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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(33): e21552, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individual researchers' achievements (IRA) are determined by both personal publications and article citations such as Author Impact Factor, h-index, and x-index. Due to those indicators not truly supporting a normal distribution, the traditional t-test and Analysis of variance are not allowed for RA comparison in groups. The objective of this study is to use the bootstrapping method to verify whether hospital physicians have different h-indexes. METHODS: We downloaded 63,266 journal articles with their corresponding citations for 2128 researchers from a Taiwan university website on December 10, 2019. Their IRAs were assessed using the bibliometric h-index. A pyramid plot was used to compare the h-index patterns between institutes. The x-index and the Kano model were found to be complemental to the h-index for identifying the group IRA characteristics and rankings, including colleges and departments in the university study, the School of Medicine, and the Affiliated Hospital. The bootstrapping method was applied with an estimated 95% confidence interval (CI) to distinguish the differences in physicians between the Internal Medicine and Surgery departments. The stronger-than-the-next coefficient (SC) for the highest represents the RA strength. RESULTS: The highest h-indices were found in the College of Engineering, School of Medicine, and the Department of Internal Medicine in groups of colleges (SC = 0.71), all departments (SC = 0.83), the School of Medicine (SC = 0.74), and the Affiliated Hospital (SC = 0.56), respectively. No difference in h-index for hospital physicians was found between departments in Internal Medicine (Mean = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.02,3.26) and Surgery (mean = 2.5, 95%CI = 1.48, 3.52). CONCLUSIONS: The x-index and the Kano models can complement the h-index for identifying group IRA characteristics. The bootstrapping method allows estimation of the sampling distribution for almost any statistic using random sampling methods and gains measures of accuracy (as defined by 95% CI). The finding of no difference in h-index for hospital physicians between departments in Internal Medicine and Surgery requires further investigation in the future.


Assuntos
Logro , Médicos Hospitalares , Publicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Bibliometria , Humanos
2.
J Med Life ; 13(2): 229-234, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32742519

RESUMO

Environmental tobacco smoke, containing many toxic gases, suggests inevitable contact of humans with the damaging factors of cigarettes. On average, approximately 40% of children, 35% of women and 32% of men worldwide are exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. This study aims at investigating the relationship between environmental tobacco smoke in adolescents and their educational self-regulation and achievement. In this study, 770 students aged between 13 and 15 were selected and studied using the multistage sampling method. The tools used in this study consisted of four questionnaires, demographic characteristics, environmental tobacco smoke, educational self-regulation, and educational achievement. The validity and reliability of tools have been approved, and the data were analyzed using SPSS v22. The results indicated a significant inverse relationship between environmental tobacco smoke and students' educational self-regulation and achievement (p-value > 0.001). Given the relationship between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and educational self-regulation and achievement, it is essential to keep children away from tobacco smoke. Family health and education policy-makers are recommended to design and operate fundamental schemes in order to deal with environmental tobacco smoke.


Assuntos
Logro , Autocontrole , Estudantes , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
J Environ Manage ; 272: 111077, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854884

RESUMO

China needs to balance between current population pressures and a vulnerable marine environment, creating a national, political outline or management strategy dubbed an ecological civilization construction. The nation's effort to protect and maintain a sustainable ocean and address the relevant economic, resource and environmental issues relies on Marine Ecological Civilization (MEC) construction. The quantification of MEC progress is essential to track the management performance and guide the subsequent development and implementation. This study evaluates the performance of China's MEC from 2006 to 2016 based on a comprehensive index system. Our findings are as follows: During 2006-2016, the overall MEC performance score increased from 0.3426 to 0.4850 nationwide. Large space-time variations exist among the eleven coastal regions. The Shandong and Guangdong regions showed relatively good performances, whereas the Jiangsu, Guangxi and Shanghai regions had low scores. A decade long change in MEC scores showed that Hebei achieved the largest increase ratio. Marine management was improved by implementing various conservation strategies by China's government. Marine education and human talent introduction deserve more attention in less developed areas such as Hainan and Guangxi, and poor marine environmental quality was an urgent issue of the Yangtze river estuary economic zone. More accessible marine monitoring dataset are needed to track future space-time progress dynamics towards MEC construction. Our results provide a decade long retrospect of China's MEC achievements, and the quantified evaluation for each coastal region can provide valuable insight to policy-makers.


Assuntos
Civilização , Biologia Marinha , Logro , China , Humanos , Dinâmica Populacional
4.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e180, 2020 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772967

RESUMO

Osiurak and Reynaud highlight a major omission of models of cumulative technological culture. I propose an additional problematic omission: pride. By taking this emotion into account, we can address the question of why humans seek to learn, teach, and innovate - three processes essential to cumulative technological culture (CTC). By fostering achievement, prestige, and social learning, pride provides a pivotal piece of the puzzle.


Assuntos
Logro , Emoções , China , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Resolução de Problemas
5.
Nephrol Nurs J ; 47(3): 259-265, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639128

RESUMO

New nurse managers and nurses who wish to transition into management positions often look for guidance in improving their skills for the next level and to succeed in the job. This article provides guidelines and pragmatic advice for those who aspire to become a manager, started in their management role recently, and want to become successful in their current role and beyond.


Assuntos
Logro , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Enfermeiras Administradoras , Humanos
6.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 23(6): 541-544, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521971

RESUMO

With the worldwide adoption of minimally invasive surgery, innovation again becomes the theme. In the past hundred years, molecular biology technology, minimally invasive surgery technology, pharmaceutical research and therapies have been constantly innovated to promote the development of medicine. As the subject of medical innovation, the innovative idea from medical staff is also very important. For surgeons, the invention and improvement of a new operation or surgical instrument directly depends on curiosity and exploration. Whether a novel idea or technology can be transformed and used in clinical practice depends on its commercial prospects and the adjustment of macro health policies. The protection of intellectual property and appropriate distribution of interests are the key to ensure sustainable innovation. We should put scientific and technological innovation and achievement transformation in the important position of the "healthy China" strategy, take scientific and technological innovation as the basis and achievements transformation as the means, promote the development of China's health protection, implement the healthy China strategy, and make our own contribution to provide people with all-round health services.


Assuntos
Invenções , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/tendências , Logro , Pesquisa Biomédica , Tecnologia Biomédica , China , Humanos , Propriedade Intelectual
7.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 23(6): 545-549, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521972

RESUMO

The transformation of medical science and technology achievements is of great practical significance for improving the medical standard of our country and promoting the health and well-being of the people. However, China's medical science and technology achievements transformation ecosystem is still immature. Each subject in the system has insufficient cognition of their roles, unclear division of responsibilities, and imperfect system guarantees, resulting in the obstacle of scientific and technological achievements that can truly be transformed into actual productivity. In order to further deepen the understanding and thinking of the current status of China's medical science and technology achievement transformation ecosystem, the opportunities and challenges it faces, to find an optimized path that conforms to the situation in China today, we combine our own production, teaching and research achievement transformation practice, summarize the composition and existing problems of the current system subjects, analyze the plight and outlet of doctors, hoping to provide help and reference for the transformation of scientific and technological achievements to our peer doctors.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Invenções , Logro , Tecnologia Biomédica , China , Humanos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234685, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584838

RESUMO

In spite of efforts to increase gender diversity across many science fields, women continue to encounter beliefs that they lack ability and talent. Undergraduate education is a critical time when peer influence may alter choice of majors and careers for women interested in science. Even in life science courses, in which women outnumber men, gender biases that emerge in peer-to-peer interactions during coursework may detract from women's interest and progress. This is the first study of which we are aware to document that women are outperforming men in both physical and life science undergraduate courses at the same institution, while simultaneously continuing to be perceived as less-able students. This is problematic because undergraduate women may not be able to escape gender-ability stereotypes even when they are outperforming men, which has important implications for 1) the recognition of women's achievements among their peers in undergraduate education and 2) retention of women in STEM disciplines and careers.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Engenharia/educação , Matemática/educação , Ciência/educação , Estudantes , Tecnologia/educação , Logro , Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/educação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(25): 14066-14072, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522882

RESUMO

Many attractive jobs in today's world require people to take on new challenges and figure out how to master them. As with any challenging goal, this involves systematic strategy use. Here we ask: Why are some people more likely to take a strategic stance toward their goals, and can this tendency be cultivated? To address these questions, we introduce the idea of a domain-general "strategic mindset." This mindset involves asking oneself strategy-eliciting questions, such as "What can I do to help myself?", "How else can I do this?", or "Is there a way to do this even better?", in the face of challenges or insufficient progress. In three studies (n = 864), people who scored higher on (or were primed with) a strategic mindset reported using more metacognitive strategies; in turn, they obtained higher college grade point averages (GPAs) (Study 1); reported greater progress toward their professional, educational, health, and fitness goals (Study 2); and responded to a challenging timed laboratory task by practicing it more and performing it faster (Study 3). We differentiated a strategic mindset from general self-efficacy, self-control, grit, and growth mindsets and showed that it explained unique variance in people's use of metacognitive strategies. These findings suggest that being strategic entails more than just having specific metacognitive skills-it appears to also entail an orientation toward seeking and employing them.


Assuntos
Logro , Objetivos , Metacognição/classificação , Desempenho Acadêmico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autoeficácia , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233542, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484833

RESUMO

Identifying children who are at-risk for developmental delay, so that these children can have access to interventions as early as possible, is an important and challenging problem in developmental research. This research aimed to identify latent subgroups of children with developmental delay, by modelling and clustering developmental milestones. The main objectives were to (a) create a developmental profile for each child by modelling milestone achievements, from birth to three years of age, across multiple domains of development, and (b) cluster the profiles to identify groups of children who show similar deviations from typical development. The ensemble methodology used in this research consisted of three components: (1) Bayesian sequential updating was used to model the achievement of milestones, which allows for updated predictions of development to be made in real time; (2) a measure was created that indicated how far away each child deviated from typical development for each functional domain, by calculating the area between each child's obtained sequence of posterior means and a sequence of posterior means representing typical development; and (3) Dirichlet process mixture modelling was used to cluster the obtained areas. The data used were 348 binary developmental milestone measurements, collected from birth to three years of age, from a small community sample of young children (N = 79). The model identified nine latent groups of children with similar features, ranging from no delays in all functional domains, to large delays in all domains. The performance of the Dirichlet process mixture model was validated with two simulation studies.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/classificação , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/classificação , Logro , Algoritmos , Austrália , Teorema de Bayes , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Análise por Conglomerados , Bases de Dados Factuais , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos
11.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232061, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior research has shown that individuals with experience of out-of-home care (foster family care or residential care) in childhood are educationally disadvantaged compared to their peers. In order to be better equipped to design interventions aimed at improving the educational outcomes of children for whom society has assumed responsibility, this study seeks to further our understanding about which factors that contribute to the educational disparities throughout the life course. METHODS: Using longitudinal data from a cohort of more than 13,000 Swedes, of which around 7% have childhood experience of out-of-home care, Peters-Belson decomposition is utilized to quantify the extent to which the gap in educational achievement in school (age 16) and midlife educational attainment (age 50) captures differences in the prevalence of factors influencing educational outcomes, and differences in the impacts between these factors. RESULTS: We find that the achievement and the attainment gap was around 13% and 9% respectively. These gaps were to a large extent explained by differences in the distribution of predictors. The major explanatory factor for placed children's lower achievement was a lower average cognitive ability. Yet there were some evidence that the rewards of cognitive ability in these children differed across the life course. While the lower returns of cognitive ability suggest that they were underperforming in compulsory school, the higher returns of cognitive ability on midlife attainment indicate that-given previous underperformance-their attainment at age 50 reflects their cognitive capacity more accurately than their achievement at age 16 do. CONCLUSION: The large influence of the unequal distribution of predictors suggests that policy efforts are needed to promote equity in the distribution of factors contributing to educational achievement and attainment. Since cognitive ability was found to be an important contributory factor, such efforts may include promoting cognitive and intellectual development among children in out-of-home care, preferably starting at a young age.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Logro , Comportamento Infantil , Serviços de Proteção Infantil/estatística & dados numéricos , Bem-Estar da Criança/psicologia , Cuidados no Lar de Adoção/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231381, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32310988

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence that several factors, including both cognitive and non-cognitive ones, play an important role in mathematics achievement. Relatively little is known about how socio-emotional features and the quality of the student-teacher relationship correlate with mathematics achievement among adolescents in transition to middle school. The aim of the present study is to examine the role of cognitive factors (general cognitive abilities), non-cognitive factors (math anxiety and self-esteem), and the quality of the student-teacher relationship on mathematics achievement. A large sample of Italian sixth graders was evaluated upon entering middle school. The results showed that general cognitive ability was the best predictor of mathematics achievement. As regards non-cognitive factors, the level of math anxiety was effective in predicting mathematics achievement, after controlling for other measures including self-esteem and the quality of the student-teacher relationship. In particular, we found that the quality of the student-teacher relationship had an indirect influence on mathematics achievement through the mediation of math anxiety. Our findings seem to indicate that the quality of the student-teacher relationship may be related to mathematics achievement, through its effects on math anxiety. This may have important implications for practitioners and educators, as we can suggest that interventions devoted to improving the quality of the student-teacher relationship may play a positive role in both preventing math anxiety and promoting mathematics learning.


Assuntos
Logro , Cognição , Matemática , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Ansiedade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Autoimagem
13.
J Rehabil Med ; 52(4): jrm00054, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32286676

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of goal attainment scaling outcomes with change in the Func-tional Independence Measure, and the association between the perceived importance, difficulty and degree of achievement of individual goals in general inpatient rehabilitation. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 208 participants admitted to inpatient rehabilitation in a metropolitan tertiary referral hospital in Melbourne, Australia. METHODS: Participants determined the nature of the goals and their importance, and therapists determined the difficulty of the goals. The associations were investigated using median regression and random effect ordinal regression. RESULTS: An increase of each point in the goal attainment scaling score was associated with an adjusted median increase of 0.34 points (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.18-0.5, p < 0.001) in Functional Independence Measure change. More important goals of similar difficulty (very important vs a little important: adjusted common odds ratio (cOR) = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.01-3.83, p = 0.045) and less difficult goals of similar importance (moderately difficult vs a little difficult cOR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.04-0.87, p = 0.007; very difficult vs a little difficult cOR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.37-0.94, p = 0.027) were better achieved. CONCLUSION: Rehabilitation progress measured using the goal attainment scaling method is associated with changes in functional outcomes. For goals with similar difficulty, those with higher importance were better achieved, while for goals with similar importance, less difficult goals were better achieved.


Assuntos
Dependência Psicológica , Objetivos , Pacientes Internados/psicologia , Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Logro , Adulto , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Regressão , Centros de Reabilitação , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231568, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302343

RESUMO

Injury prevention is critical to the achievement of peak performance in elite sport. For professional tennis players, the topic of injury prevention has gained even greater importance in recent years as multiple of the best male players have been sidelined owing to injury. Identifying potential causative factors of injury is essential for the development of effective prevention strategies, yet such research is hampered by incomplete data, the complexity of injury etiology, and observational study biases. The present study attempts to address these challenges by focusing on competition load and time-loss to competition-a completely observable risk factor and outcome-and using a structural nested mean model (SNMM) to identify the potential causal role of cumulative competition load on the risk of time-loss. Using inverse probability of treatment weights to balance exposure histories with respect to player ability, past injury, and consecutive competition weeks at each time point; the SNMM analysis of 389 professional male players and 55,773 weeks of competition found that total load significantly increases the risk of time-loss (HR = 1.05 per 1,000 games of additional load 95% CI 1.01-1.10) and this effect becomes magnified with age. Standard regression showed a protective effect of load, highlighting the value of more robust causal methods in the study of dynamic exposures and injury in sport and the need for further applications of these methods for understanding how time-loss and injuries of elite athletes might be prevented in the future.


Assuntos
Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Modelos Biológicos , Tênis/estatística & dados numéricos , Logro , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Atletas/psicologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Comportamento Competitivo , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Tênis/fisiologia , Tênis/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo
15.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232075, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343722

RESUMO

In its December 2019 edition, the Notices of the American Mathematical Society published an essay critical of the use of diversity statements in academic hiring. The publication of this essay prompted many responses, including three public letters circulated within the mathematical sciences community. Each letter was signed by hundreds of people and was published online, also by the American Mathematical Society. We report on a study of the signatories' demographics, which we infer using a crowdsourcing approach. Letter A highlights diversity and social justice. The pool of signatories contains relatively more individuals inferred to be women and/or members of underrepresented ethnic groups. Moreover, this pool is diverse with respect to the levels of professional security and types of academic institutions represented. Letter B does not comment on diversity, but rather, asks for discussion and debate. This letter was signed by a strong majority of individuals inferred to be white men in professionally secure positions at highly research intensive universities. Letter C speaks out specifically against diversity statements, calling them "a mistake," and claiming that their usage during early stages of faculty hiring "diminishes mathematical achievement." Individuals who signed both Letters B and C, that is, signatories who both privilege debate and oppose diversity statements, are overwhelmingly inferred to be tenured white men at highly research intensive universities. Our empirical results are consistent with theories of power drawn from the social sciences.


Assuntos
Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Seleção de Pessoal/ética , Sociedades Científicas/organização & administração , Logro , Crowdsourcing , Diversidade Cultural , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Matemática , Seleção de Pessoal/legislação & jurisprudência , Justiça Social , Sociedades Científicas/ética , Estados Unidos , Universidades
16.
J Dent Educ ; 84(4): 458-463, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314391

RESUMO

As the number of students with recognized learning disabilities who are pursuing higher education increases, strategies for success become important. The aim of this mixed-methods study was to gather from U.S. dental students with learning disabilities information about their preferred learning styles and strategies to achieve the objectives of their academic programs. Data were collected in 2018 from a sample of 11 dental students who were members of the National Dental Association. Data collection was done with the Kolb's Learning Style Index (LSI) version 3.1 and a six-item, open-ended questionnaire. The results showed that assimilated learning was the most common learning style of these students in the preclinical and clinical phases, as measured by the LSI v. 3.1. The majority of the students believed their style of learning had not changed from the preclinical to the clinical phase of their education. Participants perceived that learning was best accomplished by adapting to the professor's teaching style, but they reported positive benefits of having accommodations in the classroom including extended testing time, recorded lectures, and transcribed notes. This study demonstrated that students with learning disabilities were pursuing dental careers and they preferred certain types of educational methodologies. These findings suggest that dental schools would do well to continue to welcome students with learning disabilities and accommodate their learning needs.


Assuntos
Deficiências da Aprendizagem , Estudantes de Odontologia , Logro , Cognição , Humanos , Aprendizagem
17.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230103, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315301

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to examine the implication of the differences in autonomous and controlled motivation specificity in their relationships with student's grades. The school-subject-specificity hypothesis postulates that the more autonomous the regulation is, the more specific to a school subject it is. 579 junior high school children were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing their motivation at the academic level as well as at the situational level (i.e., French, mathematics, English, and physical education), both simultaneously. As expected, results from structural equation modeling revealed that autonomous motivation was more specific to the situational level than controlled motivation. Moreover, results showed that the more specific the regulations are, the more relationships with students' grades can be found. Therefore, this study offers a new understanding of previous results between autonomous and controlled regulations with grades and of the relationships between academic self-concepts, academic achievement and motivation.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Logro , Modelos Teóricos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Masculino
18.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231246, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275676

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous research has studied the influence of physical fitness on academic achievement through executive functions. However, the nature of this relationship remains unclear. This study aimed to analyze how cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and executive functions are associated with academic achievement and to examine whether the relationship between CRF and academic achievement is mediated by executive functions in schoolchildren. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study including 570 schoolchildren, aged 8 to 11 years, from Cuenca, Spain. Data were collected from September to October 2017. Sociodemographic variables, family socioeconomic status, pubertal status, academic achievement, CRF (20-meter shuttle run test) and executive functions (inhibition, cognitive flexibility and working memory, NIH Toolbox battery in Spanish, v 1.8; iPad Pro, Apple, Inc.) were measured. RESULTS: Overall, ANCOVA models controlling for age, gender and mother educational level showed higher scores in language and mathematics in children in higher categories of CRF, inhibition, cognitive flexibility and working memory than in children in lower categories. The effect sizes were moderate (p < 0.05, partial eta squared: from 0.05 to 0.12). Moreover, the mediation analysis showed that inhibition partially mediated the relationship between CRF and language (c' = 0.058; IC = [0.005; 0.028]) and mathematics (c' = 0.064; IC = [0.005; 0.030]) grades. Similarly, cognitive flexibility mediated CRF's relationship with language (c' = 0.059; IC = [0.003; 0.028]) and with mathematics (c' = 0.066; IC = [0.003; 0.029]); however, a significant relationship remained. For working memory, mediation analysis showed no significant results (c' = 0.92; IC = [-0.002;0.025] P > 0.05 in language; c' = 0.103; IC = [-0.002;0.029] P > 0.05 in mathematics). Mediation ranged from 13.38% to 36%. CONCLUSIONS: Children in higher categories of both CRF and executive function showed higher grades in mathematics and language. The findings indicated that a significant proportion of the positive influence of CRF on academic achievement was mediated by improvements in inhibition and cognitive flexibility. Thus, this study supports the hypothesis that improvements in CRF may contribute to increasing academic achievement not only through a direct mechanism but also through improvements in executive functions.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Logro , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo , Modelos Psicológicos , Espanha
19.
J Sports Sci ; 38(13): 1531-1538, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252597

RESUMO

We quantified the peak age of judokas during the World Championships (WC) and Olympic Games (OG) according to sex, weight category and competitive achievement and determined the relationship between competition year and athlete age. A retrospective study including 12,005 athletes who took part in the last 16 WC and 6 OG. Athletes were divided by sex, weight category and competitive achievement. Overall, females were younger than males, and older athletes competed at the OG compared to the WC. A weight category effect was also observed, with lighter athletes being younger than heavier athletes (p < 0.05). A competitive achievement effect was found for females, with athletes being defeated in the eliminatory phases being younger than those advancing further in the competitions (p < 0.05). Significant associations (p < 0.05) were shown between competition year and age category for males at the WC and for females at both the WC and OG. In general, lighter athletes are younger than heavier ones (p < 0.05). No difference in age was found  between males concerning their competitive achievement in WC and OG, whereas younger females are defeated in the eliminatory phases (p < 0.05).


Assuntos
Logro , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Artes Marciais/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Sports Sci Med ; 19(1): 10-19, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132823

RESUMO

The coach-rating scale for Achievement-Motivated Behavior in Individual Sports (AMBIS-I) was constructed to measure achievement motivation, not from athletes' own views but from coaches' perspectives. The tool was already checked for reliability as well as content, factorial, and concurrent criterion validity (Zuber and Conzelmann, 2019). To further establish construct and criterion validity, two different samples were involved. Sample 1 included 67 experienced coaches rating their 278 athletes on the three AMBIS-I dimensions proactivity, ambition and commitment. In sample 2, 157 athletes completed self-report questionnaires measuring motivational and volitional concepts. Congruent and discriminant construct validity were assessed using the QCV-procedure (Westen and Rosenthal, 2003) by comparing experts' predicted and empirically observed correlations between the coaches' ratings on the AMBIS-I with the self-ratings of validated instruments. Consistent with theoretical expectations, achievement goal orientations, self-determination and self-optimization show significant positive relationships to the AMBIS-I scales, the negatively formulated volitional concepts, negative ones. As indicated by the 0.87 ≤ ralerting-CV ≤ 0.95, the general patterns of the expert's predictions triangulate consistently with the observed correlations. The findings concerning absolute agreement were mixed. Even though the ICCs suggest sufficient to good consistency, the values of rcontrast-CV are considerably lower. To indicate criterion validity, AMBIS-I display medium to large correlations with the actual performance level estimated by the coaches and small to medium correlations with the assigned potential for subsequent success one year later. In summary, we found solid indications, that AMBIS-I is a valid measure of achievement-motivated behavior in individual sports from coaches' perspective.


Assuntos
Logro , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Tutoria , Motivação/fisiologia , Esportes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Aptidão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato
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