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1.
Psychoanal Rev ; 104(4): 485-501, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28746010

RESUMO

Though commonly seen as a member of the so-called "culturistic" school of psychoanalysis that rejected Freudian drive theory and embraced an "oversocialized" conception of human nature, Fromm's qualified essentialism and neo-Marxist existentialism significantly transcend both biological and social determinism (although he succumbs to the latter in regard to his theory of the Oedipus complex). His existential Freudo-Marxism contributes to the integration of psychoanalysis and social science. In place of the authoritarian superego and the pseudo-objective stance of the classical Freudians, Fromm offers conscientious, egalitarian, personalistic, and humane values.


Assuntos
Existencialismo/história , Psicanálise/história , Autoritarismo , Comunismo/história , Existencialismo/psicologia , Teoria Freudiana/história , História do Século XX , Humanismo/história , Humanos , Complexo de Édipo , Teoria Psicanalítica , Superego
2.
Int J Psychoanal ; 98(3): 633-655, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28000920

RESUMO

In this paper fascination phenomenologically is described as a state of radically being captured by an imposing object. What is left of the impoverished and paralysed subject clings to the exclusive fascinating object. Fascination is the eye of the storm of extreme ambivalence towards an exclusive object: being the only remaining object it is necessary for living in an object world, but at the same time it is threatening to life by absorbing the subject totally. So the subject is sucked in by a yet frightening object. From a metapsychological point of view fascination is understood as the congealed result of excessive projective identification and a strong confusional state connected with it: the subject empties itself so much in the object that it comes to stand for the subject. The fascinating object embodies in a condensed way - as a special form of a bizarre object - split off unconscious threatening material. So fascination is linked to the Kleinian theory of anxiety. Two clinical vignettes illustrate how states of fascination can be understood as an ultimate defence against unconscious menacing material welling up. The hypothesis is developed that fascination points to a revelation of fundamental psychic truth that promptly cramps the subject because the reintegration of it is felt as annihilating. In the vignettes this takes the form of a 'transformation in hallucinosis'. Fascination is at the same time 'the moment of truth' and possibly a serious obstruction of the analytic process. This unconscious truth seems to concern primitive 'superego violence'. The challenge consists in thawing the frozen fascinating object by linking it to other material.


Assuntos
Medo/psicologia , Apego ao Objeto , Projeção , Teoria Psicanalítica , Superego , Ansiedade/psicologia , Mecanismos de Defesa , Humanos
3.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 48: 57-61, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27562332

RESUMO

The paper discusses Freud's view of the law as the implementation of collective violence on the individual violator. I focus on the implications of the link between the superego (as the source of moral judgment) and the aggressive drive and suggest that we need to be ever vigilant regarding the danger of employing the law as a disguised means of taking pleasure in collective violence. The paper also discusses Freud's conception of personal responsibility, according to which we are responsible for all our behavior, including unconsciously motivated behavior (such as slips and dreams). However, the kind of responsibility Freud has in mind is not the moral responsibility of blameworthiness or praiseworthiness, but rather responsibility in the sense that, whether or not acknowledged, all our behavior reflects our personal desires and motives.


Assuntos
Teoria Freudiana , Jurisprudência/história , Psicanálise/história , Julgamento Moral Retrospectivo , Responsabilidade Social , Superego , Violência/história , Áustria , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX
4.
Int J Psychoanal ; 97(6): 1499-1520, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27374132

RESUMO

The first section of the paper explores a number of differing views regarding the concept of the superego, essentially in terms of its formation and its functions. Two broad theories of superego development, both of which were introduced by Freud, are described. The first takes the superego to be principally oedipal in origin; the second traces the superego to an earlier period. The controversy about the usefulness of the concept of the death instinct is also implicated in the different views. It is then suggested that it is worthwhile to distinguish between a normal superego and a pathological superego and that these two distinct models of the superego are implicit in the work of both Freud and Klein. Strachey's (1934) views on the nature of the mutative effect of psychoanalytic treatment are briefly reviewed in the light of this distinction. It is suggested that Strachey was hesitant in clarifying the full implications of his views, particularly regarding the reasons for the difficulty the psychoanalyst will experience in making a transference interpretation. It is argued that the difficulty will relate to the psychoanalyst's anxiety about having sufficiently worked through the countertransference, particularly in relation to superego functioning. Two brief clinical vignettes are considered in support of this view. The last section of the paper offers some comments on the emotional development of the psychoanalyst and the ways that maturing as a psychoanalyst will involve a certain mellowing of the analyst's stance and a greater tolerance of the patient's prerogative to bring the full range of his or her personality into the treatment.


