerge as a moderator. Additional analyses showed the relation of CC and symptom change was particularly strong among those with social anxiety disorder and among those observers rated as having lower social skills. CONCLUSIONS: CC in CT sessions appears to foster subsequent depressive symptom reduction, especially among patients with lower levels of self-evaluated social skills and greater interpersonal problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Depressão/terapia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Relações Interpessoais , Habilidades Sociais , Adolescente , Adulto , Cognição , Depressão/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Autoavaliação , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
Neuron ; 105(3): 475-490.e6, 2020 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780330

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders with symptoms including social deficits, anxiety, and communication difficulties. However, ASD pathogenic mechanisms are poorly understood. Mutations of CUL3, which encodes Cullin 3 (CUL3), a component of an E3 ligase complex, are thought of as risk factors for ASD and schizophrenia (SCZ). CUL3 is abundant in the brain, yet little is known of its function. Here, we show that CUL3 is critical for neurodevelopment. CUL3-deficient mice exhibited social deficits and anxiety-like behaviors with enhanced glutamatergic transmission and neuronal excitability. Proteomic analysis revealed eIF4G1, a protein for Cap-dependent translation, as a potential target of CUL3. ASD-associated cellular and behavioral deficits could be rescued by pharmacological inhibition of the eIF4G1 function and chemogenetic inhibition of neuronal activity. Thus, CUL3 is critical to neural development, neurotransmission, and excitation-inhibition (E-I) balance. Our study provides novel insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms of ASD and SCZ.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/metabolismo , Proteínas Culina/metabolismo , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores/fisiologia , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Inibidores/fisiologia , Biossíntese de Proteínas/fisiologia , Habilidades Sociais , Animais , Ansiedade/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Proteínas Culina/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Locomoção/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos
18.
Behav Modif ; 44(1): 92-113, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30136599

RESUMO

We compared clinical outcomes in a treatment group of 98 individuals who received between 8 and 15 weekly hours (M = 10.6; SD = 1.7) of applied behavior analysis (ABA) intervention with a comparison group of 73 individuals who received another provision, including some ABA, (between 1.4-8 weekly hours, M = 5.7; SD = 1.6). After 2 years, the treatment group made greater gains than the comparison group on language and social skills, and other areas assessed by the Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP). We evaluated the outcome on adaptive skills for a smaller sample of participants using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales II (VABS), but found no significant differences between the treatment (n = 17) and comparison groups (n = 11). Although the treatment group made important and clinically meaningful gains, the gains were moderate. These findings underline the importance of intervention intensity and provide further support for a dose-response relationship between ABA intervention hours and outcomes.


Assuntos
Análise do Comportamento Aplicada , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Habilidades Sociais , Comportamento Verbal , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 130 Suppl 1: 109837, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883704

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To summarize recent advances in knowledge on otitis media (OM) and quality of life (QoL) and development by synthesizing relevant research in this field published between June 1., 2015 until June 1., 2019. DATA SOURCES: Systematic searches of PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library using predefined database-specific syntaxes. REVIEW METHODS: Articles selected were randomized controlled trials and observational studies with an adequate control group estimating treatment effects of OM including acute OM (AOM), recurrent AOM (RAOM), OM with effusion (OME), chronic OM (COM) and chronic suppurative OM (CSOM). Items included were Health Status, Health Status Indicators, Quality of Life, Functional Status, Specific Learning Disorder, Developmental Disabilities, Language Development Disorders, and Problem Behavior. RESULTS: The electronic database searches yielded a total of 699 records. After screening titles and abstracts, we identified 34 potentially eligible articles. Of these, 18 were excluded. This left 15 articles suitable for inclusion. CONCLUSIONS: Although evidence is accumulating that OM may significantly impair children's QoL and development as well as caregiver's QoL, studies on this topic are relatively scarce and vary substantially in terms of methodological quality and outcome measurement instruments (OMI) used. In this review, studies have used 10 different OMIs capturing a wide range of OM symptoms as well as generic and disease-specific QoL outcomes. OM was associated with negative effects on auditory processing, language and speech development, school readiness, social competence, psychosocial wellbeing, and sleep. We found only four relevant randomized controlled trials, which mostly failed to demonstrate superiority of interventions in terms of QoL improvement and reports on reversibility are lacking. This underpins the urgent need for high quality studies in this field using validated and uniform OMIs. To facilitate interpretation and harmonization of study findings, we suggest and support the development of a core outcome set for the various OM entities that should include the most reliable and meaningful QoL and developmental OMIs.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Otite Média , Qualidade de Vida , Criança , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/etiologia , Otite Média/complicações , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Habilidades Sociais
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