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1.
Nutrients ; 12(8)2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759636

RESUMO

The COVID-19 lockdown clearly affected the lifestyle of the population and entailed changes in their daily habits, which involved potential health consequences, especially on patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). We aimed to examine the impact of the lockdown caused by COVID-19 pandemic on both nutrition and exercise habits, as well as the psychological effects in patients with T2DM, compared to their usual diet and physical activity level previous to the complete home confinement. We also intended to analyse any potential variables that may have influenced these lifestyle modifications. A Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), Food Craving Questionnaire-State (FCQ-S) and Food Craving Questionnaire-Trait (FCQ-T) were used. Our results showed an increase in vegetable, sugary food and snack consumption. An association between levels of foods cravings and snack consumption was also found. Data also showed a high percentage of physical inactivity before the COVID-19 lockdown, which was exacerbated during the home confinement. These findings emphasise the great importance to do further research with larger study samples to analyse and explore dietary habits and to develop public health policies to promote a healthy lifestyle in terms of diet and physical activity in these patients, especially after this strict period of lockdown.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Comportamento Sedentário , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Fissura , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Lanches , Isolamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(22): e20429, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481444

RESUMO

Determining the clinically optimal dose in methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) is a time-consuming procedure, which considers clinical signs and symptoms.To perform a quantitative trait locus association for identifying genetic variants for MMT dosage that underlie heroin addiction and methadone metabolism and then integrate several genotypic and phenotypic factors are potential predictors for clinically optimal MMT dose for personalized prescription.In total, 316 heroin-dependent patients undergoing MMT were recruited at the Addiction Center of the China Medical University Hospital. A multinomial logistic regression model was used to assess associations between genetic polymorphisms and MMT dosing. The data were randomly separated into training and testing sets. In order to enhance the prediction accuracy and the reliability of the prediction model, we used areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves to evaluate optimal MMT dose in both training and testing sets.Four single nucleotide polymorphisms, namely rs806368 in CNR1, s1386493 in TPH2, s16974799 in CYP2B6, and rs2229205 in OPRL1, were significantly associated with the maximum MMT dose (P < .05). The genetic risk score (GRS) was associated with maximum MMT dose, and after adjustments for age, sex, and body mass index, the GRS remained independently associated with the maximum MMT dose. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the combined GRS and craving score was 0.77 for maximum MMT dose, with 75% sensitivity and 60% specificity.Integrating the GRS and craving scores may be useful in the evaluation of individual MMT dose requirements at treatment initiation. Optimal dose prediction allows clinicians to tailor MMT to each patient's needs.


Assuntos
Fissura , Dependência de Heroína/tratamento farmacológico , Dependência de Heroína/genética , Metadona/administração & dosagem , Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Medicina de Precisão , Adulto , Citocromo P-450 CYP2B6/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Masculino , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/genética , Receptores Opioides/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Triptofano Hidroxilase/genética
3.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233414, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442205

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The effectiveness of repetitive transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on reducing smoking behaviour has been studied with mixed results. Smoking behaviour is influenced by affect and context, therefore we choose to use mobile ecological momentary assessments (EMA) to measure changes in smoking behaviour after tDCS. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, between subject study, we applied tDCS bilaterally with the anodal electrode targeting the right DLPFC (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03027687). Smokers were allocated to six sessions of either active tDCS (n = 35) or sham tDCS (n = 36) and received two sessions on three different days in one week. They were asked to keep track of their daily cigarette consumption, craving and affect in an application on their mobile phones for three months starting one week before the first tDCS session. RESULTS: Number of smoked cigarettes a day progressively decreased up to one week after the last tDCS session in both conditions. Active treatment had no additional effect on cigarette consumption, craving and affect. CONCLUSIONS: In this exploratory study, repetitive bilateral tDCS over the DLPFC had no effect on daily smoking behaviour. Future research needs to investigate how motivation to quit smoking and the number of tDCS sessions affect the efficacy of repetitive tDCS.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/terapia , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos , Adulto , Fumar Cigarros/fisiopatologia , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Fissura , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 155(3): 135-139, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378629

RESUMO

Stress potentiates craving for addictive drugs including cocaine. To elucidate neural mechanisms underlying this effect of stress, we developed an experimental paradigm combining cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) with a restraint stress. Acute restraint stress exposure immediately before posttest significantly increased cocaine CPP scores. It has been suggested that the extracellular noradrenaline (NA) level is increased by stress in the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT), which sends cholinergic projections to dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which receives DA input from the VTA. Thus, we investigated the roles of NA in these brain regions. Intra-LDT injection of an α2 or a ß adrenoceptor antagonist attenuated the stress-induced enhancement of cocaine CPP. In vitro whole-cell recordings revealed that α2 adrenoceptor stimulation reduced GABAergic inputs to LDT cholinergic neurons that were obtained from cocaine-, but not saline-, treated rats. On the other hand, α1, but not α2 or ß, adrenoceptor stimulation excited mPFC pyramidal neurons. Intra-mPFC injection of an α1 adrenoceptor antagonist attenuated the stress-induced enhancement of cocaine CPP. Additionally, chemogenetic silencing of mPFC excitatory neurons also reduced the stress-induced enhancement of cocaine CPP. These findings suggest that stress-induced increases in neuronal activity of the LDT and mPFC may contribute to the enhancement of cocaine craving.


Assuntos
Neurônios Colinérgicos/patologia , Cocaína , Fissura , Estresse Psicológico , Animais , Condicionamento Psicológico , Norepinefrina/análise , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Restrição Física , Tegmento Mesencefálico
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(14): 8126-8134, 2020 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205443

RESUMO

We recently reported that social choice-induced voluntary abstinence prevents incubation of methamphetamine craving in rats. This inhibitory effect was associated with activation of protein kinase-Cδ (PKCδ)-expressing neurons in central amygdala lateral division (CeL). In contrast, incubation of craving after forced abstinence was associated with activation of CeL-expressing somatostatin (SOM) neurons. Here we determined the causal role of CeL PKCδ and SOM in incubation using short-hairpin RNAs against PKCδ or SOM that we developed and validated. We injected two groups with shPKCδ or shCtrlPKCδ into CeL and trained them to lever press for social interaction (6 d) and then for methamphetamine infusions (12 d). We injected two other groups with shSOM or shCtrlSOM into CeL and trained them to lever press for methamphetamine infusions (12 d). We then assessed relapse to methamphetamine seeking after 1 and 15 abstinence days. Between tests, the rats underwent either social choice-induced abstinence (shPKCδ groups) or homecage forced abstinence (shSOM groups). After test day 15, we assessed PKCδ and SOM, Fos, and double-labeled expression in CeL and central amygdala medial division (CeM). shPKCδ CeL injections decreased Fos in CeL PKCδ-expressing neurons, increased Fos in CeM output neurons, and reversed the inhibitory effect of social choice-induced abstinence on incubated drug seeking on day 15. In contrast, shSOM CeL injections decreased Fos in CeL SOM-expressing neurons, decreased Fos in CeM output neurons, and decreased incubated drug seeking after 15 forced abstinence days. Our results identify dissociable central amygdala mechanisms of abstinence-dependent expression or inhibition of incubation of craving.


Assuntos
Núcleo Central da Amígdala/fisiologia , Fissura/fisiologia , Comportamento de Procura de Droga/fisiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Masculino , Metanfetamina/administração & dosagem , Metanfetamina/efeitos adversos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase C-delta/genética , Proteína Quinase C-delta/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Autoadministração , Somatostatina/genética , Somatostatina/metabolismo
9.
Nurs Res ; 69(3): 167-175, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examined whether baseline negative emotional states (depression and anxiety) would predict craving for cigarettes and other nicotine withdrawal symptoms in early abstinence and whether those emotional states and withdrawal symptoms would predict failure in quitting smoking at 3 months postquit among U.S. women living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHOD: The study is a secondary analysis of data from two smoking cessation studies of women living with HIV. Craving for cigarettes and other withdrawal symptoms were assessed weekly with a total of 229 observations during the first 4 weeks following quit day. Descriptive statistics were used to examine baseline characteristics of the participants. A random growth curve model was used to estimate between-person differences in a within-person trend of changes in the withdrawal symptoms. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of short-term smoking abstinence. RESULTS: Baseline anxiety was a predictor of postquit nicotine withdrawal symptoms but baseline depression was not. Neither baseline anxiety nor depression predicted postquit craving for cigarettes. Participants who received an HIV-tailored smoking cessation intervention showed a greater decline in craving symptom than those who received an attention-controlled intervention. HIV-tailored intervention and less craving predicted smoking abstinence at 3-month follow-up. DISCUSSION: Compared to an attention-controlled intervention, an HIV-tailored intervention effectively decreased craving for cigarette smoking after quitting-which effectively increased the rate of short-term smoking abstinence in women living with HIV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Fissura , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
BMC Res Notes ; 13(1): 32, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941548

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether exposure to smoking and vaping cues the urge to smoke or vape. It extends previous studies on first-generation cigalikes (visually similar to cigarettes) and second-generation devices (visually similar to pens) by including third-generation tank system devices (larger bulky units). In an online experiment, participants were randomly assigned to view one of four videos, which included smoking, vaping (cigalike or tank system), or neutral cues. The primary outcome was urge to smoke. Secondary outcomes were urge to vape, desire to smoke and vape, and intention to quit or remain abstinent from smoking. RESULTS: UK adults varying in smoking (current or former) and vaping (user or non-user) status (n = 1120) completed the study: 184 (16%) failed study attention checks meaning 936 were included in the final analysis. Urges to smoke were similar across cue groups. Urges to vape were higher following exposure to vaping compared to neutral cues. There was no clear evidence of an interaction between cue group and smoking or vaping status. The lack of cueing effects on smoking urges is inconsistent with previous research, raising questions about the ability to assess craving in online settings.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Fumar Tabaco/psicologia , Vaping/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Fissura , Sinais (Psicologia) , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/classificação , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
J Altern Complement Med ; 26(2): 98-106, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765223

RESUMO

Background: Growing obesity rates are a problem worldwide. Several studies of emotional freedom techniques (EFT), a brief psychophysiologic technique, have indicated that it may be a promising addition to traditional weight loss interventions. Objective: The current study evaluated food cravings, dietary restraint, subjective power of food, weight changes, and self-reported symptoms (e.g., somatic, anxious, and depressive) 2 years after an 8-week online self-directed EFT intervention with additional online support. Design: Participants were initially randomly allocated to a treatment or waitlist group. The treatment group was instructed to self-pace through an online EFT treatment program made up of seven modules throughout the 8-week intervention period, and the waitlist was also completed at the end of this period. Results: Analyses of the online EFT intervention program indicated significantly reduced scores for food cravings (-28.2%), power of food (-26.7%), depression (-12.3%), anxiety (-23.3%), and somatic symptoms (-10.6%) from pre to postintervention and from pre (baseline) until the 2-year follow-up and significantly improved scores for restraint (+13.4%). Further improvements were experienced for carbohydrates and fast food cravings between 6 months and 2 years. Body Mass Index and weight significantly decreased from pre- to 12 months follow-up although there were no differences at the 2-year point. Conclusions: As an online intervention program, EFT was very effective in reducing food cravings, perceived power of food, psychologic symptomatology, and improving dietary restraint and maintaining those improvements over a 2-year period. The addition of EFT to traditional weight loss interventions is timely and supported by this research.


Assuntos
Terapias Complementares/métodos , Hiperfagia/terapia , Internet , Psicofísica/métodos , Adulto , Fissura , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/terapia , Perda de Peso
12.
Exp Clin Psychopharmacol ; 28(1): 1-5, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647279

RESUMO

Nationally, it was estimated that 11.4 million people misused opioids in 2017 with more than 47,000 opioid-related deaths. Although medication-assisted treatment (MAT) has been effective in enhancing treatment retention and decreasing frequency of opioid use, relapse rates for opioids and other substances remain high, emphasizing the importance of investigating novel interventions to augment MAT. One potential treatment approach is repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)-a noninvasive, electrophysiological method of neuromodulation. Recently published studies of rTMS in individuals with alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine use disorder have suggested that this treatment shows promise in reducing cravings and substance use. The literature specific to rTMS and opioid use disorder (OUD) is limited to a single published study in heroin users, which showed that a single session of rTMS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) reduced cue-induced craving, with a further reduction following 5 consecutive days of rTMS. The following case report involved a 25-year-old Caucasian male diagnosed with OUD and cocaine use disorder. This subject continued to demonstrate ongoing substance use despite participating in comprehensive MAT with buprenorphine/naloxone in combination with psychosocial interventions. He was administered 7 separate sessions of rTMS targeting the left DLPFC. Substance-related cues were presented prior to, during, and following these rTMS administration sessions and the subject rated his substance cravings via a 100-point Visual Analog Scale. When compared with his cue-induced craving ratings, there was a mean reduction in craving for heroin and cocaine by ∼60% to 82% following the 7 administration sessions. Although this is a single case, further investigation of rTMS as an augmentation strategy for OUD and polysubstance use is warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/terapia , Fissura , Sinais (Psicologia) , Dependência de Heroína/terapia , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Adulto , Cocaína , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/fisiopatologia , Heroína , Dependência de Heroína/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias
13.
Exp Clin Psychopharmacol ; 28(1): 81-86, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070429

RESUMO

Cue-induced craving among smokers is a well-documented phenomenon. Conditioning theory is used to explain how stimuli elicit cravings. Attachment theory may explain additional influences on cue-induced craving. This study tested the effects of cigarette cues and attachment figure cues on craving and affect. Cue-reactivity as a function of cue type was examined to explore the magnitude of craving effect sizes for each cue type. Thirty-six smokers (27 men) were exposed to cigarette cues (i.e., cigarette) and attachment figure cues (i.e., digital photos of people identified as attachment figures). Neutral to cue exposure differences in craving and affect were assessed. Sixty-one percent of participants reported increased craving to the cigarette cue (M = 61.1, SD = 29.4) compared to the neutral cue (M = 46.6, SD = 28.8), Mdiff = 20.7 (10.60, 30.73), Yt (23) = 4.24, p = .0003. When exposed to an attachment figure photo, 56% participants reported decreased craving (M = 38.2, SD = 31.6) compared to the neutral photo (M = 50.9, SD = 29.8), Mdiff = -15.73 (-30.83, -0.63), Yt (21) = -2.17, p = .042. There was a significant difference in the craving for cigarette cues (M = 14.5, SD = 22.8 (CI: 6.94, 22.39)), and attachment figure photos (M = -12.7, SD = 28.6 (CI: -22.38, -3.01); t(35) = 4.3, p < .001). The effect sizes for cigarette cues and attachment figure photos were d = .50, d = .42, respectively. Participants' responses to attachment cues were not influenced by their reactivity to cigarette cues or their attachment figure's smoking status. Findings support a plausible model in which an attachment figure photo decreases craving via affect regulation. Further research on cues that have an inhibitory effect on craving may inform new cessation strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Fissura , Sinais (Psicologia) , Apego ao Objeto , Produtos do Tabaco , Tabagismo/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumantes , Adulto Jovem
14.
Exp Clin Psychopharmacol ; 28(1): 99-111, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120279

RESUMO

The momentary processes that contribute to alcohol misuse among those with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are not well understood. Emotional responding (i.e., the intensity of an emotional response to a trauma-related stimulus) and emotion regulation (i.e., the ability to influence one's emotions), are two such crucial processes that may be important, in-the-moment determinants of drinking. This study investigated (a) associations among PTSD, emotional responding, and alcohol urge following exposure to a trauma cue, and (b) the conditional influence of emotion regulation abilities on these relationships. During an initial assessment session, 305 college students recruited from the community were classified based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Criterion A trauma exposure and PTSD symptom level: no trauma (NT), trauma exposure but no PTSD diagnosis (trauma only), or trauma exposure and PTSD (PTSD). During an experimental session, participants were presented with a personalized trauma cue. Emotional valence and arousal and urge to drink alcohol were reported before and after cue presentations. Emotional responding was indexed as postcue affective valence and arousal controlled for their respective baseline scores. Emotional responding to a trauma cue significantly mediated the relationship between any trauma exposure and urge to drink alcohol. Emotion regulation did not moderate this mediated pathway. Emotional responding increases momentary desires to use alcohol and may contribute to problematic drinking in those with trauma exposure. Findings may have important implications for intervention, as targeting emotional responding to trauma stimuli may help reduce alcohol risk. Future directions and limitations of the current work are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Regulação Emocional , Emoções , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adolescente , Consumo de Álcool na Faculdade/psicologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Nível de Alerta , Fissura , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes , Adulto Jovem
15.
Brain Cogn ; 138: 105512, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864068

RESUMO

Even though the ventromedial neural network (reward pathway) has been well documented to be a mediator for increased craving, the prefrontal cortex is receiving ever more attention for craving monitoring. In the current study, we examined whether causal modulation of the prefrontal cortex, and its associated neural network, diminishes reward-triggered approach bias (due to increased cognitive control), alcohol craving and consumption. Using a double-blind within-subjects design in a subclinical group of forty-five heavy drinkers, a single sham controlled session of bilateral transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was applied to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Following real and sham tDCS placing the anode over the right and cathode over the left DLPFC, a rewarded Go/NoGo paradigm was administrated to provoke behavioral biases (irrespective of the task goal) After the cognitive paradigm, alcohol consumption was examined using a beer taste test. Bifrontal tDCS resulted in a reduced reward-triggered approach bias and reduced alcohol consumption, but not self-reported craving. Interestingly, reward-triggered approach bias and alcohol consumption were reliably associated in the sham condition, but not in the tDCS condition. Reward-trigged approach biases might be a cognitive mechanism associated with alcohol prone behavior, and the role of the prefrontal network may be significant.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Alcoolismo/fisiopatologia , Fissura/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Recompensa , Adolescente , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 22(12): 794-798, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794239

RESUMO

This study aimed to reduce the approach tendency toward alcohol among heavy social drinkers using the Virtual Alcohol Approach-Avoidance Training Task training. A total of 28 heavy social drinkers were randomly assigned to either the training group (n = 14) or the control group (n = 14). The training group was implicitly trained to avoid situations that involved drinking alcohol and to approach situations that involved drinking nonalcoholic beverages. On the other hand, the control group received a sham training condition with the same ratio of approach or avoidance of drinking either alcohol or a nonalcoholic beverage. All participants made three visits in a period of 2-3 weeks to participate in either the training or sham training. As a result, the training group showed a decrease in implicit approach tendencies toward alcohol, but not in explicit craving for alcohol. In contrast, the control group showed an increase in both implicit approach tendencies and explicit craving toward alcohol. These results indicate that the virtual reality training to avoid alcohol-related stimuli or environments might reduce automatic action tendencies toward alcohol, while simply being exposed to alcohol-related stimuli or environments might increase craving for alcohol in the sham training group. Our findings also suggest that, including not only visual stimuli but also auditory stimuli in a virtual environment might be a tool for changing approach bias.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/terapia , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Terapia de Exposição à Realidade Virtual/métodos , Adulto , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/psicologia , Fissura , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878131

RESUMO

Compared to low-fat diets, low-carbohydrate (CHO) diets cause weight loss (WL) over a faster time frame; however, it is unknown how changes in food cravings and eating behavior contribute to this more rapid WL in the early phases of dieting. We hypothesized that reductions in food cravings and improved eating behaviors would be evident even after a relatively short (4-week) duration of CHO-restriction, and that these changes would be associated with WL. Adult participants (n = 19, 53% males, mean ± SD: BMI = 34.1 ± 0.8 kg/m2; age 40.6 ± 1.9 years) consumed a CHO-restricted diet (14% CHO, 58% fat, 28% protein) for 4 weeks. Before and after the intervention, specific and total cravings were measured with the Food Craving Inventory (FCI) and eating behaviors assessed with the Three-Factor Eating questionnaire. Food cravings were significantly reduced at week 4, while women had significantly greater reductions in sweet cravings than men. Dietary restraint was significantly increased by 102%, while disinhibiton and hunger scores were reduced (17% and 22%, respectively, p < 0.05). Changes in cravings were unrelated to changes in body weight except for the change in high-fat cravings where those who lost the most weight experienced the least reductions in fat cravings (r = -0.458, p = 0.049). Changes in dietary restraint were inversely related to several FCI subscales. A short-term, low-CHO diet was effective in reducing food cravings. These data suggest that in subjects that have successfully lost weight on a low-CHO diet, those who craved high-fat foods at the onset were able to satisfy their cravings-potentially due to the high-fat nature of this restricted diet.


Assuntos
Fissura , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Alimentos/classificação , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 21(Suppl 1): S108-S116, 2019 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867652

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In 2017, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposed lowering the amount of nicotine in combusted cigarettes to minimally addictive levels. If used, to encourage cessation and maximize the benefits of this action, the FDA needs to determine the most effective way to communicate to the public the practical impact of this nicotine tobacco product standard. METHODS: Data were collected in 2018 from a nationally representative, online probability sample of 1198 adult smokers (aged ≥18 years old) in the United States. Smokers were randomly assigned one of five versions of the question regarding what they would most likely do if nicotine in cigarettes was reduced (nicotine levels were reduced by 95%; the government reduced nicotine levels by 95%; cigarettes were no longer addictive; cigarettes no longer relieved cravings; cigarettes were changed so that you would be able to quit more easily). Effects of framing on anticipated tobacco use intentions and perceived risk of very low nicotine cigarettes (VLNCs) were evaluated with multinomial logistic regressions. RESULTS: Framing the nicotine tobacco product standard as cigarettes no longer relieved cravings resulted in the highest proportion of smokers reporting they intend to quit in response to this standard (43.9%), lowest proportions reporting anticipated intentions to continue using combusted tobacco products (45.3%), and lowest proportion believing that VLNCs are less harmful than regular cigarettes (26%). CONCLUSIONS: Different frames of nicotine reduction in cigarettes differentially affected smokers' anticipated tobacco use intentions and perceived risk of VLNCs. Presenting reduction as making cigarettes unable to relieve cravings might be particularly effective at motivating cessation.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Nicotina , Fumantes , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fissura , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Risco , Fumantes/psicologia , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos do Tabaco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861455

RESUMO

Our aim is to assess the smoking cessation and vaping cessation activity, including quit attempts and willingness to quit among university students in Central and Eastern Europe, as well as to investigate personal characteristics associated with smoking cessation and vaping cessation attempts. Data were collected by questionnaire which included 46 questions on cigarette and e-cigarette use. Questionnaires were obtained from 14,352 university students (aged 20.9 ± 2.4 years; cooperation rate of 72.2%). For the purposes of this analysis, only data from exclusive cigarette smokers (n = 1716), exclusive e-cigarette users (n = 129), and dual users (216) were included. Of all cigarette smokers, 51.6% had previously tried to quit smoking and 51.5% declared a willingness to quit cigarette smoking in the near future. Among all e-cigarette users only 13.9% had ever tried to quit using the e-cigarette and 25.2% declared a willingness to give up using e-cigarette in the near future. The majority of the group did not use pharmacotherapy to quit cigarette (87.5%) or e-cigarette (88.9%) use. Our results indicate that while most university students have some desire to quit conventional smoking, those who use e-cigarettes do not have the same desire.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Vaping , Adolescente , Adulto , Fissura , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa Oriental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Opioid Manag ; 15(6): 487-494, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850510

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize hedonic eating behaviors such as sugar cravings, food preferences, and appetitive responsiveness for sweet and hyper-palatable foods, and to determine the prevalence of addictive like eating behaviors and food addiction (FA) in individuals receiving medication-assisted treatment (MAT) for opioid use disorder (OUD). DESIGN: Quasi-experimental. SETTING: Outpatient MAT center. PARTICIPANTS: Nonpregnant adult patients undergoing MAT (n = 116) receiving either buprenorphine/naloxone or methadone for at least 6 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hedonic eating, FA, and food craving. RESULTS: Of the aggregate sample, 13.3 percent met criteria for FA. More than onethird of all subjects endorsed consuming larger amounts of highly palatable food than intended, unsuccessful attempts to quit or cut down on eating such foods, and a great deal of time spent on consuming or recovering from consuming such foods. Both medication groups demonstrated greatest cravings for sweets and fast foods followed by carbohydrates and fats (p < 0.001). Similarly, subjects reported "giving in" most frequently to sweets and fast foods followed by carbohydrates then fats (p < 0.001). Greater appetitive responsiveness was noted in the presence of hyper-palatable foods. No group differences were found. Weight change was not associated with addictive like eating, food craving, or appetitive responsiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals receiving MAT exhibit preferences for sweet and fast foods that appear to be influenced by the proximity of such foods. FA was present. Collectively, such eating behaviors and food preferences may pose additional adverse health consequences and associated co-morbidities. This underlies the importance of comprehensive healthcare for patients with OUD, including nutrition education and evaluation of eating behaviors and food preferences.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Preferências Alimentares , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Fissura , Gorduras na Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Fast Foods , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/terapia
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