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1.
Minerva Stomatol ; 69(3): 183-189, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral cancer affects thousands of people around the world, and the later the diagnosis is performed, the worse are prognosis and survival. In Brazil, primary care is the preferred gateway to the Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde [SUS]) and has an important role in the coordination of and responsibility for user's care. The objective of this study is to evaluate the service flow of users with suspicion of oral cancer in Primary Care and also the dentist's perception regarding the diagnosis of oral cancer in the city of São Paulo. METHODS: It is a quantitative-qualitative study, where 374 questionnaires were applied and 17 interviews were conducted with primary care dentists. RESULTS: It was shown that professionals are aware of the role of Primary Care and also know their importance and need on referral network. CONCLUSIONS: There are barriers that are imposed by the health network, that create difficulties to guarantee their fully professional exercises, with loss of health care tracking on the health care system.


Assuntos
Motivação , Neoplasias Bucais , Brasil , Odontólogos , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde
2.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 38(2): 104-109, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611853

RESUMO

Purpose: A web-based questionnaire survey was undertaken among the heads of pediatric dentistry departments to find out trainings received, participation in administrative responsibilities, expectations, stress related to the position, and overall satisfaction levels in dental institutes of India. Methodology: An online survey was sent to 188 heads of the pediatric dentistry after formulating and piloting the questionnaire. A descriptive analysis was performed using SPSS version 18.0. Results: Fifty-seven males and 43 females, making a total of 100 responses were received, making 53.2% response rate. The main issues came out to be lack of adequate training about the leadership role of heads and inadequate participation in major administrative activities related to department. The stress was primarily due to extensive paperwork, meetings, and effect on interpersonal relationships. Conclusion: It could be concluded that the respondents were not having a free hand in handling respective departments and there had been lack of formal trainings about leadership abilities and other soft skills before being appointed as head of the department.


Assuntos
Liderança , Motivação , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Odontopediatria , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
South Med J ; 113(6): 261-266, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483634

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly curable with antiviral therapy, and traditionally, treatment adherence has been critical for treatment success. We sought to determine whether assessing HCV treatment readiness with a structured treatment readiness tool was associated with increased rates of adherence and cure among patients at a safety-net HCV clinic. METHODS: We administered the Psychosocial Readiness Evaluation and Preparation for HCV Treatment (PREP-C) tool to 50 patients and compared them with 50 patients who received the usual care. The outcome measures included achievement of treatment milestones (eg, adherence to treatment, clinic visit attendance) and sustained virologic response (cure). RESULTS: We found no association between receiving the PREP-C assessment and outcomes, including referral to or starting HCV treatment, adherence to treatment, and HCV cure. CONCLUSIONS: We found that receiving the PREP-C assessment did not improve treatment outcomes, suggesting that targeted pretreatment assessment is unnecessary even in a medically and psychosocially complex population.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Cognição , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação , Motivação , Apoio Social , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Agendamento de Consultas , Hepatite C Crônica/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes não Comparecentes , Provedores de Redes de Segurança , Autoeficácia , Método Simples-Cego , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
J Environ Manage ; 269: 110632, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560976

RESUMO

China has witnessed a drop in the speed of its economic development from 14% to 6% since 2007. The literature has attributed "the miracle of China's economic growth" over the past four decades to the compatibility of political incentives and fiscal incentives. However, as the central government shifts its priorities from "development is the last word" to "lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets", can local officials' political and financial incentives still achieve incentive compatibility? Theoretically and empirically, this paper examines the impact of the compatibility of political and financial incentives on local governments' environmental governance in different stages. We find that environmental performance has consistently been an important political promotion incentive for officials, especially after 2007. We also find that officials in cities with incentive compatibility have no promotion advantages over their opponents because incentive compatibility restrained the development of the manufacturing industry, leading to a suppression of the economic growth rate. Local governments sacrifice a certain economic growth rate - in other words, local fiscal revenue - in exchange for environmental quality improvements and adopt strategic actions to cater to the central government's new performance evaluation system, which focuses mainly on environmental protection assessment through strategic behavior.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Política Ambiental , China , Cidades , Motivação
6.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28(2): 103-107, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592553