Assuntos
Relações Profissional-Paciente , Terapia Psicanalítica/métodos , Superego , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 19: 73-8, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26957343

RESUMO

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is characterized by intrusive images or impulses and/or ritualistic and rigid behaviors. Symptoms of OCD have different contents including contamination, harming and symmetry. Religion is one of the themes that has been observed in the context of OCD frequently. The aim of the present study was to examine the power of superego and ego characteristics in predicting scrupulosity and non-religious obsessions and compulsions, as well as comparing the two sets of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Sixty six Iranian (19 men, 47 women) participated in the study. All participants were asked to complete Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory, Penn Inventory of Scrupulosity, Perfectionism Cognitions Inventory, the Multidimensional Anger Inventory, and Ego Strength Scale. Results showed that perfectionism and anger were positively correlated with scrupulosity and non-religious obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Ego control was negatively correlated with scrupulosity, while ego resiliency was not correlated with any of these two sets of symptoms. Regression analysis indicated that among these variables, anger was the best predictor of non-religious obsessive-compulsive symptoms, while perfectionism and ego control were the best predictors of scrupulosity.


Assuntos
Comportamento Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Ego , Comportamento Obsessivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Religião e Psicologia , Superego , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Comportamento Compulsivo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Obsessivo/psicologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Inventário de Personalidade , Adulto Jovem
6.
Psychoanal Rev ; 101(5): 735-65, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25247288

RESUMO

In this paper we follow the development and transmission of moral learning from Adam Smith's impartial spectator to Sigmund Freud's superego and then to contemporary psychoanalysis. We argue that defenses are an integral component in the acquisition of any moral system. Elaborating on this argument, we assert that there is a progression from defensive systems that are "closed" to defensive systems that are "open," as defined in a recent work by Novick and Novick. The former system is "static, avoids reality, and is characterized by power dynamics, sadomasochism, and omnipotent defense." The latter, on the other hand, is a system that allows for "joy, creativity, spontaneity, love and it is attuned to reality." Furthermore, while Smith and Freud's systems are more one-person systems of defense, contemporary psychoanalysis has moved to more of a two-person system.


Assuntos
Mecanismos de Defesa , Teoria Freudiana/história , Princípios Morais , Psicanálise/história , Teoria Psicanalítica , Empatia , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XX , Humanos , Superego
7.
Psychoanal Rev ; 101(1): 81-94, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24555553

RESUMO

The author traces the history of superego theories in Freud's work and shows how latter contributions to psychoanalytic theory by Gray, the Novicks, and Arlow have provided theoretical foundations for innovative treatments in psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Arlow's insight into the continuous debates and discussions within our patients provides us with an opportunity to join in these discussions. Vignettes from two mildly obesssional male patients seen twice and twice a week provide demonstrations of this approach in psychoanalytic psychotherapy.


Assuntos
Ego , Teoria Freudiana , Psicanálise/história , Interpretação Psicanalítica , Terapia Psicanalítica/métodos , Superego , Agendamento de Consultas , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Profissional-Paciente
8.
Psychoanal Study Child ; 68: 264-89, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26173339

RESUMO

Psychoanalytic literature has often overlooked the child's participation in organized sports, which often can facilitate or impede not only expression of aggression and narcissism, but enhance or skew the growth of the child's superego and ego ideal. Specific outcomes are largely determined by the experience and knowledge of the parents, the coaches, and sports organizations for latency-aged youth. Sports participation facilitates a major step forward in psychic development, that is, an agreed-upon adherence to a set of rules and regulations, monitored by an official embodying the final word regarding rules and their infractions. This paper is an attempt to delineate the role of sports in the life of the latency child, the parents who become involved, the coaches who teach and supervise, and the social and individual milieu within which sports take place. All these contribute to common goals: the engendering of good sportsmanship and the encouragement of psychic growth, particularly regarding how aggression and narcissism contribute to the development of superego and ego ideals. The fate of aggression and narcissism in superego and ego ideal development is influenced to a large degree by the nature, orientation, and motivations of all involved in sports for the latency-aged.


