Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 13.613
Filtrar
1.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 132(13-14): 400-402, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643017

RESUMO

Mankind has to prepare for a pandemic with respect to medical and practical aspects, but also with respect to ethical issues. There are various ethical guidelines for managing infectious disease outbreaks, but they do not apply to the specific aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic, since they were formulated after the different kinds of outbreaks of avian influenza and Ebola. Today we are confronted with completely new issues endangering our fundamental human rights. As COVID-19 is spreading all over the world, we are in a desperate situation to find treatment solutions; however, despite the urgency, scientific rules have to be applied as bad science is unethical since it might be harmful for patients. Fake news and alternative facts might not be easily recognized and are also threatening scientific values. Pandemics might be leading to a meltdown of the health system if no measures are being taken constraining fundamental human rights. Tracking of persons is violating human rights as well if not accepted on a voluntary basis. A failure to have safeguards for times of crisis leads to a scarcity of medicinal products and goods resulting in a nationalistic approach and ignorance of international solidarity. And last but not least selective measures and triage in intensive care have to be taught to young physicians and nursing staff in medical schools in order to be prepared in times of an infectious disease outbreak and scarcity of resources.


Assuntos
Defesa Civil , Infecções por Coronavirus , Direitos Humanos , Pandemias/ética , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Defesa Civil/ética , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Alocação de Recursos/ética , Revelação da Verdade
3.
MEDICC Rev ; 22(2): 45-46, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478708

RESUMO

As the COVID-19 health crisis engulfs the planet, we are sub-merged in a parallel pandemic: the glut of misinformation and disinformation. The data associated with this phenomenon are creating a disaster within a disaster. In early April 2020, the Span-ish news agency EFE[1] reported that over one million internet ac-counts were dedicated to rumor-mongering, spreading unverifi ed information about the coronavirus. From January through April 13, fact-checkers at Maldita.es[2] had tracked over 400 lies and false alerts circulated about COVID-19 in Spain alone.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Revelação da Verdade , Cuba , Humanos , Internet
4.
Recenti Prog Med ; 111(6): 357-367, 2020 06.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573551

RESUMO

The global emergency caused by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has suddenly changed how we communicate with families in all the CoViD-19 care settings, due to the obligation to maintain complete social isolation. Healthcare workers are isolated from their families, and must manage the consequences of this isolation just like the patients. They and their families perceive the personal attitudes, closeness and psychological support from the care teams. This perception of genuine participation by the healthcare workers during isolation is especially important when a patient dies, and it may influence the process of grief. This document is intended for all healthcare professionals caring for CoViD-19 patients, particularly those in more severe clinical conditions and it is aimed to help the care team to communicate with families distanced from the patient. The document consists of three parts: 1) presentation of the statements for communicating with patients family members during isolation; 2) discussion of key points as a theoretical framework for the statements; 3) instructions for telephone communication, with a checklist and a worksheet. The document was written by authors from different disciplines (doctors, nurses, psychologists, legal experts) and was then reviewed by a group of experts comprising professionals, people who have experienced ICU hospitalization, and their families. Finally, the document was approved by the National Boards of the Italian Society of Anesthesia and Intensive Care (SIAARTI), Italian Association of Critical Care Nurses (Aniarti), Italian Society of Emergency Medicine (SIMEU), and Italian Society of Palliative Care (SICP).


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Isolamento de Pacientes , Pneumonia Viral , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Isolamento Social , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Lista de Checagem , Barreiras de Comunicação , Confidencialidade , Correio Eletrônico , Relações Familiares , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Preferência do Paciente , Relações Profissional-Família , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Apoio Social , Telefone , Revelação da Verdade
7.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(5): e19458, 2020 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of December 2019, the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has spread rapidly around the world, which has led to increased discussions across online platforms. These conversations have also included various conspiracies shared by social media users. Amongst them, a popular theory has linked 5G to the spread of COVID-19, leading to misinformation and the burning of 5G towers in the United Kingdom. The understanding of the drivers of fake news and quick policies oriented to isolate and rebate misinformation are keys to combating it. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to develop an understanding of the drivers of the 5G COVID-19 conspiracy theory and strategies to deal with such misinformation. METHODS: This paper performs a social network analysis and content analysis of Twitter data from a 7-day period (Friday, March 27, 2020, to Saturday, April 4, 2020) in which the #5GCoronavirus hashtag was trending on Twitter in the United Kingdom. Influential users were analyzed through social network graph clusters. The size of the nodes were ranked by their betweenness centrality score, and the graph's vertices were grouped by cluster using the Clauset-Newman-Moore algorithm. The topics and web sources used were also examined. RESULTS: Social network analysis identified that the two largest network structures consisted of an isolates group and a broadcast group. The analysis also revealed that there was a lack of an authority figure who was actively combating such misinformation. Content analysis revealed that, of 233 sample tweets, 34.8% (n=81) contained views that 5G and COVID-19 were linked, 32.2% (n=75) denounced the conspiracy theory, and 33.0% (n=77) were general tweets not expressing any personal views or opinions. Thus, 65.2% (n=152) of tweets derived from nonconspiracy theory supporters, which suggests that, although the topic attracted high volume, only a handful of users genuinely believed the conspiracy. This paper also shows that fake news websites were the most popular web source shared by users; although, YouTube videos were also shared. The study also identified an account whose sole aim was to spread the conspiracy theory on Twitter. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of quick and targeted interventions oriented to delegitimize the sources of fake information is key to reducing their impact. Those users voicing their views against the conspiracy theory, link baiting, or sharing humorous tweets inadvertently raised the profile of the topic, suggesting that policymakers should insist in the efforts of isolating opinions that are based on fake news. Many social media platforms provide users with the ability to report inappropriate content, which should be used. This study is the first to analyze the 5G conspiracy theory in the context of COVID-19 on Twitter offering practical guidance to health authorities in how, in the context of a pandemic, rumors may be combated in the future.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Fraude/prevenção & controle , Fraude/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Opinião Pública , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Saúde Pública/métodos , Rede Social , Revelação da Verdade , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 382, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disclosure of Human Immunodeficiency Virus positive status significantly reduced the transmission of HIV; yet, it remains a challenge for many HIV patients. Disclosure serves plays a crucial role to raise awareness and to reduce risky behaviors. Hence, this study aimed to determine the pooled prevalence and effect sizes of determinant factors of HIV positive status disclosure through a systematic review and meta-analysis of the results of the existing primary studies in Ethiopia. METHOD: This systematic review and meta-analysis was aimed to determine prevalence of HIV positive status disclosure and associated factors by considering and searching published primary articles from different sources. A sensitivity test was conducted to evaluate the presence of influential studies. Besides, the heterogeneity test has been conducted; and publication bias was examined through observing the funnel plot as well as objectively by interpreting the Egger's regression test. Following the Egger's regression test, P-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant at 95% Confidence Interval. RESULT: A total of 18 primary studies were searched from different data sources. The overall pooled prevalence of HIV positive status disclosure among adult PLWHA in Ethiopia was indicated to be 75.95% (95% CI:69.93-81.98); the highest and lowest pooled estimated HIV status disclosure was in Amhara (82.78%) and Tigray (54.31%) regions respectively. Furthermore, Knowing the HIV positive status of sexual partner, AOR = 19.66(95% CI: 10.19-37.91), having prior discussion about HIV testing with their partner, AOR = 9.18(95% CI: 5.53-15.24), got Human Immunodeficiency Virus pretest counseling service AOR = 4.29(95% CI: 2.56-7.21) and being a member of HIV/AIDS associations, AOR = 3.34(95% CI: 2.17-5.12), were significantly associated with HIV positive status disclosure among People living With HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia. CONCLUSION: The pooled national estimate of HIV/AIDS positive status disclosure is low as compared to the WHO disclosure rate of developing countries and the findings of other national and international studies. Ministry of health and other stakeholders shall design new approaches and strategies to encourage disclosure of HIV status, educate the public about the negative impact of nondisclosure within family members. Health care providers working at Human HIV test centers shall emphasis extensive counseling on disclosure of status to a partner. Moreover, different stakeholders, health workers and community members shall establish, organize, and support HIV/AIDS Associations and motivate HIV positive people to be engaged and participated.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , HIV , Autorrevelação , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Revelação da Verdade , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/transmissão , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/virologia , Adulto , Aconselhamento/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Família , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Prevalência , Assunção de Riscos
9.
Bull Cancer ; 107(4): 417-427, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245605

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Medical oncology bad news consultation is a particularly stressful situation for both the patient and the physician. High-fidelity simulation is a learning option that has never been evaluated in France in this field. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a feedback from simulated announcement consultations carried out from January 2018 to May 2019. Residents from the medical oncology and radiotherapy departments performed high-fidelity simulations at the announcement consultation with an announcement nurse, a psychologist, a certified coach and an oncologist. A competency assessment was completed in pre-test, immediate post-test and after 5 months. RESULTS: Fourteen of the 16 eligible interns participated. The pre-test competency assessment showed that interns over 5 semesters reported being more comfortable at the consultation (P=0.04) and thought they were clearly explaining the disease (P=0.03). However, all residents, regardless of the semester, felt stressed before a consultation. The evolution of parameters skills after the simulation was positive for all criteria, particularly for adaptation to patient reactions, use of appropriate vocabulary and reduction of stress (P<0.05). This evolution was independent of the gender, curriculum, semester, or previous completion of a medical oncology internship. More than 80% of the students were ready to repeat this type of training. CONCLUSION: This training demonstrates the value of simulation training for medical oncology advertising consultation.