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study, which consisted of a motivational lecture and hands-on training, was to evaluate the role of oral hygiene education for adolescents. METHODS: The study population included sixty-two high school students between fourteen and fifteen years of age (thirty males and thirty-two females). The response rate was 76.5%. The measurement of oral hygiene level was performed using the modified Green Vermilion Index (GVI). The values were recorded at baseline, one week, three months, and six months after education through motivational lecture and hands-on training was performed. Descriptive and nonparametric statistical methods were used in statistical analysis. Level of significance was 0.05. RESULTS: At the beginning of the study, the GVI of all examined subjects was 3.52 (SD = 0.70). One week after the motivational lecture and training, it decreased to 2.64 (SD = 0.69). Three months later, the level of plaque index had the lowest value (1.44; SD = 0.66). At the end of the study the level of plaque index increased to 2.52 (SD = 0.86). CONCLUSIONS: A significant oral hygiene improvement in adolescents as a result of education was presented. However, due to a decline in oral hygiene level six months after the education, there is a need for educational programmes continuity.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Motivação , Saúde Bucal/educação , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Adolescente , Índice de Placa Dentária , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Higiene Bucal/educação , Higiene Bucal/psicologia , Estudantes
7.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e67, 2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349810

RESUMO

The integration of first-, second-, and third-personal information within joint intentional collaboration provides the foundation for broad-based second-personal morality. We offer two additions to this framework: a description of the developmental process through which second-personal competence emerges from early triadic interactions, and empirical evidence that collaboration with a concrete goal may provide an essential focal point for this integrative process.


Assuntos
Princípios Morais , Comportamento Social , Motivação
8.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(692): 958-961, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374546

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is putting our healthcare system under exceptional pressure, given the number of affected patients. In a context of limited human healthcare resources, senior medical students represent a valuable workforce that can quickly be mobilized for patient care. This is the approach followed in Switzerland and other countries, in several outpatient structures or inpatient services, including the Department of Internal Medicine, of the Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV). In this article, we first give the floor to students who responded to our call. We conclude with important considerations in terms of students' clinical supervision. It is reminded that the involvement of students in the care of COVID-19 patients should only occur on a vo luntary basis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Estudantes de Medicina , Betacoronavirus , Competência Clínica , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Motivação , Assistência ao Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Suíça
9.
J Environ Manage ; 269: 110759, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32425166

RESUMO

Nudging is a framework for directing individuals toward better behavior, both for personal and societal benefits, through heuristics that drive the decision-making process but without preventing any available choice. Considering the Grand Challenges that our society faces today, nudging represents an effective framework to tackle some of these pressing issues. In this work, we assessed the effectiveness of informational nudges in the form of detailed, customized feedback, within an energy-demand-management project. The project aligns energy production and demand, thereby reducing greenhouse gases and pollutant emissions to mitigate climate change. We also offered evidence that this kind of feedback is efficacious in involving individuals as citizen scientists, who volunteer their efforts toward the success of the environmentally-related aim of the project. The results of this research - based on surveys, electroencephalography measurements and online participation measures - indicate that feedback can be an effective tool to steer participants' behavior under the libertarian paternalistic view of nudging, increase their motivation to contribute to citizen science, and improve their awareness about environmentally-related issues. In so doing, we provide evidence that nudging and citizen science can be jointly adopted toward the mitigation of pressing environmental issues.


Assuntos
Ciência do Cidadão , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Motivação , Voluntários
10.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(6): e19494, 2020 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak may motivate smokers to attempt to stop in greater numbers. However, given the temporary closure of UK stop smoking services and vape shops, smokers attempting to quit may instead seek out mobile health support, such as smartphone apps. OBJECTIVE: We examined, using an interrupted time series approach, whether the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak has been associated with a step change or increasing trend in UK downloads of an otherwise popular smoking cessation app, Smoke Free. METHODS: Data were from daily and nondaily adult smokers in the United Kingdom who had downloaded the Smoke Free app between January 1, 2020, and March 31, 2020 (primary analysis), and January 1, 2019, and March 31, 2020 (secondary analysis). The outcome variable was the number of downloads aggregated at the 12-hourly (primary analysis) or daily level (secondary analysis). The explanatory variable was the start of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, operationalized as March 1, 2020 (primary analysis), and January 15, 2020 (secondary analysis). Generalized additive mixed models adjusted for relevant covariates were fitted. RESULTS: Data were collected on 45,105 (primary analysis) and 119,881 (secondary analysis) users. In both analyses, there was no evidence for a step change or increasing trend in downloads attributable to the start of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. Calculation of Bayes factors (BFs) indicated that the data for the primary analysis favored the null hypothesis compared with large associations (for level, BF=0.25; for slope, BF=0.26) but were insensitive to the detection of small associations (for level, BF=0.78; for slope, BF=1.35). CONCLUSIONS: In the United Kingdom, between January 1, 2020, and March 31, 2020, and between January 1, 2019, and March 31, 2020, there was no evidence that the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak has been associated with a large step change or increasing trend in downloads of a popular smoking cessation app. Findings on the association of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak with a small step change or increasing trend were inconclusive.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Aplicativos Móveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fumantes/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Adulto , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Motivação , Pandemias , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
11.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 206: 103062, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442775

RESUMO

A fast-growing literature is establishing how moving in time together has pro-social consequences, though no work to date has explored the persistence of these effects over time. Across two studies, people who had previously performed coordinated movements were over three times more likely to give their time to help their co-actor when asked 24 hours later than those who had performed a similar but uncoordinated task. Findings showed that group-level categorisation, but not social affiliation, partially mediated helping behaviour. This provides preliminary evidence that the pro-social effects of coordination are sustainable over a longer period than previously reported, and that the effects of coordination upon pro-social motivation may be more related to changes in group level categorisations than increased social affiliations.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Ajuda , Relações Interpessoais , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Atenção , Comportamento Cooperativo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Autoimagem , Percepção Social , Adulto Jovem
12.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO5268, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428066

RESUMO

Objective To evaluate the effect of an interdisciplinary intervention with a motivational approach on exercise capacity and usual physical activity levels in overweight and obese adolescents. Methods This is a randomized, controlled clinical trial with single blinding of subjects. Adolescents aged 15 to 18 years with overweight and obesity (body mass index ≥ 85 percentile) were included. The adolescents were randomized into two groups: interdisciplinary intervention or control - traditional approach aiming at lifestyle modifications. The initial evaluations were carried out, including the cardiopulmonary exercise test and the physical activity level measurement by using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and a pedometer. The evaluations were performed in two moments: time zero (time of inclusion in the study) and after 3 months (end of intervention). There were 12 sessions with weekly meetings. Results A total of 37 participants were included, 19 in the Intervention Group. There were no significant differences in the baseline demographic, anthropometric and physical activity characteristics between groups, with mean age of 17.3±1.0 years in the Control Group, and 16.8±0.9 years in the Intervention Group (p=0.14). The motivational intervention did not cause significant differences (p>0.05) in the comparison of the variables of exercise capacity and usual physical activity (questionnaire and pedometer) between groups. Conclusion The intervention with a motivational approach did not alter exercise capacity and levels of usual physical activity in overweight and obese adolescents. Clinical Trial Registry: NCT02455973 and REBEC: RBR-234nb5.


Assuntos
Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Entrevista Motivacional/métodos , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Teste de Esforço/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Obesidade/psicologia , Obesidade/terapia , Método Simples-Cego , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451596

RESUMO

Digital game-based approaches can be used in the field of prevention and health promotion, for example to promote health-related information or to foster health behavior change. The two most relevant game approaches are "serious games" (games with a serious background) and "gamification" (the application of game-typical elements in nongame contexts). The term serious games is used to describe games that are used to convey serious content, such as health issues. Gamification uses game-design elements such as points, leaderboards, awards, profile design, and team events to increase motivation and performance, for example in learning environments. This narrative article examines the mode of action and study situation as well as the advantages and disadvantages of playful applications in prevention and health promotion and exemplifies some of these applications.Serious games and gamification show great potential in prevention and health promotion. Especially in the case of target groups that are difficult to reach and disinterested, a direct connection to their living environment can be established. The foundations for the effective use of playful approaches in the work and training of health professionals are their already high level of familiarity with the medium of games and that games directly address the basic psychological needs to increase motivation.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Motivação , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia , Alemanha , Humanos , Aprendizagem
15.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Taking an active role in healthcare requires comprehensive health knowledge. One's own online search for health information can contribute to an appropriate information base. Therefore, it seems essential to determine the extent to which online services and health apps are currently used in Germany as well as to analyze which personal and motivational factors influence whether and how often the German public search for health information online or use health apps. METHODS: We conducted an online survey among the German public in a sample stratified by demographic characteristics (N = 3000). The questionnaire measured the health-related use of the Internet and health apps as well as possible personal and motivational factors. The relevance of these factors for explaining the Internet use for health-related purposes was determined by regression analyses. RESULTS: While health-related information searches using the Internet are widespread in Germany, health apps are used less frequently. In particular health information platforms are most frequently used to search for information on disease symptoms. Turning to the Internet for health-related purposes is mainly influenced by motivational factors. Having current health problems and possessing information-seeking skills are particularly influential factors for an individual's Internet use. CONCLUSIONS: In order to unfold the potential associated with health-related online information-seeking behaviors, it is necessary that people are motivated and feel competent to gather online information themselves. In particular, the corresponding skills need to be promoted in order to reduce the risk of increasing informational, health, and social disparities.


Assuntos
Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Alemanha , Humanos , Motivação , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410054

RESUMO

Currently, it is becoming alarmingly clear that pharmaceutical companies are continuously withdrawing from antibiotics research and that there is now a market failure. The future decline in the gross domestic product alone is now estimated in the trillions of US dollars. The predicted number of people who could die in 30 years from resistant germs is an urgent call for action. This paper aims to examine the situation on the basis of possible forms of organization and with the help of individual ideas of the principal-agent approach, a theory from economics that can be used to analyze problems between the principal and agent. The result demonstrates the urgent need for action by the state. The longer the alarming proportions of this development is not fully taken into account in the political decision-making process, the more drastic state measures and fewer available options for action there will be at a later point in time.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Descoberta de Drogas , Marketing , Motivação , Indústria Farmacêutica , Previsões , Alemanha , Fatores de Tempo
19.
J Environ Manage ; 264: 110404, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32364958

RESUMO

Public and nonprofit organizations are at the forefront of water scarcity issues using nonformal educational programs to drive behavior change towards water conservation. The efficacy of educational endeavors hinge on designing and delivering programs with considerations of the factors that will change relevant decisions and behaviors among residential landscape water users. The purpose of this study was to explore the concept of wellness and well-being, and its relationship to engagement in water conservation behaviors. To guide this evaluation, we integrated the theory of planned behavior with relevant tenets of cognitive and social psychology and included the psycho-social constructs of stress, perceived happiness and well-being. We conducted correlational and regression analyses to assess potential relationships. Overall, the results of the study show that each of the three different psycho-social measures behave differently with regards to current and future residential landscape water conservation behaviors. The models show that perceptions of well-being is the more consistent predictor for both current and future behaviors. Perceived happiness only served as a significant predictor for current behaviors. Stress simply demonstrated correlational relationships with current and future behaviors, not serving as a significant predictor. We suggest exploring the possibility of pairing and embedding educational programs focused on personal and family well-being with educational programs focused on environmental behavior. When we consider water conservation behavior as a function of more than knowledge and motivation, we can broaden our understanding of this behavior as a socially embedded experience.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos , Motivação , Comportamento Social
20.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(1)2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253889

RESUMO

We aimed to evaluate the effects of stage-matched repeated individual behavioural counselling (RIBCS) on the basis of the transtheoretical model (TTM) as an intervention to reduce and stop smoking. This study was conducted over a period of one year where all smokers presenting to a chest clinic in a tertiary centre were enrolled, each was classified on the basis of stage of readiness to change and underwent repeated counselling for a period of six months and each session was preceded and succeeded with filling of Fagerstorm test for nicotine dependence. Over the period of a year, 207 patients participated in this study, the mean age was 50.74±14.74 years; mean duration of tobacco use was 29.43±14.72 years; 64.3% were illiterate, 11.6% primary education, 14.1% were matric and while 10.1% were graduate. About 73% of smokers reported high level of nicotine dependence (FTND score >5/10). In the present study mean dependence score was 6.0±1.96; 44 (21.3%) were in pre-contemplation stage, 93 (44.9%) were in contemplation, 57 (27.5%) were in preparation and 13 (6.3%) were in action. The point prevalence excellence rate in follow up-I was 15%, follow up-II was 35.3% and follow up-III was 61.9% which was statistically significant. When we took both abstinence and reduction in smoking behaviour as one, p-value was <0.05. The point prevalence of abstinence rate (questionnaire validated) 1 month to 6 months was almost 4 times. Our intervention (RIBCS) succeeded in increasing the abstinence rates during the study period among smokers with a lower motivation to quit (pre-contemplators and contemplators) as well as those ready to quit (preparators). This is significant because of most existing smoking-cessation interventions target only motivated smokers, with few having a positive effect in smokers with a lower motivation to quit.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Fumar/terapia , Tabagismo/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Aconselhamento/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Estudos Prospectivos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tabagismo/complicações , Tabagismo/diagnóstico , Tabagismo/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
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