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1.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 22(7): 706-710, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669165

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the level of neuropsychological development in late preterm infants and early term infants at the age of 1 year. METHODS: A total of 1 257 children with a corrected age of 1 year were enrolled as subjects. According to gestational age at birth, they were divided into an early preterm group (28-33+6 weeks), a late preterm group (34-36+6 weeks), an early term group (37-38+6 weeks), and a full-term group (39-41+6 weeks). Gesell Developmental Schedules were used to assess the neuropsychological development of the children, and the groups were compared in terms of neuropsychological development at the age of 1 year. RESULTS: There were significant differences in the developmental quotients of the five functional areas (adaptability, gross motor, fine motor, language and social ability) between the four groups at the age of 1 year (P<0.05), and the full-term infants had the highest development quotients, followed by the early term infants, the late preterm infants, and the early preterm infants (P<0.05). The full-term infants had the lowest rate of developmental delay in each functional area, while the early preterm infants had the highest rate (P<0.05). Compared with the full-term infants, the early term infants had a higher risk of developmental delay in adaptability (OR=1.796, P<0.05), and the late preterm infants had a higher risk of developmental delay in adaptability (OR=2.651, P<0.05) and fine motor (OR=2.679, P<0.05), while the early preterm infants had a higher risk of developmental delay in adaptability (OR=4.069, P<0.05), fine motor (OR=3.710, P<0.05), and social ability (OR=3.515, P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of neuropsychological developmental delay decreases with the increase in gestational age in children at the age of 1 year, with a dose-response effect. There are varying degrees of developmental delay in early term infants and late preterm infants, and health care follow-up for early term infants and late preterm infants should be taken seriously.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Nascimento Prematuro , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Feminino , Seguimentos , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
2.
BMJ Open ; 10(7): e038004, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699166

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: An outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) occurred in Wuhan, China starting in December 2019. Yet the clinical features and long-term outcomes of neonates with SARS-CoV-2 exposure are lacking. The purpose of this study is to describe the clinical course and prognosis of the neonates exposed to SARS-CoV-2. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a multicentre observational study conducted at the designated children and maternal and child hospitals in the mainland of China. Neonates exposed to SARS-CoV-2 infection will be recruited. The data to be collected via case report forms include demographic details, clinical features, laboratory and imaging results, as well as outcomes. Primary outcomes are the mortality of neonates with COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 infection of neonates born to mothers with COVID-19. Secondary outcomes are the birth weight, premature delivery and neurological development of neonates exposed to SARS-CoV-2. The neurological development is assessed by the Chinese standardised Denver Developmental Screening Test at the corrected age of 6 months. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has been approved by the Children's Hospital of Fudan University ethics committee (No. (2020)31). The study findings will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international conferences in order to improve the understanding of the clinical course among neonates exposed to SARS-CoV-2 and to provide evidence-based treatment and prevention strategies for this group. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04279899.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Maternidades , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
3.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 48, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491093

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To identify the Brazilian cohorts that started either in the prenatal period or at birth, to describe their characteristics and the explored variables, and to map the cohorts with potential for studies on early determinants on health and the risk of falling ill on later stages of the life cycle. METHODS A scoping review was carried out. The articles were searched in the electronic databases PubMed and Virtual Health Library (VHL). The descriptors used were [((("Child" OR "Child, Preschool" OR "Infant" OR "Infant, Newborn") AND (Cohort Studies" OR "Longitudinal Studies")) AND "Brazil")]. The inclusion criteria were Brazilian cohorts that started the baseline in the prenatal period or at birth and with at least two follow-ups with the participants. In order to meet the concept of LCE, we excluded those cohorts whose follow-ups were restricted to the first year of life, as well as those that did not address biological, behavioral and psychosocial aspects, and cohorts with data collection of a single stage of the life cycle. RESULTS The search step identified 5,010 articles. Eighteen cohorts were selected for descriptive synthesis. The median number of baseline participants was 2,000 individuals and the median age at the last follow-up was 9 years. Sample loss at the last follow-up ranged from 9.2 to 87.5%. Most cohorts monitored two phases of the life cycle (the perinatal period and childhood). The Southern region had the highest number of cohorts. The main variables collected were sociodemographic and environmental aspects of the family, morbidity aspects, nutritional practices and lifestyle. CONCLUSIONS We recommend the continuity of these cohorts, the approach to different social contexts and the performance of follow-ups with participants in different phases of the life cycle for the strengthening and expansion of life course epidemiology analyses in Brazil.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Projetos de Pesquisa Epidemiológica , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD003959, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ideal quantity of dietary protein for formula-fed low birth weight infants is still a matter of debate. Protein intake must be sufficient to achieve normal growth without leading to negative effects such as acidosis, uremia, and elevated levels of circulating amino acids. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether higher (≥ 3.0 g/kg/d) versus lower (< 3.0 g/kg/d) protein intake during the initial hospital stay of formula-fed preterm infants or low birth weight infants (< 2.5 kilograms) results in improved growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes without evidence of short- or long-term morbidity. Specific objectives were to examine the following comparisons of interventions and to conduct subgroup analyses if possible. 1. Low protein intake if the amount was less than 3.0 g/kg/d. 2. High protein intake if the amount was equal to or greater than 3.0 g/kg/d but less than 4.0 g/kg/d. 3. Very high protein intake if the amount was equal to or greater than 4.0 g/kg/d. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2019, Issue 8), in the Cochrane Library (August 2, 2019); OVID MEDLINE Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE(R) Daily, and Ovid MEDLINE(R) (to August 2, 2019); MEDLINE via PubMed (to August 2, 2019) for the previous year; and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (to August 2, 2019). We also searched clinical trials databases and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomized trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included RCTs contrasting levels of formula protein intake as low (< 3.0 g/kg/d), high (≥ 3.0 g/kg/d but < 4.0 g/kg/d), or very high (≥ 4.0 g/kg/d) in formula-fed hospitalized neonates weighing less than 2.5 kilograms. We excluded studies if infants received partial parenteral nutrition during the study period, or if infants were fed formula as a supplement to human milk. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane and the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We identified six eligible trials that enrolled 218 infants through searches updated to August 2, 2019. Five studies compared low (< 3 g/kg/d) versus high (3.0 to 4.0 g/kg/d) protein intake using formulas that kept other nutrients constant. The trials were small (n = 139), and almost all had methodological limitations; the most frequent uncertainty was about attrition. Low-certainty evidence suggests improved weight gain (mean difference [MD] 2.36 g/kg/d, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31 to 3.40) and higher nitrogen accretion in infants receiving formula with higher protein content (3.0 to 4.0 g/kg/d) versus lower protein content (< 3 g/kg/d), while other nutrients were kept constant. No significant differences were seen in rates of necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, or diarrhea. We are uncertain whether high versus low protein intake affects head growth (MD 0.37 cm/week, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.58; n = 18) and length gain (MD 0.16 cm/week, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.34; n = 48), but sample sizes were small for these comparisons. One study compared high (3.0 to 4.0 g/kg/d) versus very high (≥ 4 g/kg/d) protein intake (average intakes were 3.6 and 4.1 g/kg/d) during and after an initial hospital stay (n = 77). Moderate-certainty evidence shows no significant differences in weight gain or length gain to discharge, term, and 12 weeks corrected age from very high protein intake (4.1 versus 3.6 g/kg/d). Three of the 24 infants receiving very high protein intake developed uremia. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Higher protein intake (≥ 3.0 g/kg/d but < 4.0 g/kg/d) from formula accelerates weight gain. However, limited information is available regarding the impact of higher formula protein intake on long-term outcomes such as neurodevelopment. Research is needed to investigate the safety and effectiveness of protein intake ≥ 4.0 g/kg/d.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fórmulas Infantis/química , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Cabeça/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Criança Pós-Termo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ganho de Peso
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 735: 139403, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473430