Assuntos
Identidade de Gênero , Período de Latência Psicossexual , Interpretação Psicanalítica , Esportes/psicologia , Superego , Adolescente , Agressão/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ego , Objetivos , Humanos , Masculino , Narcisismo , Socialização
9.
Encephale ; 40(1): 33-41, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23816057

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This article examines the relationship between children's oppositional behaviour and the exercise of parental authority. It seeks to explore the value of a heuristic approach to psychic temporality in exercising parental authority. The study aims to better understand the role of psychic temporality in operations producing symbolic law. It goes on to describe a disorder of temporality, known as temporal anomie, which may be involved in a child's oppositional disorders. STUDY: Psychiatric or psychological consultations motivated by oppositional disorders in children have increased steadily in the past fifteen years in France. The primary reason for consultation is in the form of difficulties for children in accepting the social rules or constraints, but also the difficulties of parenting while coping with the opposition of their children. This increase is made in connection with the works analysing the social and psychological effects imposed by modernity and its acceleration. Correspondingly, we find that some parents do not prioritize their educational requirements, do not know when or how to frustrate their child, or even if it is legitimate to expect from him/her a certain type of behaviour. They seem more preoccupied with the fear of not being loved by their child more than their duty to educate. A general trend suggests an alteration of psychological time, characterized by: a) a disinvestment of links between present and past for the enjoyment of the moment and its extension in the immediate future ; b) a difficulty in supporting educational responses causing frustration for the child ; c) a lack of continuity and constancy in educational requirements. The author proposes to define temporal anomie as the psychical time that weakens the consistency of educational responses. A link between psychological temporality and the symbolic law is discussed. Specifically, the study notes that: in intersubjective relations, mastery of psychological time by parents is an integrating factor of the law for the child. In this sense, temporal anomie can affect the child's development of superego. Anomie time is the result of a weakening of the transitional temporality. Transitional temporality provides legitimacy for educational interventions. This allows parents to support conflicts and opposition of the child. To this end, transitional temporality promotes links between past, present and future, between tradition and innovation. CONCLUSION: Psychic temporality offers a new perspective, particularly heuristic because it is undoubtedly an essential dimension involved in the process of subjectivation and socialization. The concept of anomie time enables one to better understand the fragility of parenthood frequently encountered in child psychiatric consultations and allows one to link this to the evolution of society.


Assuntos
Anomia (Social) , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/psicologia , Autoritarismo , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Mudança Social , Percepção do Tempo , Logro , Adolescente , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/terapia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Feminino , Frustração , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Psicológico , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Conformidade Social , Socialização , Superego , Simbolismo
10.
J Pers Assess ; 96(2): 192-203, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24066810

RESUMO

The Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 2003) has specific procedures to address brief Rorschach protocols when the first administration yields fewer than 14 responses. These procedures involve the assessor's asking the client to retake the test by providing more responses on the second administration than the first administration. The request carries with it an implicit criticism of the client's initial effort and a mandate to improve performance on retake. The retake request, with its ambiguously worded demand for improved performance, engages the client's superego (i.e., the client feels judged) and makes it possible to study superego manifestations (e.g., guilt, shame) on the Rorschach test, using a model of (a) brief first record, (b) retake directive, and (c) second administration. We present a case that illustrates a clinical strategy, modeled on a psychoanalytic understanding of the CS retake procedure, for studying the client's superego functioning under retest conditions.


Assuntos
Deficiências da Aprendizagem/psicologia , Interpretação Psicanalítica , Teste de Rorschach/normas , Superego , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/diagnóstico , Pesquisa Qualitativa
11.
Bull Menninger Clin ; 77(2): 132-60, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23697819

RESUMO

This article presents a guide for conceptualizing psychological difficulties across the broad spectrum of personality and symptom disorders. A psychodynamic model is used to organize these disorders along a structural continuum of severity. The authors propose that seven key indices of personality functioning be evaluated: cognition, affect, self-object relations, interpersonal relations, defenses, superego functioning, and primary dynamics. The results are then employed to determine where the patient should be placed along a continuum of nine diagnostic categories of ego development and their associated disorders. These include "normal," neurotic trait, and neurotic symptom organization; high-, mid-, and low-level borderline organization; and affective, cognitive-affective, and cognitive psychotic organization. An accurate evaluation of the seven variables will permit a more precise formulation of the nature and severity of the patient's difficulties, which will hopefully result in more accurate and appropriate treatment planning. Examples of the application of this model to a common symptom complaint are provided.


Assuntos
Transtornos Neuróticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Afeto/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Mecanismos de Defesa , Ego , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Modelos Psicológicos , Transtornos Neuróticos/psicologia , Apego ao Objeto , Personalidade/fisiologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Autoimagem , Superego
12.
J Am Psychoanal Assoc ; 60(6): 1199-220, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23104932

RESUMO

The erotic transference can be seen as the Janus face of clinical work in psychoanalysis: it may either arise out of the positive emotions necessary for the building of new shared realities, or be fueled by falsified and distorted constructions. In the former case, the erotic transference expresses the capacity to anticipate, or "dream," the emotional relationship with the object-which is why Freud valued its transformative aspect as one of the "forces impelling [the patient] to . . . make changes"-whereas in the latter it is equivalent to a flight from psychic reality and may be imperceptibly transformed into an actual delusion.


Assuntos
Delusões/psicologia , Sonhos , Amor , Apego ao Objeto , Terapia Psicanalítica/métodos , Sexualidade/psicologia , Transferência Psicológica , Adulto , Emoções , Feminino , Teoria Freudiana , Humanos , Masculino , Narcisismo , Interpretação Psicanalítica , Superego
14.
Int J Psychoanal ; 93(1): 151-66, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22320140

RESUMO

This paper explores fundamental dimensions of Melanie Klein's concept of the ego through a detailed study of the writings of Klein and her early colleagues (Paula Heimann, Susan Isaacs and Joan Riviere). The study examines three central issues: (a) the basic theoretical framework for Klein's conceptualization of the ego, and specifically how her conceptualization builds on Freud's structural and dual instinct models; (b) the processes involved in the development of the ego and its capacities (including the development from id to ego and from ego to superego); and (c) the view of the ego as an object of phantasy. Through this examination, the study demonstrates that Klein's conceptualization of the ego is firmly grounded both in Freud's formulations about the ego and in his theoretical and metapsychological approach to thinking about the ego. This counters the prevalent view that Klein was only focused on clinical understandings, unconcerned with theory and fuzzy in her abstract thinking. More specifically, it counters the view that Klein did not really have a concept of the ego in any well-structured sense of the term (Britton, 2003; Hinshelwood, 1994; Segal, 2001). The study considers the sources of these misconceived views. Finally, it argues that discarding such views allows us to appreciate better the richness of Klein's thinking, her theoretical affinities to Freud, and the role of theory in the development and justification of psychoanalysis.


Assuntos
Ego , Teoria Freudiana , Psicanálise/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Superego
15.
Sci Am ; 306(1): 31, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22279831
16.
Int J Psychoanal ; 93(6): 1357-75, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23278199

RESUMO

The authors present a clinical discussion of the psychic functions of the chador, a veil-like outer garment worn in public by some Iranian women. Drawing on Anzieu's theoretical concept of the skin ego, the authors suggest that the chador does not just cover the body; it may also envelop the psyche and function as a second skin for the ego. The maternal function of a holding environment is symbolically displaced on any clothing that 'hides,''covers,''veils,' or 'dresses' the body. The skin's containing functions are extended through sensory and metonymic mediations to clothes, thus providing an imaginary maternal sack for the person. The clinical vignettes presented here suggest that for some Iranian women the chador may work, on one hand, as a second skin ego and a shield against a perceived intrusive world. On the other hand, it may work as a punitive maternal superego, a 'holding cell' in a jail that paralyses the separation/individuation process. Operating in the service of the patient's resistance and defense, the chador may also function as a psychic refuge and a place to hide on the couch.


