Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 70.390
Filtrar
1.
Indian J Public Health ; 64(Supplement): S201-S204, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496255

RESUMO

Background: Safeguarding the psychological well-being of the public is also an integral component of fighting COVID-19. However, there is limited availability of psychometric measures to document COVID-19-related anxiety among the general public. Objectives: This study was aimed at developing a validated scale to measure COVID-19-related anxiety. Methods: Three hundred and seven subjects from different gender, educational categories participated in the study. Exploratory factor analysis for the determination of factor structure, Pearson's correlation test, and Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA were employed in data analysis using SPSS version 20 software. Results: COVID-19 Anxiety Scale (CAS) demonstrated a two-component structure identified as: "fear of social interaction;" "illness anxiety." The final scale with seven items demonstrated good internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's Alpha 0.736). CAS exhibited good construct validity showing moderately negative correlation (Pearson's r = -0.417) with the self-rated mental health and resulted in higher scores among individuals with lower educational qualification (Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA χ2 [2, 303] = 38.01; P = 0.001). Conclusion: CAS is a rapidly administrable, valid, and reliable tool that can be used to measure COVID-19-related anxiety among the Indian population.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Betacoronavirus , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(suppl 1): 2411-2421, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520286

RESUMO

This paper presents the results of an opinion poll conducted in Brazil on the perception of social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic. The questionnaire was prepared on Google Forms, disseminated through social networks, with questions about the socioeconomic profile and factors associated with isolation. A non-probabilistic sample was obtained with 16,440 respondents. Data were analyzed using the Stata 13 software. Social interaction was the most affected aspect among people with higher education and income (45.8%), and financial problems caused a more significant impact (35%) among people with low income and education. Those who practice some physical activity showed lower levels of stress 13%, as well as greater normality in sleep 50.3%. People who reported living in worse habitability conditions reported willingness to remain isolated for less time, 73.9%. Among non-isolated people (10.7% of the total sample), 75.8% believe that social isolation will reduce the number of victims of COVID-19. We conclude, based on this sample, that the perception about social isolation as a pandemic mitigation action varies by income, education, age, and gender. However, most believe that it is the most appropriate control measure and are willing to wait as long as necessary to contribute to the fight against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pandemias , Espaço Pessoal , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Opinião Pública , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo
3.
NPJ Syst Biol Appl ; 6(1): 18, 2020 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532983

RESUMO

Using standard systems biology methodologies a 14-compartment dynamic model was developed for the Corona virus epidemic. The model predicts that: (i) it will be impossible to limit lockdown intensity such that sufficient herd immunity develops for this epidemic to die down, (ii) the death toll from the SARS-CoV-2 virus decreases very strongly with increasing intensity of the lockdown, but (iii) the duration of the epidemic increases at first with that intensity and then decreases again, such that (iv) it may be best to begin with selecting a lockdown intensity beyond the intensity that leads to the maximum duration, (v) an intermittent lockdown strategy should also work and might be more acceptable socially and economically, (vi) an initially intensive but adaptive lockdown strategy should be most efficient, both in terms of its low number of casualties and shorter duration, (vii) such an adaptive lockdown strategy offers the advantage of being robust to unexpected imports of the virus, e.g. due to international travel, (viii) the eradication strategy may still be superior as it leads to even fewer deaths and a shorter period of economic downturn, but should have the adaptive strategy as backup in case of unexpected infection imports, (ix) earlier detection of infections is the most effective way in which the epidemic can be controlled, whilst waiting for vaccines.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Epidemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Biologia de Sistemas , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Modelos Estatísticos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
4.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 206: 103062, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442775

RESUMO

A fast-growing literature is establishing how moving in time together has pro-social consequences, though no work to date has explored the persistence of these effects over time. Across two studies, people who had previously performed coordinated movements were over three times more likely to give their time to help their co-actor when asked 24 hours later than those who had performed a similar but uncoordinated task. Findings showed that group-level categorisation, but not social affiliation, partially mediated helping behaviour. This provides preliminary evidence that the pro-social effects of coordination are sustainable over a longer period than previously reported, and that the effects of coordination upon pro-social motivation may be more related to changes in group level categorisations than increased social affiliations.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Ajuda , Relações Interpessoais , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Atenção , Comportamento Cooperativo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Autoimagem , Percepção Social , Adulto Jovem
5.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e113, 2020 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460943

RESUMO

We consider the ways humans engage in social epistemic actions, to guide each other's attention, prediction, and learning processes towards salient information, at the timescale of online social interaction and joint action. This parallels the active guidance of other's attention, prediction, and learning processes at the longer timescale of niche construction and cultural practices, as discussed in the target article.


Assuntos
Cognição , Relações Interpessoais , Atenção , Processos Grupais , Humanos , Aprendizagem
6.
Am J Nurs ; 120(6): 12-13, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443103
7.
Am J Nurs ; 120(6): 67-68, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443131

RESUMO

Updated several times a week with posts by a wide variety of authors, AJN's blog Off the Charts allows us to provide more timely-and often more personal-perspectives on professional, policy, and clinical issues. Best of the Blog is a regular column to draw the attention of AJN readers to posts we think deserve a wider audience. To read more, please visit: www.ajnoffthecharts.com.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Apoio Social , Empatia , Humanos , Mídias Sociais
8.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 73(3-4): 129-134, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32364340

RESUMO

Background and purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and characteristics of attacks in patients with migraine, to determine the effects of anxiety or depressive symptoms, and to evaluate the marital relationships of patients with migraine. Methods: Thirty patients who were admitted to the neurology outpatient clinic of our hospital between July 2018 and October 2018 and were diagnosed with migraine according to the 2013 International Headache Society (IHS) diagnostic criteria were included in this cross-sectional study. Age, sex, headache frequency and severity, depressive traits, marital satisfaction and anxiety status were examined. We used the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Maudsley Marital Questionnaire (MMQ) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for measuring relevant parameters. Results: The mean severity of migraine pain according to VAS scale was 6.93 ± 1.41 and the mean number of migraine attacks was 4.50 ± 4.24. The mean BDI score of the patients was 12.66 ± 8.98, the mean MMQ-M score was 19.80 ± 12.52, the mean MMQ-S score was 13.20 ± 9.53, the mean STAI-state score was 39.93 ± 10.87 and the mean STAI-trait score was 45.73 ± 8.96. No significant correlation was found between age, number of migraine attacks, migraine duration, migraine headache intensity, and BDI, STAI and MMQ scores (p>0.05). But there was a positive correlation between MMQ-S and scores obtained from the BDI and STAI-state scales (p<0.05). Conclusion: In this study more than half of the migraine patients had mild, moderate or severe depression. A positive correlation was found between sexual dissatisfaction and scale scores of depression and anxiety.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Casamento/psicologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/complicações , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Humanos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida
9.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(692): 911-914, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374536