RESUMO

The excess or deficiency of trace metals can cause adverse neurocognitive development. Evidence of health effect of trace metal mixtures on neurocognitive development is limited in children. We evaluated associations of prenatal exposure to trace metals and metal mixtures with neurocognitive development of 2-year-old children. A total of 544 mother-child pairs were included in the study. The concentrations of 10 trace metals in maternal urine were monitored before delivery. Neurocognitive development indexes, including mental development index (MDI) and psychomotor development index (PDI), were assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Linear regression analysis was performed to explore the effects of single-metal and multi-metal exposures. Bayesian Kernel Machine regression (BKMR) was used to investigate overall effect of exposure to metal mixtures and potential interactions among mixture components. We found positive associations of urinary strontium (Sr) and Selenium (Se) levels with MDI scores among all children in the single-metal model. Sr was positively related to MDI, while Manganese (Mn) was negatively associated with PDI in the multi-metal model. The results from BKMR model in girls revealed that MDI scores were improved with the increasing concentrations of Sr, Se and Mn mixture until the concentrations reached their 30th percentiles (Sr: 149.49 µg/g creatinine, Se:18.38 µg/g creatinine, Mn:1.96 µg/g creatinine), with no effect after that threshold level. Sr played a positive role in mental development among mixture components, which was consistent with the results of Sr in the multi-metal models. No signification association of mixture with MDI/PDI was found in boys. The study suggested potential sex-specific association of Sr, Se and Mn mixture levels (at or below their 30th percentiles) with improved mental development, and beneficial role of Sr.


Assuntos
Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Selênio , Teorema de Bayes , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Manganês , Gravidez , Estrôncio
7.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 64, 2020 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The calcium-selective channel TRPV6 (transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 6) is crucial for maternal-fetal calcium transport across the placenta. TRPV6 mutations have recently been associated with an antenatally severe under-mineralising skeletal dysplasia accompanied by postnatal biochemical abnormalities. This is the first post-mortem report in a patient with TRPV6 skeletal dysplasia. CASE PRESENTATION: The female infant had severe antenatal and postnatal skeletal abnormalities by 20 weeks gestation and was ventilator-dependent from birth. These skeletal abnormalities were apparent at an earlier gestational age than in previous reported cases and a more severe clinical course ensued. Biochemical and skeletal abnormalities, including bone density, improved postnatally but cardiac arrest at 4 months of age led to withdrawal of intensive care. Compound heterozygous TRPV6 variants (c.1978G > C p.(Gly660Arg) and c.1528C > T p.(Arg510Ter)) were identified on exome sequencing. Post-mortem identified skeletal abnormalities but no specific abnormalities in other organ systems. No placental pathology was found, multi-organ histological features reflected prolonged intensive care only. Post-mortem macroscopic examination indicated reduced thoracic size and short, pale and pliable ribs. Histological examination identified reduced number of trabeculae in the diaphyses (away from the growth plates), whereas metaphyses showed adequate mineralisation and normal number of trabeculae, but with slightly enlarged reactive chondrocytes, indicating post-natal skeletal growth recovery. Post-mortem radiological findings demonstrated improved bone density, improved rib width, healed fractures, although ribs were still shorter than normal. Long bones (especially humerus and femur) had improved from initial poorly defined metaphyses and reduced bone density to sharply defined metaphyses, prominent growth restart lines in distal diaphyses and bone-in-bone appearance along diaphyses. CONCLUSIONS: This case provide bone histological confirmation that human skeletal development is compromised in the presence of TRPV6 pathogenic variants. Post-mortem findings were consistent with abnormal in utero skeletal mineralisation due to severe calcium deficit from compromised placental calcium transfer, followed by subsequent phenotypic improvement with adequate postnatal calcium availability. Significant skeletal recovery occurs in the early weeks of postnatal life in TRPV6 skeletal dysplasia.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Ósseo , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Canais de Cálcio/genética , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Osteocondrodisplasias/patologia , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética , Autopsia , Desenvolvimento Ósseo/genética , Osso e Ossos/anormalidades , Calcificação Fisiológica/genética , Cálcio/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio/análise , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Osteocondrodisplasias/reabilitação , Parto/fisiologia , Canais de Cátion TRPV/análise
8.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(3): 354-357, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294834

RESUMO

Objective: To explore influence on physical development of children aged 18 months from HIV-positive mothers for prevention mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) in Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region, and provide evidence for the improvement PMTCT program. Methods: This retrospective case control study was conducted in 554 HIV negative infants aged 18 months whose HIV positive mothers had received PMTCT services reported through PMTCT system database from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2017 and 1 109 healthy infants born in 2017, whose mothers were healthy, in Lingshan, Luzhai, and Hengxian counties, ranking top three counties with high HIV infection prevalence, in Guangxi. PMTCT data and physical development data such as height, weight and head circumference of children aged 18 months were collected. The physical dysplasia in the infants was defined as at least one of the three main indicators of height, weight and head circumference below the normal range. Results: The number of HIV-positive mother and their infants in the case group were 667 and 554 respectively, and the PMTCT rates were 91.15% (608/667) and 96.57% (535/554) respectively. HIV positive rate, mortality rate and mother to child transmission rate of the infants aged 18 months were 1.44% (8/554), 3.07% (17/554) and 1.91% (8/418) respectively, and the physical examination results of the infants aged 18 months showed that the physical dysplasia rate was 30.51% (169/554). Among the 1 109 infants in the control group, the physical dysplasia rate was 9.83% (109/1 109). The difference between the case group and the control group was significant (P<0.01). Conclusion: The PMTCT rates of HIV positive mother and their children were more than 90.00%, respectively. However, poor physical development rate of infants aged 18 months were more than 30.00%. The possible influence of PMTCT on physical development of the infants aged 18 months of HIV positive mother's needs to be further studied.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Subcell Biochem ; 95: 1-26, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297294

RESUMO

Vitamin A deficiency studies have been carried out since the early 1900s. Initially, these studies led to the identification of fat soluble A as a unique and essential component of the diet of rodents, birds, and humans. Continuing work established that vitamin A deficiency produces biochemical and physiological dysfunction in almost every vertebrate organ system from conception to death. This chapter begins with a review of representative historical and current studies that used the nutritional vitamin A deficiency research model to gain an understanding of the many roles vitamin A plays in prenatal and postnatal development and well-being. This is followed by a discussion of recent studies that show specific effects of vitamin A deficiency on prenatal development and postnatal maintenance of the olfactory epithelium, brain, and heart. Vitamin A deficiency studies have helped define the necessity of vitamin A for the health of all vertebrates, including farm animals, but the breadth of deficient states and their individual effects on health have not been fully determined. Future work is needed to develop tools to assess the complete vitamin A status of an organism and to define the levels of vitamin A that optimally support molecular and systems level processes during all ages and stages of life.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Dieta , Deficiência de Vitamina A/metabolismo , Vitamina A/fisiologia , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/metabolismo , Vertebrados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vertebrados/metabolismo
10.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230965, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243485

RESUMO

The burden of food insecurity is large in Sub-Saharan Africa, yet the evidence-base on the relation between household food insecurity and early child development is extremely limited. Furthermore, available research mostly relies on cross-sectional data, limiting the quality of existing evidence. We use longitudinal data on preschool-aged children and their households in Ghana to investigate how being in a food insecure household was associated with early child development outcomes across three years. Household food insecurity was measured over three years using the Household Hunger Score. Households were first classified as "ever food insecure" if they were food insecure at any round. We also assessed persistence of household food insecurity by classifying households into three categories: (i) never food insecure; (ii) transitory food insecurity, if the household was food insecure only in one wave; and (iii) persistent food insecurity, if the household was food insecure in two or all waves. Child development was assessed across literacy, numeracy, social-emotional, short-term memory, and self-regulation domains. Controlling for baseline values of each respective outcome and child and household characteristics, children from ever food insecure households had lower literacy, numeracy and short-term memory. When we distinguished between transitory and persistent food insecurity, transitory spells of food insecurity predicted decreased numeracy (ß = -0.176, 95% CI: -0.317; -0.035), short-term memory (ß = -0.237, 95% CI: -0.382; -0.092), and self-regulation (ß = -0.154, 95% CI: -0.326; 0.017) compared with children from never food insecure households. By contrast, children residing in persistently food insecure households had lower literacy scores (ß = -0.243, 95% CI: -0.496; 0.009). No gender differences were detected. Results were broadly robust to the inclusion of additional controls. This novel evidence from a Sub-Saharan African country highlights the need for multi-sectoral approaches including social protection and nutrition to support early child development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Características da Família , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Gana , Humanos , Fome , Alfabetização/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo , Análise Multivariada , Autocontrole/psicologia , Mudança Social
11.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(5): 955-963, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228785

RESUMO

Following the large outbreak of Zika virus in the Western Hemisphere, many infants have been born with congenital Zika virus infection. It is important to describe the functional outcomes seen with congenital infections to allow for their recognition and appropriate interventions. We evaluated 120 children conceived during the 2015-2016 Zika virus outbreak in Paraíba, Brazil, who were approximately 24 months old, to assess functional outcomes. All children met either anthropometric criteria or laboratory criteria suggestive of possible congenital Zika virus infection. We collected results of previous medical evaluations, interviewed parents, and performed physical examinations and functional assessments, for example, the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (HINE). We compared patterns of neurologic outcomes and developmental delay at age 24 months by whether children met anthropometric or laboratory criteria, or both. Among children meeting both criteria, 60% (26/43) were multiply affected (had severe motor impairment, severe developmental delay, and suboptimal HINE scores), compared with 5% (3/57) meeting only laboratory criteria and none (0/20) meeting only anthropometric criteria. Of the remaining 91 children, 49% (45) had developmental delay, with more severe delay seen in children meeting both criteria. Although children meeting physical and laboratory criteria for potential congenital Zika virus infection were more severely affected, we did identify several children with notable adverse neurologic outcomes and developmental delay with no physical findings but potential laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection. Given this, all children who were potentially exposed in utero to Zika virus should be monitored in early childhood for deficits to allow for early intervention.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Infecção por Zika virus/congênito , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Seguimentos , Audição , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Microcefalia/etiologia , Microcefalia/virologia , Desempenho Psicomotor , Visão Ocular , Adulto Jovem , Infecção por Zika virus/complicações , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia
13.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(12): e91, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Routine blood pressure (BP) measurement is recommended to begin at 3 years of age, but there are no national BP reference values for Korean children less than 7 years of age. Therefore, we developed sex-, age-, and height-specific BP reference values for non-overweight children aged 3-9 years. METHODS: We analyzed the data of 416, 340, 321, 323, and 332 subjects aged 3, 5, 7, 8, and 9 years, respectively, who participated in the Ewha Birth and Growth Cohort Study. BP percentile curves were generated using generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape. Reference values for the 50th, 90th, and 95th percentiles of BP were determined according to sex, age, and height percentiles. RESULTS: In both boys and girls, a gradual increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP) with age was more pronounced than that in diastolic blood pressure (DBP). In boys, the reference values for 90th percentile of SBP/DBP at median height for children aged 3 and 9 years were 105/69 and 118/70, respectively. In girls, the reference values corresponding to the above conditions were 105/69 and 116/70, respectively. Among children aged 7-9 years of median height, the 90th percentile of SBP in the current study was lower and that of DBP was similar to the national reference values of Korea. For children aged < 7 years of median height, the reference value for SBP, but not that for DBP, was similar to that developed in the European study. CONCLUSION: Although further research is needed, our findings could be used to help identify high BP in children less than 10 years of age.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Estatura , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Valores de Referência , República da Coreia , Fatores Sexuais
14.
Pediatrics ; 145(5)2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238448

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe (1) the developmental trajectories of peer victimization from 6 to 17 years of age and (2) the early childhood behaviors and family characteristics associated with the trajectories. METHODS: We used data from 1760 children enrolled in the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, a population-based birth cohort. Participants self-reported peer victimization at ages 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 13, 15, and 17 years. Participants' behavior and family characteristics were measured repeatedly between ages 5 months and 5 years. RESULTS: We identified 4 trajectories of peer victimization from 6 to 17 years of age: low (32.9%), moderate-emerging (29.8%), childhood-limited (26.2%), and high-chronic (11.1%). Compared with children in the low peer victimization trajectory, children in the other 3 trajectories were more likely to exhibit externalizing behaviors in early childhood, and those in the high-chronic and moderate-emerging trajectories were more likely to be male. Paternal history of antisocial behavior was associated with moderate-emerging (odds ratio [OR] = 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09-2.19) and high-chronic (OR = 1.93; 95% CI = 1.25-2.99) relative to low peer victimization. Living in a nonintact family in early childhood was associated with childhood-limited (OR = 1.48; 95% CI = 1.11-1.97) and high-chronic (OR = 1.59; 95% CI = 1.09-2.31) relative to low peer victimization. CONCLUSIONS: Early childhood externalizing behaviors and family vulnerabilities were associated with the development of peer victimization. Some children entered the cascade of persistent peer victimization at the beginning of primary school. Support to these children and their families early in life should be an important component of peer victimization preventive interventions.


Assuntos
Bullying/psicologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Quebeque/epidemiologia
15.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230502, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271790

RESUMO

Early identification of children <5 years with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is a high priority to reduce child mortality and improved health outcomes. Current WHO guidelines for community screening for SAM recommend a Mid-Upper-Arm Circumference (MUAC) of less than 115 mm to identify children with SAM, but this cut-off does not identify a significant number of children with a weight-for-height Z-score <-3. To establish new specific MUAC cut-offs, pooled data was obtained for 25,755 children from 49 SMART recent surveys in Ethiopia (2016-2019). Sensitivity, proportion of false positive, and areas under receiver-operator characteristic curves (AUC) were calculated. MUAC below 115mm alone identified 55% of children with SAM identified with both methodologies. MUAC was worse in identifying older children (21%), those from a pastoral region (42%) and boys (41%). Using current WHO cut-offs, the sensitivity (Se) of MUAC below 115mm to identify the children severly malnourished screened through Weight-for-height below-3 was 16%. Analysing the ROC curve and Youden Index, Se and Specificity (Sp) were maximal at a MUAC < 133 mm cut-off to identify SAM (respectively Se 61.1%, Sp 81.4%). However, given the high proportion of false-positive children, according to gender, region and age groups, a cut-off around 125 mm to screen SAM could be the optimal one. In Ethiopia, implementation of a MUAC-only screening program for the identification of severe acute malnutrition with the actual cut-off of 115 mm would be unethical as it will lead to many children remaining undiagnosed and untreated. In addition, future study on implementation challenge on screening children with a higher cut-off or gender/age sensitive ones should be assessed with the collection of mortality and morbidity data to ensure that the most in need are being taking care of.


Assuntos
Braço/anatomia & histologia , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/métodos , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/diagnóstico , Fatores Etários , Viés , Estatura/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gráficos de Crescimento , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(18): 9808-9814, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32300013

RESUMO

Subtle features of common language can imply to young children that scientists are a special and distinct kind of person-a way of thinking that can interfere with the development of children's own engagement with science. We conducted a large field experiment (involving 45 prekindergarten schools, 130 teachers, and over 1,100 children) to test if targeting subtle properties of language can increase science engagement in children's daily lives. Despite strong tendencies to describe scientists as a special kind of person (in a baseline control condition), brief video-based training changed the language that teachers used to introduce science to their students. These changes in language were powerful enough to predict children's science interest and behavior days later. Thus, subtle features of language shape children's beliefs and behaviors as they unfold in real world environments. Harnessing these mechanisms could promote science engagement in early childhood.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Educação/normas , Idioma , Ciência/educação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia
17.
Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother ; 48(4): 277-288, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32301650

RESUMO

The impact of adolecent motherhood on child development in preschool children- identification of maternal risk factors Abstract. Objective: This longitudinal study aims to identify relevant risk factors in adolescent mothers which might impact their child's cognitive and speech development as well as behavior problems at preschool age. Based on earlier findings, maternal sensitivity (EA), socioeconomic status (SES) and psychological stress were identified as potentially influencing factors. Method: N = 31 adolescent and N = 47 adult mothers with their children aged 3;0 to 5;9 (M = 3;55) participated in this study. Child variables included cognitive development (WPPSI-III), language development (SSV), and behavioral problems (SDQ). Maternal factors were EA, SES, and mental health problems (BSI-18). Results: Children of adolescent mothers performed worse on cognitive and speech development and are described by their mothers as exhibiting more behavioral problems compared to children of adult mothers. Mediation analyses revealed that the effect of maternal age on children's cognitive development is occurs through reduced maternal sensitivity of adolescent mothers. Further, higher psychological stress of adolescent mothers mediated the effect of maternal age on children's behavior problems. Conclusion: Preschool children of adolescent mothers showed poorer developmental outcomes compared to children of adult mothers. This is partly explained by lower maternal sensitivity and higher rates of psychological stress among adolescent mothers.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Mães/psicologia , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez na Adolescência , Adolescente , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Gravidez , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico
18.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231317, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348359

RESUMO

There is increasing global commitment to establish early childhood interventions that promote the development of the millions of disadvantaged children in low- and middle-income countries not reaching their developmental potential. However, progress is hindered by the lack of valid developmental tests feasible for use at large scale. Consequently, there is an urgent need for such tests. Whilst screeners and single-domain tests ('short tests') are used as alternatives, their predictive validity in these circumstances is unknown. A longitudinal study in Bogota, Colombia began in 2011 when 1,311 children ages 6-42 months were given the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley-III) by psychologists and randomized to receive one of two batteries of short tests under survey conditions. Concurrent validity of the short tests with the Bayley-III ('gold standard') was reported. In 2016, at 6-8 years, 940 of these children were given tests of IQ (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, WISC-V) and school achievement (arithmetic, reading, and vocabulary) by psychologists. We compared the ability of the short tests, the Family Care Indicators (FCI), height-for-age, stunting (median height-for-age <-2 SD), and the Bayley-III to predict IQ and achievement in middle childhood. Predictive validity increased with age for all tests, and cognition and language were usually the highest scales. At 6-18 months, all tests had trivial predictive ability. Thereafter, the Bayley-III had the highest predictive validity, but the Denver Developmental Screening Test was the most feasible and valid short test and could be used with little validity loss compared with the Bayley-III. The MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory at 19-30 months and the FCI under 31 months predicted IQ and school achievement as well as the Bayley-III. The FCI had higher predictive validity than stunting and height-for-age, and could be added to stunting for use as a population-based indicator of child development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Colômbia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 58(3): 194-200, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135590

RESUMO

Objective: To survey the children under 7 years of age in nine cities of China for a better understanding of the current situation of childhood stunting. Methods: According to a stratified cluster sampling design, a cross-sectional survey on children under 7 years of age was carried out in 9 cities (Beijing, Harbin and Xi'an in northern China; Shanghai, Nanjing and Wuhan in central China; and Guangzhou, Fuzhou and Kunming in southern China) from June to November in 2016. A total of 110 499 children were recruited. Height of children was evaluated using the growth standards for Chinese children (2009 edition) .Children with height less than the 3rd percentile of the growth standards were considered as stunting, and children with height between the 3rd and 10th percentiles of the growth standards were considered as relatively short stature. Chi-square test was used for comparison between data of boys and girls, urban and suburban, as well as among different ages and regions. Results: Totally 113 084 children under 7 years of age should be investigated and actually 110 499 children were investigated, with a rate of 97.7%. The prevalence of stunting was 1.9% (2 141/110 499) among all the children. The prevalence of stunting in urban children (1.6%, 904/55 524) was lower than that in suburban children (2.3%, 1 237/54 975, χ(2)=56.246, P<0.01). The gender difference in stunting prevalence was not statistically significant (1.9% (1 121/57 921) in boys and 1.9% (1 020/52 578) in girls, χ(2)=0.003, P=0.965). The prevalence of stunting decreased with age for children younger than 3 years, from 1.8% (312/17 080) in 0-<1 year of age group to 1.2% (168/13 740) in 2-<3 years of age group, but increased to 2.2% (240/11 073) at 6-<7 years group. Comparison among different regions showed that the stunting prevalence in southern region was higher than those in the central and northern regions (0.9% (193/20 374) in northern urban, 0.8% (154/18 486) in central urban, and 3.3% (557/16 664) in southern urban children), showing a statistical significance (χ(2)=437.736, P<0.01); 1.1% (241/21 924) in northern suburban, 1.4% (227/16 775) in central suburban and 4.7% (769/16 276) in southern suburban children, showing a statistical significance (χ(2)=646.533, P<0.01). In urban areas, the difference between the central and northern regions showed no statistical significance (χ(2)=1.429, P=0.232) and the stunting prevalence of central Chinese children was slightly higher than that of northern Chinese children in suburban areas (χ(2)=5.130, P=0.024). Among the nine cities, the stunting prevalence of Guangzhou (6.1%, 613/10 019) was higher than those of other cities (χ(2)=1 559.64, P<0.01). Among the stunting children, 78.4% (1 679/2 141) were classified as borderline or mild and only 7.2% (154/2 141) were classified as severe. The prevalence of relatively short stature was 5.2% (5 721/110 499). Conclusions: The prevalence of stunting among children under 7 years of age in nine cities of China is low and most of the stunting children were classified as mild; the prevalence of stunting in suburban children is higher than that in urban children; the gender difference show no statistical significance; and the prevalence of stunting in southern Chinese children is higher than those in central and northern Chinese children.


Assuntos
Estatura , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Pequim , Estatura/fisiologia , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
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