Assuntos
Vestuário/psicologia , Ego , Religião , Superego , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Teoria Psicanalítica , Autoimagem
17.
Int J Psychoanal ; 92(5): 1221-40, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22014367

RESUMO

With the help of attachment theory and research, the paper attempts to broaden and build on classical and current views on the superego. Attachment theory's epigenetic approach and the concept of the subliminal superego are described. The superego, it is argued, is as much concerned with safety as sex. The superego is 'heir', not just to the Oedipus complex or Klein's pre-oedipal constellation, but also to the attachment relationship. Under favourable developmental conditions a 'mature superego' emerges, facilitating, in the presence of an internal secure base, maturational boundary crossings towards adult sexuality. In the light of the above, the paper reviews Lear's updating of Strachey's model of psychic change and explores the concept of transgression in relation to the 'professional superego', its development and maturation. Theoretical arguments are illustrated with clinical examples.


Assuntos
Apego ao Objeto , Teoria Psicanalítica , Superego , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações Pais-Filho , Psicanálise/métodos , Interpretação Psicanalítica
18.
Pol Merkur Lekarski ; 31(182): 130-3, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21936354

RESUMO

For many years, the borderline personality disorders have mainly been researched in terms of psychoanalytical theories, such as theories on relations with the object. Nowadays, there are three kinds of concepts that are distinguishable. The first ones are those which are group models, serving attempts to made characteristic sets of qualities, represented by individuals suffering from the borderline personality disorders, more precise. The remaining concepts are models of conflict and deficit, which explain complicated mechanisms of interactions of social, psychological and biological factors, and therefore, contribute to better understanding of the genesis of the symptoms of this disorder. Upon the basis of the attempts made so far in the field of describing the borderline personality disorders, one may indicate certain criteria, representative for the entire group of individuals with this diagnosis, regardless of the assumptions applicable to the genesis of the disorder and its symptoms, even though the population of the infirm suffering from the borderline personality disorders is not internally homogenous. The interest of psychologists, attempting to describe the borderline personality disorders, is focused upon certain sets of qualities, presented as the examples of descriptive models. Among the researchers, working on the issues of the borderline personality disorders in this manner, there are: Gunderson, Kernberg, Kohut, Winnicot, Guntrip, Fairbaim, Adler and Buie.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Teoria Psicológica , Ego , Humanos , Id , Superego
19.
Coll Antropol ; 35 Suppl 1: 127-31, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21648322

RESUMO

In this paper, we explored the super-ego ofpatients with coronary artery disease. Research results have confirmed the initial hypothesis that a significant number of patients with coronary artery disease has rigorous super-ego. Among patients with coronary artery disease (N=50), and control group (N=50), we have found significant differences in the quality of super-ego and ego attitude towards the demands of the super-ego. The results of this research contribute to understanding the impact of psychological factors in coronary artery disease.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/psicologia , Superego , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Psicológicos
20.
Psychoanal Rev ; 98(2): 217-45, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21539410

RESUMO

Even an originally revolutionary movement like psychoanalysis can become conservative and can take refuge, at last, in reactionary acquiescence. Many revolutionary minds, fighters of yesterday, are tired and now rest their cause on dogmas and preconceived ideas. The progress of science does not tolerate such refuge. The shape of psychoanalysis around the year 2000 of our era will be very different from the concept of the New York Psychoanalytical Society of 1945. No prophetic gift is needed to predict that it will be much more occupied with the total human personality than with the sexual components. The picture of psychoanalysis in the year 2000 will, I am sure, be nearer to that which neo-psychoanalysis sketches then to that of libido theory. It will be recognized then that the crude sex-drive cannot have the power attributed to it by Freud and that early mixtures of sexual and non-sexual urges are clearly to be observed in those very phenomena which impress us as "purely" sexual." (Reik, 1945).


Assuntos
Libido , Amor , Apego ao Objeto , Teoria Psicanalítica , Sexualidade/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Criança , Mecanismos de Defesa , Literatura Erótica , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Libido/fisiologia , Masculino , Masoquismo/psicologia , Gravidez , Desenvolvimento Psicossexual/fisiologia , Sadismo/psicologia , Diferenciação Sexual/fisiologia , Sexualidade/fisiologia , Superego , Simbolismo , Inconsciente Psicológico
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