RESUMO

One part of the population of neurolesioned patients is the transition of young patients with neurodisabilities to adult life. To guarantee favourable social and professional reinsertion is a major challenge, requiring inter-professional care. For this reason, in 2006 the CHUV, Lausanne created a transition-consultation framework with neuro-paediatricians and adult neurologists specialised in neuro-rehabilitation linked to a Swiss pilot social and professional reinsertion project collaborating with the invalidity insurance. As a model of the follow up of neurolesioned patients, this article reports the results of the reinsertion project that aims to bring awareness to the general practitioner of an inter-disciplinary care method adaptable to individuals. The holistic service saves time and improves the rate of successful reinsertion of young adults into social and professional life.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência/reabilitação , Emprego , Medicina Geral/métodos , Relações Interpessoais , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Clínicos Gerais , Humanos , Encaminhamento e Consulta
10.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 124, 2020 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To mitigate and slow the spread of COVID-19, many countries have adopted unprecedented physical distancing policies, including the UK. We evaluate whether these measures might be sufficient to control the epidemic by estimating their impact on the reproduction number (R0, the average number of secondary cases generated per case). METHODS: We asked a representative sample of UK adults about their contact patterns on the previous day. The questionnaire was conducted online via email recruitment and documents the age and location of contacts and a measure of their intimacy (whether physical contact was made or not). In addition, we asked about adherence to different physical distancing measures. The first surveys were sent on Tuesday, 24 March, 1 day after a "lockdown" was implemented across the UK. We compared measured contact patterns during the "lockdown" to patterns of social contact made during a non-epidemic period. By comparing these, we estimated the change in reproduction number as a consequence of the physical distancing measures imposed. We used a meta-analysis of published estimates to inform our estimates of the reproduction number before interventions were put in place. RESULTS: We found a 74% reduction in the average daily number of contacts observed per participant (from 10.8 to 2.8). This would be sufficient to reduce R0 from 2.6 prior to lockdown to 0.62 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37-0.89) after the lockdown, based on all types of contact and 0.37 (95% CI = 0.22-0.53) for physical (skin to skin) contacts only. CONCLUSIONS: The physical distancing measures adopted by the UK public have substantially reduced contact levels and will likely lead to a substantial impact and a decline in cases in the coming weeks. However, this projected decline in incidence will not occur immediately as there are significant delays between infection, the onset of symptomatic disease, and hospitalisation, as well as further delays to these events being reported. Tracking behavioural change can give a more rapid assessment of the impact of physical distancing measures than routine epidemiological surveillance.


Assuntos
Número Básico de Reprodução , Infecções por Coronavirus , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Isolamento Social , Atividades Cotidianas , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Busca de Comunicante , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Relações Interpessoais , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
11.
Sante Publique ; HS1(S1): 53-67, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374095

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This ethnographic work seeks to understand the construction of gender and generational social relationships around the health of the newborn in both the care setting and in the family setting. METHOD: An immersion of several weeks made it possible to collect data on the most common perceptions and practices that shape the daily lives of the various actors involved in the health of the newborn. The data was collected using participant observation, semi-structured interviews. Much additional data was collected through informal interviews. RESULTS: In health institutions, people who play the role of caregiver are usually women. They come most often from the husband's family and are engaged in a role that can be assimilated to "care". In most cases, the involvement of husbands concerns the transport of the woman to the health center, the transport of food, the administrative procedures, the payment of prescriptions. In a family environment, caring for the newborn also follows sexual logic as well as generational logic that shows a better integration of biomedicine guidelines by young women. However, the data from the survey showed that men's involvement and women's involvement can not be defined according to a dual separation between masculine and feminine roles because social relations are constructed according to many other variables. CONCLUSION: The health of the newborn is at the center of several normative registers that try to influence it in their own way. This necessarily plural reality often escapes public health programs.


Assuntos
Cuidado do Lactente/métodos , Saúde do Lactente , Relações Interpessoais , População Rural , Apoio Social , Cônjuges , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mali
12.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; 9(3): 241-247, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32342698

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented challenge for society. Supporting the mental health of medical staff and affiliated healthcare workers (staff) is a critical part of the public health response. This paper details the effects on staff and addresses some of the organisational, team and individual considerations for supporting staff (pragmatically) during this pandemic. Leaders at all levels of health care organisations will find this a valuable resource.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Corpo Clínico/psicologia , Saúde Mental/normas , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Intervenção na Crise/organização & administração , Cuidados Críticos/psicologia , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Empoderamento , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanismo , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Relações Interpessoais , Liderança , Corpo Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Médicos/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático Agudo/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático Agudo/psicologia
13.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(6): 1178-1180, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314700

RESUMO

The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic highlights the experience of communities in the global South that have grappled with vulnerability and scarcity for decades. In the global North, many frontline workers are now being similarly forced to provide and ration care in unprecedented ways, with minimal guidance. We outline six reflections gained as Western practitioners working in resource-denied settings which inform our current experience with COVID-19. The reflections include the following: managing trauma, remaining flexible in dynamic situations, and embracing discomfort to think bigger about context-specific solutions to collectively build back our systems. Through this contextualized reflection on resilience, we hope to motivate strength and solidarity for providers, patients, and health systems, while proposing critical questions for our response moving forward.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/ética , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/economia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/ética , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/economia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/ética , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Saúde Pública/ética , Incerteza
14.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230011, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32310985