Assuntos
Treinamento com Simulação de Alta Fidelidade/métodos , Internato e Residência , Oncologia/educação , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Simulação de Paciente , Revelação da Verdade , Adulto , Competência Clínica , Feminino , França , Treinamento com Simulação de Alta Fidelidade/organização & administração , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/psicologia , Enfermagem Oncológica , Psicologia , Radioterapia (Especialidade)/educação , Radioterapia , Autoavaliação , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
11.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(2): e19374, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32338613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak, fake news and misleading information have circulated worldwide, which can profoundly affect public health communication. OBJECTIVE: We investigated online search behavior related to the COVID-19 outbreak and the attitudes of "infodemic monikers" (ie, erroneous information that gives rise to interpretative mistakes, fake news, episodes of racism, etc) circulating in Italy. METHODS: By using Google Trends to explore the internet search activity related to COVID-19 from January to March 2020, article titles from the most read newspapers and government websites were mined to investigate the attitudes of infodemic monikers circulating across various regions and cities in Italy. Search volume values and average peak comparison (APC) values were used to analyze the results. RESULTS: Keywords such as "novel coronavirus," "China coronavirus," "COVID-19," "2019-nCOV," and "SARS-COV-2" were the top infodemic and scientific COVID-19 terms trending in Italy. The top five searches related to health were "face masks," "amuchina" (disinfectant), "symptoms of the novel coronavirus," "health bulletin," and "vaccines for coronavirus." The regions of Umbria and Basilicata recorded a high number of infodemic monikers (APC weighted total >140). Misinformation was widely circulated in the Campania region, and racism-related information was widespread in Umbria and Basilicata. These monikers were frequently searched (APC weighted total >100) in more than 10 major cities in Italy, including Rome. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a growing regional and population-level interest in COVID-19 in Italy. The majority of searches were related to amuchina, face masks, health bulletins, and COVID-19 symptoms. Since a large number of infodemic monikers were observed across Italy, we recommend that health agencies use Google Trends to predict human behavior as well as to manage misinformation circulation in Italy.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Decepção , Comunicação em Saúde , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Internet , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Itália , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Revelação da Verdade
18.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 19(1): 48-56, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32153231

RESUMO

Mothers living with HIV are faced with the dilemma of when and how to disclose their HIV-positive status to their young uninfected children. In this study, a South African sample of mothers living with HIV, with young uninfected children (6-10 years) in the city of Tshwane was studied. In the sample of 406 mothers, 11.6% reported that they disclosed their HIV status to their young uninfected children. The research compared 47 mothers who disclosed (29 full disclosure and 18 partial disclosure) and a random sample of 50 mothers who did not disclose to their children, in terms of depression symptoms, parenting stress and coping strategies. The results showed that single and widowed mothers disclosed significantly more to their uninfected young children than mothers who had partners or were married. Mothers in the three disclosure groups did not differ in their experience of depression symptoms, parental distress and coping styles. Mothers who disclosed partially reported less parent-child dysfunctional interaction. Time since disclosure did not influence level of disclosure and was not significantly related to psychological outcome of mothers. Mothers who disclosed reported significantly more emotional and instrumental support as coping strategies than mothers who did not disclose. Mothers thus mostly disclose their status to their children to gain support and family closeness. Mothers who disclosed and had not disclosed did not differ in terms of psychological variables. Some mothers perceived partial disclosure as age-appropriate for young children. It is recommended that HIV-positive mothers receive psychosocial support services to equip them to disclose their health status in an age-appropriate way to their children, as it is documented that maternal disclosure benefits both mother and child.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Autorrevelação , Revelação da Verdade , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Criança , Depressão , Revelação , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais
19.
AIDS Care ; 32(sup2): 142-147, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192368

RESUMO

Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) are a key population that is disproportionately affected by HIV. However, few studies have explored how and why disclosure of HIV status occurs in this population. To understand disclosure in the context of other socioecological factors, we conducted a qualitative study among 24 self-identified HIV-positive GBMSM, aged 21 and above, and who were Singaporean residents. Analysis of participants' interviews revealed that disclosure of HIV status was not a binary event; rather, each type of disclosure held varying degrees of positive and negative ramifications. Disclosure and self-acknowledgement of HIV status at each time point also had different consequences for participants' quality of life. Suggested potential interventions include increasing training for medical professionals and public awareness surrounding issues relating to HIV. Findings from this study provide a framework to describe the complexities that accompany serostatus disclosure in a setting where there are prevalent "shame-based", negative attitudes towards HIV. As such, this framework can also be utilized in the future planning and organization of services for this target population in similar contexts.


Assuntos
Bissexualidade/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Revelação da Verdade , Adulto , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Soropositividade para HIV , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Autoimagem , Comportamento Sexual , Vergonha , Singapura , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA