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1.
Ecol Lett ; 23(1): 149-159, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692246

RESUMO

Conflicts of interests between males and females over reproduction is a universal feature of sexually reproducing organisms and has driven the evolution of intersexual mimicry, mating behaviours and reproductive polymorphisms. Here, we show how temperature drives pre-reproductive selection in a female colour polymorphic insect that is subject to strong sexual conflict. These species have three female colour morphs, one of which is a male mimic. This polymorphism is maintained by frequency-dependent sexual conflict caused by male mating harassment. The frequency of female morphs varies geographically, with higher frequency of the male mimic at higher latitudes. We show that differential temperature sensitivity of the female morphs and faster sexual maturation of the male mimic increases the frequency of this morph in the north. These results suggest that sexual conflict during the adult stage is shaped by abiotic factors and frequency-independent pre-reproductive selection that operate earlier during ontogeny of these female morphs.


Assuntos
Polimorfismo Genético , Reprodução , Animais , Impulso (Psicologia) , Feminino , Insetos , Masculino , Temperatura
2.
Science ; 366(6469): 1077-1078, 2019 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780546
3.
Behav Processes ; 168: 103944, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472169

RESUMO

In the terrestrial crustacean Armadillidium vulgare, a large size range exists in natural populations within which males and females could potentially mate. Because of continuous growth far beyond sexual maturity, the largest individuals can be nearly ten times the live mass of the smallest sexually mature individuals. In this study, we explored the influence of male and female body mass on the mating behaviour and success. Starting with a representative panel of males and females in which females are significantly larger than males in average, we followed the sexual behaviour of 23 groups of 20 mixed-sex virgin animals under conditions comparable with natural field situation during the early breeding season. We found a correlation between paired individuals showing an assortative pairing. During pairing male stimulates female and duration of stimulation is determinant for pairing follow-up: efficient stimulation is correlated with female size and not with male size. In consequence, pairs in mating show a reversed size dimorphism between male and female where female are about 20% smaller. Largest females were not mated. During copulation behaviour, the quantity of sperm transferred is positively correlated with copulation duration. Stored sperm can be used for immediate breeding by the female and stored in the spermatheca for future breeding. The last option allows to largest females in the field to continue breeding without additional mating, avoiding the lack of availability of large males able to stimulate them efficiently.


Assuntos
Tatus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peso Corporal , Impulso (Psicologia) , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Contagem de Espermatozoides
4.
J Athl Train ; 54(10): 1021-1029, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532693

RESUMO

Data on the psychosocial implications of sport specialization in pediatric athletes are lacking. Sport specialization often requires increased training hours and may predispose young athletes to social isolation, poor academic performance, increased anxiety, greater stress, inadequate sleep, decreased family time, and burnout. Sport specialization frequently introduces multiple stressors that could be expected to adversely affect mental health and function in young athletes and may increase the risk for burnout. This may be confounded by altered sleep duration and quality, increased drive for elite status, and perfectionistic personality types. The signs and symptoms of burnout in young athletes can be difficult to detect. It is important to be aware of the possible diagnosis of burnout in young athletes who display vague symptoms and a decrease in academic performance. The purpose of this review was to survey the available literature on sport specialization in young athletes and its association with mental health, sleep, the drive for success in sport, and burnout.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Psicológico , Especialização , Esportes Juvenis/psicologia , Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Adolescente , Atletas/psicologia , Esgotamento Psicológico/etiologia , Esgotamento Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Esgotamento Psicológico/psicologia , Criança , Impulso (Psicologia) , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Higiene do Sono
5.
Body Image ; 30: 212-220, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377478

RESUMO

The present study evaluated whether individuals with varying levels of trait body image flexibility differ in the severity, variability, and correlates of state body dissatisfaction experienced in their daily lives. One hundred and forty-seven women completed a baseline measure of trait body image flexibility, followed by a 7-day ecological momentary assessment phase in which participants self-reported state body dissatisfaction, disordered eating behavior, drive for thinness, and appearance comparisons at 10 semi-random intervals daily. Higher trait body image flexibility predicted lower average scores, less frequent reporting of high state body dissatisfaction, and less variability in their state body dissatisfaction ratings. Individuals with higher trait body image flexibility were also less likely to engage in a range of behaviors and cognitions previously shown to produce body dissatisfaction, including upward appearance comparisons, drive for thinness, binge eating, and dieting. However, few of these state-based relationships involving body dissatisfaction and these related behaviors and cognitions were moderated by trait body image flexibility. Overall, this pattern of findings suggests that body image flexible individuals may have less negative body image because they are less inclined to engage in behaviors and cognitions in their daily lives that encourage negative body image.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Impulso (Psicologia) , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Personalidade , Magreza/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
6.
Eat Behav ; 35: 101319, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446165

RESUMO

Weight status misperception is related to disordered eating outcomes, but little research has explored the differential impacts of misperception directionality, nor factors that explain these relationships. Self-Discrepancy Theory applied to body image gives a framework to how weight status over-perception may prompt a drive for thinness, which in turn may be important in the development of disordered eating cognitions and behaviors. AIMS: To that end, the current study tested whether drive for thinness may account for the association between direction of weight status misperception and disordered eating behaviors. METHODS: Young adults (N = 522) completed measures identifying weight status perception (accurate, under-, and over-perception), drive for thinness, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors (appearance satisfaction, restrained, uncontrolled, and emotional eating). Indirect effect models with drive for thinness entered as the intervening variable were estimated for each outcome. RESULTS: Drive for thinness accounted for the associations between weight status misperception and all outcomes. In general, compared to either accurate or under-perception, over-perception of weight status was associated with more disordered eating attitudes and behaviors via higher drive for thinness. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with Self-Discrepancy Theory, drive for thinness emerged as a possible mechanism of the association between weight status misperception and disordered eating outcomes. Findings suggest potential utility in targeting drive for thinness, as opposed to accuracy of weight status perception, for prevention of disordered eating attitudes and behaviors, including those that may contribute to weight gain.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Impulso (Psicologia) , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Magreza/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Teoria Psicológica , Adulto Jovem
7.
Body Image ; 30: 114-120, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238276

RESUMO

The Functionality Appreciation Scale (FAS; Alleva et al., 2017) is a 7-item measure of an individual's appreciation of their body for what it can do and is capable of doing. To date, its psychometric properties have not been examined beyond the parent study and outside English-speaking samples. To rectify this, we examined the psychometric properties of a Bahasa Malaysia (Malay) translation of the FAS. An online sample of 815 Malaysia citizens completed a Malay translation of the FAS, along with validated measures of body appreciation, weight discrepancy, drive for muscularity, perceived pressure from and internalisation of appearance ideals, self-esteem, and trait mindfulness. Exploratory factor analyses supported a 1-dimensional factor structure of FAS scores, which was upheld using confirmatory factor analysis. FAS scores were also invariant across sex and there was no significant sex difference in scores. Construct validity was generally supported through significant associations with the additional measures included in the study. Incremental validity was also established insofar as functionality appreciation predicted self-esteem over-and-above the variance accounted for by other body image measures. The availability of the Malay FAS will be of use to scholars in Malaysia, but establishing cross-linguistic invariance will be an important next step.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Autoimagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Peso Corporal , Impulso (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Plena , Psicometria/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Sexuais , Traduções , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 117(4): 697-720, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233318

RESUMO

People pursue goals throughout their lives, and many of these attempts end happily-a goal is achieved. However, what facilitates the continuation of behaviors that are aligned with the completed goal, such as continuing to monitor food intake after completing a diet program? The results of 6 studies involving over 1,600 people across cultures and samples (executives in Africa, dieters in a 7-day food diary program, exercisers in a 14-day walking program, and college students) demonstrated that construing an achieved goal as a journey one has completed (compared with an alternative metaphor of having reached a destination, or a no-metaphor control) led to a greater likelihood of people continuing behaviors aligned with this attained goal. These findings demonstrated how shifting people's focus of a metaphor (i.e., focusing on the journey vs. the destination part of a completed path) can lead to consequentially different perceptions and behaviors. We isolated a mechanism for why people would continue goal-aligned behaviors after attaining their specific goals-enhanced perceptions of personal growth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Logro , Impulso (Psicologia) , Objetivos , Metáfora , Motivação , Adulto , África , Atenção , Atitude , Comparação Transcultural , Dieta Redutora/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Felicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Eat Weight Disord ; 24(4): 661-670, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243740

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Adolescent men have been identified as a risk population to develop eating disorders and other psychopathologies as drive for muscularity (DM) recently considered as muscularity-oriented disordered eating. It is important to identify risk factors as precursors of these pathologies. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of developing disordered eating behaviors (DEB) and DM and its relationship with anthropometric indicators and physical activity (PA) in adolescent men (high-school students, age 15-19) from Hidalgo, Mexico. METHODS: A cross sectional, descriptive, and correlational field study was carried out in a non-probabilistic sample of 267 Mexican adolescents aged 15-19 years. Participants completed measures of DM, DEB, and PA. Each subject was weighted and heighted to calculate body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, and fat-free mass index (FFMI). RESULTS: Adolescents in the DM risk category (OR 8.28, CI 2.71-25.22) had significantly greater odds of developing DEB, while adolescents with higher BMI scores (OR 1.28, CI 1.14-1.45) tended to be more likely of developing DEB. The results showed that DEB and moderate PA were associated with DM; adolescents who engaged in DEB had an 8.64 times (CI 3.05-24.52) higher risk of developing DM. Participants classified in the category of highest moderate PA (OR 2.66, CI 1.26-5.59) had significantly greater odds of developing DM. CONCLUSION: Important percentages of the risk of developing DEB and DM were determined in Mexican adolescent men. In agreement with other findings, there were no associations between anthropometric indicators and DM. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: V, descriptive cross-sectional study.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Impulso (Psicologia) , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Músculo Esquelético , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , México , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Eat Weight Disord ; 24(4): 653-660, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065974

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to explore the relative contributions of self-blame and internalized shame to variability in disordered eating and drive for muscularity scores in collegiate men. METHOD: One hundred and sixty-eight male college students in the Rocky Mountain region of the USA completed valid and reliable self-report survey measures: the Drive for Muscularity Scale, the Internalized Shame Scale, the Shame and Guilt Eating Scale to assess self-blame, and the Eating Attitudes Test. Cross-sectional data were analyzed through descriptive, correlation, and regression statistics. RESULTS: Men who reported higher levels of self-blame, r = 0.39, p < 0.001, and internalized shame, r = 0.38, p < 0.001, also reported higher levels of eating disorder symptomology. Similarly, men who scored higher on internalized shame, r = 0.20, p < 0.01, reported higher scores on drive for muscularity. Regression analyses revealed that internalized shame was the sole contributor to variability in drive for muscularity scores, ß = 0.20, p < 0.01, whereas both self-blame, ß = 0.27, p < 0.001, and internalized shame, ß = 0.24, p < 0.001, contributed to scores on disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in men. CONCLUSIONS: Our study was the first to examine how internalized shame and self-blame relate to drive for muscularity and disordered eating in collegiate men. Our results suggest that both self-blame and internalized shame may contribute to disordered eating in men. Additionally, internalized shame appears to relate to drive for muscularity in men. Clinicians may wish to consider how they approach treatment given the potential contributions of internalized shame and self-blame to disordered eating in their male clients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level V, cross-sectional descriptive study.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Impulso (Psicologia) , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Músculo Esquelético , Vergonha , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
13.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e55, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940258

RESUMO

Low-income environments have been associated with greater levels of impulsive behavior, which contribute to the higher debt and obesity rates that further perpetuate current wealth and health disparities. In this commentary, we describe how this might be explained by an appeal to "incentive hope" and the motivational drive toward consumption triggered by the future uncertainty these groups face.


Assuntos
Comportamento Impulsivo , Motivação , Impulso (Psicologia) , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Incerteza
14.
Cancer Res ; 79(6): 1036-1037, 2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877099

RESUMO

While many molecular alterations in glioblastoma (GBM), the most common primary malignant brain tumor, have been defined, the intricate signaling networks associated with these alterations that represent actionable therapeutic targets are less well established. Chen and colleagues leverage a Drosophila GBM model to identify a conserved signaling axis downstream of the EGFR and PI3K that involves the death-associated protein kinase (Drak), a cytoplasmic serine/threonine kinase orthologous to the human kinase STK17A. Functional studies revealed that targeting this signaling axis attenuated mitosis and cytokinesis, providing a new pathway for therapeutic development in GBM.See related article by Chen et al., p. 1085.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioblastoma , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Impulso (Psicologia) , Gansos , Humanos , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases , Transdução de Sinais
15.
Cancer Discov ; 9(3): 326-328, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824487

RESUMO

In this issue of Cancer Discovery, Carrer and colleagues find that early events in pancreatic tumorigenesis are driven by altered acetyl-CoA metabolism, where targeting this axis in established cancer models impairs tumor growth. This work provides new insights into the roles of acetyl-CoA in pancreatic cancer and underscores the value of studying early events in carcinogenesis to yield new treatment strategies.See related article by Carrer et al., p. 416.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Acetilcoenzima A , Carcinogênese , Impulso (Psicologia) , Humanos , Manutenção
16.
17.
Body Image ; 29: 31-46, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852440

RESUMO

A modified version of the bubbles masking paradigm was used in three experiments to determine the key areas of the body that are used in self-estimates of body size. In this paradigm, parts of the stimuli are revealed by several randomly allocated Gaussian "windows" forcing judgements to be made based on this partial information. Over multiple trials, all potential cues are sampled, and the effectiveness of each window at predicting the judgement is determined. The modified bubbles strategy emphasises the distinction between central versus edge cues and localises the visual features used in judging one's own body size. In addition, eye-movements were measured in conjunction with the bubbles paradigm and the results mapped onto a common reference space. This shows that although observers fixate centrally on the torso, they are actually directing their visual attention to the edges of the torso to gauge body width as an index of body size. The central fixations are simply the most efficient way of positioning the eye to make this estimation. Inaccurate observers are less precise in their central fixations and do not evenly allocate their attention to both sides of the torso's edge, illustrating the importance of efficiently sampling the key information.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Impulso (Psicologia) , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Julgamento/fisiologia , Autoavaliação , Adulto , Atenção , Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Humanos , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nursing ; 49(3): 28-33, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30720669

RESUMO

Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is an obsessive-compulsive and related disorder that pushes people toward perfection, affecting 5 to 7.5 million people in the US. Individuals with BDD spend a great deal of time focusing on perceived flaws and ways in which to hide these flaws. The time spent on these negative thoughts can interfere with quality of life and the ability to carry out daily tasks. This article discusses BDD, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, complications, and the nurse's role.


Assuntos
Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/enfermagem , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Impulso (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Diagnóstico de Enfermagem , Perfeccionismo
20.
Body Image ; 29: 1-5, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30763801

RESUMO

There is a lack of psychometric studies on scales aiming to evaluate the drive for muscularity in women. This study aimed to test whether the Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS) yielded reliable and valid scores for assessing the drive for muscularity construct in young adult women. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 242 Brazilian adult women. Exploratory factor analysis, convergent validity, estimated internal consistency, and test-retest reliability of the DMS's scores were examined. The results of the exploratory factor analysis upheld the original unidimensional structure of the DMS for Brazilian women. The scale presented a significant but weak association with body mass index and risk behaviors for eating disorders. Adequate internal consistency and 2-week test-retest reliability were found. Future psychometric analyses (convergent and discriminant validity) of the DMS are encouraged to further our understanding of drive for muscularity in women, especially to confirm its unidimensional factor structure. Future research avenues also include examining the reliability and validity of the DMS's scores among women from various cultures.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Impulso (Psicologia) , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Músculo Esquelético , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Análise Fatorial , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
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