RESUMO

It is a trope in psychological science to define the human species as inherently social. Yet, despite its key role in human behaviour, the mechanisms by which social bonding actually shapes social behaviour have not been fully characterized. Across six studies, we show that the motivation for social bonding does not indiscriminately increase individuals' willingness to approach others but that it is instead associated with specific variations in social evaluations. Studies 1-4 demonstrate that social motivation is associated with a larger importance granted to cooperation-related impressions, i.e. perceived trustworthiness, during social evaluations. Studies 5 and 6 further reveal that this weighting difference leads strongly socially motivated participants to approach more partners that are perceived as both dominant and trustworthy. Taken together, our results provide support for the idea that humans' social motivation is associated with specific social preferences that could favour successful cooperative interactions and a widening of people's cooperative circle.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Face/fisiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Motivação/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Confiança/psicologia
16.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(4): e18936, 2020 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an urgent public health crisis, with epidemiologic models predicting severe consequences, including high death rates, if the virus is permitted to run its course without any intervention or response. Contact tracing using smartphone technology is a powerful tool that may be employed to limit disease transmission during an epidemic or pandemic; yet, contact tracing apps present significant privacy concerns regarding the collection of personal data such as location. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to develop an effective contact tracing smartphone app that respects user privacy by not collecting location information or other personal data. METHODS: We propose the use of an anonymized graph of interpersonal interactions to conduct a novel form of contact tracing and have developed a proof-of-concept smartphone app that implements this approach. Additionally, we developed a computer simulation model that demonstrates the impact of our proposal on epidemic or pandemic outbreak trajectories across multiple rates of adoption. RESULTS: Our proof-of-concept smartphone app allows users to create "checkpoints" for contact tracing, check their risk level based on their past interactions, and anonymously self-report a positive status to their peer network. Our simulation results suggest that higher adoption rates of such an app may result in a better controlled epidemic or pandemic outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: Our proposed smartphone-based contact tracing method presents a novel solution that preserves privacy while demonstrating the potential to suppress an epidemic or pandemic outbreak. This app could potentially be applied to the current COVID-19 pandemic as well as other epidemics or pandemics in the future to achieve a middle ground between drastic isolation measures and unmitigated disease spread.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Aplicativos Móveis , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Autorrelato , Smartphone , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Simulação por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Pandemias , Grupo Associado , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Privacidade , Saúde Pública , Medição de Risco
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344770

RESUMO

Although social presence plays an essential role under general conditions, its role becomes significant for societal protection during the quarantine period in epidemic outbreak. In this study, we attempted to identify the role of E-government and COVID-19 word of mouth in terms of their direct impact on online social presence during the outbreak as well as their impacts mediated by epidemic protection and attitudes toward epidemic outbreaks. For this purpose, a unique multi-mediation model is proposed to provide a new direction for research in the field of epidemic outbreaks and their control. Through random sampling, an online survey was conducted and data from 683participants were analyzed. Partial least squares structural equation modeling was used to test the relationships between the variables of interest. The study results revealed that the roles of E-government and COVID-19 word of mouth are positively related to online social presence during the outbreak. Epidemic protection and attitude toward epidemic outbreak were found to positively moderate the impact of the role of E-government and COVID-19 word of mouth on online social presence during the outbreak. The key findings of this study have both practical and academic implications.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavirus , Governo , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena , Mídias Sociais , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
AMA J Ethics ; 22(4): E344-345, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345430

RESUMO

In isolation, we are physically apart; in solidarity, we are together. The COVID-19 pandemic emphasizes our social responsibility to maintain physical distance from one another. In doing so, we solidify our collective strength.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Isolamento Social , Responsabilidade Social , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA