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1.
Acta Biomed ; 91(2): 39-44, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32420923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE WORK: On the 21st of February, the first patient was tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 at Codogno hospital in the Lombardy region. From that date, the Regional Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Trust (AREU) of the Lombardy region decided to apply Business Intelligence (BI) to the management of EMS during the epidemic. The aim of the study is to assess in this context the impact of BI on EMS management outcomes. METHODS: Since the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak, AREU is using BI daily to track the number of first aid requests received from 112. BI analyses the number of requests that have been classified as respiratory and/or infectious episodes during the telephone dispatch interview. Moreover, BI allows identifying the numerical trend of episodes in each municipality (increasing, stable, decreasing). RESULTS: AREU decides to reallocate in the territory the resources based on real-time data recorded and elaborated by BI. Indeed, based on that data, the numbers of vehicles and personnel have been implemented in the municipalities that registered more episodes and where the clusters are supposed to be. BI has been of paramount importance in taking timely decisions on the management of EMS during COVID-19 outbreak.  Conclusions: Even if there is little evidence-based literature focused on BI impact within the health care, this study suggests that BI can be usefully applied to promptly identify clusters and patterns of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic and, consequently, make informed decisions that can improve the EMS management response to the outbreak.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Epidemias , Humanos , Inteligência , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443640

RESUMO

We applied a generalized SEIR epidemiological model to the recent SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in the world, with a focus on Italy and its Lombardy, Piedmont, and Veneto regions. We focused on the application of a stochastic approach in fitting the model parameters using a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) solver, to improve the reliability of predictions in the medium term (30 days). We analyzed the official data and the predicted evolution of the epidemic in the Italian regions, and we compared the results with the data and predictions of Spain and South Korea. We linked the model equations to the changes in people's mobility, with reference to Google's COVID-19 Community Mobility Reports. We discussed the effectiveness of policies taken by different regions and countries and how they have an impact on past and future infection scenarios.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Inteligência , Itália/epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Pandemias , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
3.
Anim Cogn ; 23(4): 691-701, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236754

RESUMO

Many attempts have been made to classify and evaluate the nature of intelligence in humans and other species (referred to as the 'g' factor in the former and the G factor in the latter). The search for this essential structure of mental life has generated various models and definitions, yet open questions remain. Specifically, referring to intelligence by overemphasizing the anthropocentric terminology and its ethnocentric overlay is insufficient to account for individual differences and limits its generalizability in biological and cultural contexts. The present work is an attempt to adopt a different perspective on the 'g/G' factor and its measurement. We suggest that intelligence, or g/G, is reflected in a biological capacity that evolved from object manipulation in animals, into mental manipulation in humans, in response to various environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Individualidade , Inteligência , Animais , Humanos , Especificidade da Espécie
4.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 33(3): 404-410, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324658

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute care technologies, including novel monitoring devices, big data, increased computing capabilities, machine-learning algorithms and automation, are converging. This enables the application of augmented intelligence for improved outcome predictions, clinical decision-making, and offers unprecedented opportunities to improve patient outcomes, reduce costs, and improve clinician workflow. This article briefly explores recent work in the areas of automation, artificial intelligence and outcome prediction models in pediatric anesthesia and pediatric critical care. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent years have yielded little published research into pediatric physiological closed loop control (a type of automation) beyond studies focused on glycemic control for type 1 diabetes. However, there has been a greater range of research in augmented decision-making, leveraging artificial intelligence and machine-learning techniques, in particular, for pediatric ICU outcome prediction. SUMMARY: Most studies focusing on artificial intelligence demonstrate good performance on prediction or classification, whether they use traditional statistical tools or novel machine-learning approaches. Yet the challenges of implementation, user acceptance, ethics and regulation cannot be underestimated. Areas in which there is easy access to routinely labeled data and robust outcomes, such as those collected through national networks and quality improvement programs, are likely to be at the forefront of the adoption of these advances.


Assuntos
Anestesia , Inteligência Artificial , Cuidados Críticos , Anestesia/tendências , Criança , Cuidados Críticos/tendências , Humanos , Inteligência , Aprendizado de Máquina
6.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 37(4): 483-485, 2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219843

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the genetic basis for a female with a peripheral lymphocyte karyotype of trisomy 18 but normal intelligence. METHODS: G-banding karyotype analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and single nucleotide polymorphism microarray (SNP array) were employed to analyze the peripheral blood sample and buccal cells from the patient. RESULTS: Chromosomal karyotyping, SNP array and FISH analysis of the patient's peripheral blood all suggested 47,XX,+18. Interphase FISH analysis of buccal cells, however, revealed presence of 45,X and low percentage of trisomy 18 and monosomy 18. CONCLUSION: The clinical manifestation of germ layer chromosomal mosaicism is complex. The impact of the genetic disorder on the individual will depend on the structure and function derived from the affected germ layer.


Assuntos
Cariotipagem , Síndrome da Trissomía do Cromossomo 18/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Inteligência , Cariótipo , Linfócitos , Mosaicismo , Mucosa Bucal , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
7.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 80 Suppl 2: 53-57, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150714

RESUMO

Recent research demystifies and redefines high intellectual ability (HIA) against the traditional monolithic and static concept which was based on heritability and identification through an intelligence quotient. This concept is replaced by another in which the HIA is understood as a complex phenomenon of a genetic and environmental nature This is the result of a covariation along the life path between endogenous and exogenous forces, modulators of the high potential (predictor factor) towards the optimal expression, or not, of its eminence in adulthood. Then, HIA implies the conjunction of a starting biological diversity (the high potential), a psychological diversity related to the exploitation of biological resources in useful functions and knowledge, and a contextual diversity configured by different family conditions, as well as socio-cultural and economic contexts. The aim of this work is to present from a neuroconstructivist perspective a review of the current HIA research on the predictive and modulating factors. In the conclusions, we discuss the incidence of the modulating variables in the various trajectories of potential development towards possible adult eminence and the diagnostic and educational implications that are derived.


Assuntos
Inteligência/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Motivação/fisiologia , Neurociências , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229932, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163453

RESUMO

Metacognitive monitoring is a critical predictor of arithmetic in primary school. One outstanding question is whether this metacognitive monitoring is domain-specific or whether it reflects a more general performance monitoring process. To answer this conundrum, we investigated metacognitive monitoring in two related, yet distinct academic domains: arithmetic and spelling. This allowed us to investigate whether monitoring in one domain correlated with monitoring in the other domain, and whether monitoring in one domain was predictive of performance in the other, and vice versa. Participants were 147 typically developing 8-9-year-old children (Study 1) and 77 typically developing 7-8-year-old children (Study 2), who were in the middle of an important developmental period for both metacognitive monitoring and academic skills. Pre-registered analyses revealed that within-domain metacognitive monitoring was an important predictor of arithmetic and spelling at both ages. In 8-9-year-olds the metacognitive monitoring measures in different academic domains were predictive of each other, even after taking into account academic performance in these domains. Monitoring in arithmetic was an important predictor of spelling performance, even when arithmetic performance was controlled for. Likewise, monitoring in spelling was an important predictor of arithmetic performance, even when spelling performance was controlled for. In 7-8-year-olds metacognitive monitoring was domain-specific, with neither correlations between the monitoring measures, nor correlations between monitoring in one domain and performance in the other. Taken together, these findings indicate that more domain-general metacognitive monitoring processes emerge over the ages from 7 to 9.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Inteligência/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Metacognição/fisiologia , Desempenho Acadêmico/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência/estatística & dados numéricos , Idioma , Masculino , Conceitos Matemáticos
9.
Georgian Med News ; (298): 113-118, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141862

RESUMO

The purpose of the study is to determine the degree of decrease in the intellectual level of people under the age of 45 who have suffered from schizophrenia in childhood and adolescence in comparison with healthy individuals of the same age. 700 patients under the age of 45 years who had schizophrenia from 9 to 18 years old and underwent treatment at the Center for Mental Health and Prevention of Addiction (Tbilisi, Georgia) and 479 healthy people of the same age range were examined. In this work, the IQ intelligence coefficient was selected as the measured variable, which was determined both in the patient group and in the control group according to the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence method and its part concerning non-verbal intelligence was used. During statistical processing of control group data for comparison with a group of patients, the data of unrealistically low values and extremely high IQ values were withdrawn from consideration. For patients, a violation of the law of the normal distribution of the IQ coefficient was obtained. The degrading effect of schizophrenia in childhood and adolescence on IQ is very "significant" and is an explanation for the patients' IQ deviation fact from the normal distribution. The median IQ of the control group of healthy people is slightly more than 117, which can be explained by the influence of personal and contextual (modern social environment) factors.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Inteligência/fisiologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , República da Geórgia , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Escalas de Wechsler
10.
Neuron ; 105(3): 413-415, 2020 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027832

RESUMO

An international group of researchers met in November 2019 in Beijing to explore the intersection of neuroscience and AI. The aim was to offer a fertile ground for stimulating discussions and ideas, including issues such as policy making and the future of neuroscience and AI across the globe.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial/tendências , Congressos como Assunto/tendências , Inteligência/fisiologia , Invenções/tendências , Pequim , Humanos , Neurociências/métodos , Neurociências/tendências
11.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228879, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032380

RESUMO

Evolving in groups can either enhance or reduce an individual's task performance. Still, we know little about the factors underlying group performance, which may be reduced to three major dimensions: (a) the individual's ability to perform a task, (b) the dependency on environmental conditions, and (c) the perception of, and the reaction to, other group members. In our research, we investigated how these dimensions interrelate in simulated evolution experiments using adaptive agents equipped with Markov brains ("animats"). We evolved the animats to perform a spatial-navigation task under various evolutionary setups. The last generation of each evolution simulation was tested across modified conditions to evaluate and compare the animats' reliability when faced with change. Moreover, the complexity of the evolved Markov brains was assessed based on measures of information integration. We found that, under the right conditions, specialized animats could be as reliable as animats already evolved for the modified tasks, and that reliability across varying group sizes correlated with evolved fitness in most tested evolutionary setups. Our results moreover suggest that balancing the number of individuals in a group may lead to higher reliability but also lower individual performance. Besides, high brain complexity was associated with balanced group sizes and, thus, high reliability under limited sensory capacity. However, additional sensors allowed for even higher reliability across modified environments without a need for complex, integrated Markov brains. Despite complex dependencies between the individual, the group, and the environment, our computational approach provides a way to study reliability in group behavior under controlled conditions. In all, our study revealed that balancing the group size and individual cognitive abilities prevents over-specialization and can help to evolve better reliability under unknown environmental situations.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Cognição , Simulação por Computador , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Meio Ambiente , Aptidão Genética , Humanos , Inteligência , Cadeias de Markov , Memória , Modelos Biológicos , Densidade Demográfica , Meio Social , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 696, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019924

RESUMO

Serial regional brain growth from the newborn period to adolescence has not been described. Here, we measured regional brain growth in 216 very preterm (VP) and 45 full-term (FT) children. Brain MRI was performed at term-equivalent age, 7 and 13 years in 82 regions. Brain volumes increased between term-equivalent and 7 years, with faster growth in the FT than VP group. Perinatal brain abnormality was associated with less increase in brain volume between term-equivalent and 7 years in the VP group. Between 7 and 13 years, volumes were relatively stable, with some subcortical and cortical regions increasing while others reduced. Notably, VP infants continued to lag, with overall brain size generally less than that of FT peers at 13 years. Parieto-frontal growth, mainly between 7 and 13 years in FT children, was associated with higher intelligence at 13 years. This study improves understanding of typical and atypical regional brain growth.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adolescente , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro/psicologia , Inteligência , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino
13.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 7, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intelligence is the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with the environment. Previous studies have shown that individuals with intellectual disability, IQ < 70, have increased risk of being diagnosed with one or more mental disorders. We wanted to investigate if this also applies to individuals with IQ between 70 and 85. METHODS: In this study, data was abstracted from a longitudinal follow-up study of individuals with low birth weight and a control group. In the present study, mental health of participants with borderline IQ, defined as a full IQ score 70-84, were compared with mental health of a reference group with full IQ scores ≥85. Mental health at age 19 was assessed using the Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-age Children Present and Lifetime (K-SADS P/L) whereby scores meeting the diagnostic criteria for a mental disorder were defined as having mental health problems. In addition the participants completed the ADHD-rating scale and the Autism Spectrum Quotient form (AQ). Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for high scores on the K-SADS. RESULTS: Thirty participants with borderline IQ and 146 controls were included. Sixteen (53%) of the participants with borderline IQ met the diagnostic criteria on the K-SADS for any diagnosis compared with 18 (12%) in the reference group (OR: 6.2; CI: 2.6-14.9). In particular the participants with borderline IQ had excess risk of ADHD and anxiety. These associations were slightly attenuated when adjusted for birth weight and parents' socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: 53% of the participants with borderline IQ had increased risk for a research assessed psychiatric diagnosis compared to about one in ten in the reference group. The group with borderline IQ also had higher total scores and higher scores on some sub-scores included in the Autism Spectrum Quotient form. Our results points towards an increased vulnerability for mental illness in individuals with borderline low IQ. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The main study is recorded by the Regional Committee for Health Research Ethics in Mid-Norway (as project number 4.2005.2605).


Assuntos
Inteligência , Transtornos Mentais , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Noruega , Pais/psicologia , Testes Psicológicos , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228969, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053673

RESUMO

There is emerging consensus that Grit's two facets-perseverance of effort and consistency of interest-are best understood as facets of the Big Five dimension of Conscientiousness. However, an in-depth investigation on whether Grit's facet offer any added value over more established facets of Conscientiousness is absent from the literature. In the present study, we investigated whether Grit's facets are empirically distinguishable from three facets of Conscientiousness as conceived in the well-validated Big-Five Inventory 2 (BFI-2), namely, Organization, Responsibility, Productiveness. Moreover, we investigated whether Grit's facets show different (and possibly stronger) associations than the facets of Conscientiousness with a broad set of external criteria (age, educational attainment, monthly income, life satisfaction, mental and physical health, fluid and crystallized intelligence); as well as whether the criterion correlations of Grit's facets are incremental over Conscientiousness. Findings from two latent-variable models in a large and diverse sample (N = 1,244) indicated that the facets of Grit showed moderate to strong relationships related to each other and to the three Conscientiousness facets of the BFI-2 (.41 ≤ r ≤ .94). Grit-Perseverance was almost indistinguishable from the Productiveness facet of Conscientiousness, whereas Grit-Consistency appeared to capture something unique beyond the Conscientiousness facets. The relationships with external criteria of Grit's facets were similar in direction and size to those of the Conscientiousness facets. The results give further purchase to the view that Grit's facets can be subsumed under the Conscientiousness domain.


Assuntos
Satisfação Pessoal , Personalidade/fisiologia , Valores Sociais , Sucesso Acadêmico , Logro , Adulto , Eficiência , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Inteligência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Inventário de Personalidade , Comportamento Social , Responsabilidade Social
15.
Psychol Aging ; 35(2): 212-219, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011156

RESUMO

Foreign language learning in older age has been proposed as a promising avenue for combatting age-related cognitive decline. We tested this hypothesis in a randomized controlled study in a sample of 160 healthy older participants (aged 65-75 years) who were randomized to 11 weeks of either language learning or relaxation training. Participants in the language learning condition obtained some basic knowledge in the new language (Italian), but between-groups differences in improvements on latent factors of verbal intelligence, spatial intelligence, working memory, item memory, or associative memory were negligible. We argue that this is not due to either poor measurement, low course intensity, or low statistical power, but that basic studies in foreign languages in older age are likely to have no or trivially small effects on cognitive abilities. We place this in the context of the cognitive training and engagement literature and conclude that while foreign language learning may expand the behavioral repertoire, it does little to improve cognitive processing abilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Inteligência/fisiologia , Idioma , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0227813, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027656

RESUMO

Despite substantial investments in public health campaigns, misunderstanding of health-related scientific information is pervasive. This is especially true in the case of tobacco use, where smokers have been found to systematically misperceive scientific information about the negative health effects of smoking, in some cases leading smokers to increase their pro-smoking bias. Here, we extend recent work on 'networked collective intelligence' by testing the hypothesis that allowing smokers and nonsmokers to collaboratively evaluate anti-smoking advertisements in online social networks can improve their ability to accurately assess the negative health effects of tobacco use. Using Amazon's Mechanical Turk, we conducted an online experiment where smokers and nonsmokers (N = 1600) were exposed to anti-smoking advertisements and asked to estimate the negative health effects of tobacco use, either on their own or in the presence of peer influence in a social network. Contrary to popular predictions, we find that both smokers and nonsmokers were surprisingly inaccurate at interpreting anti-smoking messages, and their errors persisted if they continued to interpret these messages on their own. However, smokers and nonsmokers significantly improved in their ability to accurately interpret anti-smoking messages by sharing their opinions in structured online social networks. Specifically, subjects in social networks reduced the error of their risk estimates by over 10 times more than subjects who revised solely based on individual reflection (p < 0.001, 10 experimental trials in total). These results suggest that social media networks may be used to activate social learning that improves the public's ability to accurately interpret vital public health information.


Assuntos
Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor , Disseminação de Informação , Inteligência , Fumar/epidemiologia , Rede Social , Atitude , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Fatores de Risco , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar
18.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228960, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045454

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed to compare developmental changes in nonsymbolic and symbolic magnitude representations across the elementary school years. For this aim, we used a four-wave longitudinal study with a one-year interval in schoolchildren in grades 1-4 in Russia and Kyrgyzstan (N = 490, mean age was 7.65 years at grade 1). The results of mixed-effects growth models revealed that growth in the precision of symbolic representation was larger than in the nonsymbolic representation. Moreover, growth in nonsymbolic representation was fully explained by growth in fluid intelligence (FI), visuospatial working memory (VSWM) and processing speed (PS). The analysis demonstrated that growth in nonsymbolic magnitude representation was significant only for pupils with a high level of FI and PS, whereas growth in precision of symbolic representation did not significantly vary across pupils with different levels of FI or VSWM.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Inteligência/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Quirguistão , Lógica , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Conceitos Matemáticos , Memória , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Federação Russa , Instituições Acadêmicas , Simbolismo
19.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229310, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074130

RESUMO

There is ample evidence that meditation can regulate emotions. It is questionable, however, whether meditation can down-regulate sensitivity to emotional experience in high-level cognitive representations such as words. The present study shows that adept Zen meditators rated the emotional valence of (low-arousal) positive and (high- and low-arousal) negative nouns significantly more neutral after a meditation session, while there was no change of valence ratings after a comparison intervention in the comparison group. Because the Zen group provided greater "openness to experience" and lower "need for achievement and performance" in the "Big Five" personality assessment, we used these scores as covariates for all analyses. We found no differential emotion effects of Zen meditation during lexical decision, but we replicated the slow-down of low-arousal negative words during lexical decision in both groups. Interestingly, Zen meditation elicited a global facilitation of all response times, which we discuss in terms of increased attentional resources after meditation.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta , Discriminação Psicológica , Emoções/fisiologia , Idioma , Meditação/psicologia , Processos Mentais/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Inteligência , Masculino , Meditação/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Personalidade , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
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