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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(28): e20884, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664080

RESUMO

The objective of this work is to verify the relationship between the self-perception of health and the self-concept of physical appearance in adolescents, in order to check their influence on the physical activity they perform with the aim of preventing chronic illnesses. To this end, an observational, cross-sectional descriptive study with analytical components was carried out. Opportunistic activity, in which young people, between the ages of 16 and 22, were recruited from 5 secondary schools of the municipality of San Cristóbal de La Laguna, on the island of Tenerife (Spain). Data were collected through the General Health Questionnaire, the Rosemberg Self-esteem Scale, and the physical exercise habits test physical activity questionnaire for adolescents-A, revealing the first 2 that most percentage of responses were grouped on the positive side. The physical exercise habits test physical activity questionnaire for adolescents-A described that the most commonly performed physical activity was walking (75%).


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Aparência Física/fisiologia , Adolescente , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Autoimagem , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Caminhada/fisiologia , Caminhada/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Orv Hetil ; 161(28): 1175-1180, 2020 07.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609625

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Due to sedentary lifestyle, not only the risk of many chronic diseases and multimorbidity increase, but older people also lose their functional independency earlier. The first step to design effective interventions aiming to decrease sedentary lifestyle is to explore the factors associated with sedentary lifestyle. AIM: Our aims were to describe the type and duration of sitting activities and to examine the factors associated with sedentary lifestyle, namely 1) sociodemographic factors (i.e., age, gender, education level, marital status); 2) medical factors (chronic diseases, use of walking aids); 3) lifestyle factors (i.e., duration of institutionalization, smoking status) among older people living in nursing homes providing long-term care. METHOD: Data collected with questionnaire from 248 participants were analysed using logistic regression. RESULTS: There were 159 participants (64.1%) in total who were characterized by sedentary lifestyle. In our sample, the sedentary lifestyle was associated with the smoking status, the number of age-related chronic diseases, the duration of institutionalization, and the use of walking aids. CONCLUSION: The older people who have more chronic diseases, who are smokers and were institutionalized earlier are more likely to be characterised by sedentary lifestyle. Therefore, decision-making graduate health-care professionals should preferably focus their efforts on these older people in order to change the sedentary lifestyle by providing information about risk of this lifestyle, and offering programs relevant to older people's interests and functional status. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(26): 1175-1180.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos , Casas de Saúde , Comportamento Sedentário , Caminhada , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hungria/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Estado Civil , Fumar , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1037, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Australia, like other nations, has experienced a shift in dietary patterns away from home cooking of nutritious foods, towards a reliance on pre-prepared convenience meals. These are typically energy-dense, nutrient-poor and contribute to the rising prevalence of obesity and chronic disease burden. The aims of this study were to evaluate whether a community-based cooking program instigated a change to participants' skills, attitudes, knowledge, enjoyment and satisfaction of cooking and cooking confidence (self-efficacy). METHODS: The pseudo-random, pre-post study design consisted of an intervention and a control group. Participant recruitment and group allocation was based on their program start dates. Intervention participants were surveyed three times (baseline, 7 weeks and 6 months) and the control group were surveyed at baseline and 5 weeks. All participants were registered via an online website and were 18 years or over. Upon consent, participants were offered four levels of commitment, defined by different assessments. The minimum participation level included an online survey and levels 2, 3 and 4 involved attendance at a clinic with increasing functional, anthropometric and biomarker measurements. Primary endpoints were participants' cooking confidence as a proxy for self-efficacy. Secondary endpoints were dietary intake, physical activity levels, body composition, anthropometry, blood, urine and faecal biomarkers of systemic, physical and mental health. DISCUSSION: The community cooking program provided participants with information and advice on food sourcing, preparation and nutrition to improve home cooking skills. The study was designed to explore whether food literacy programs are efficacious in improving participant physical health and well-being in order to combat the rise in obesity and diet-related disease. It will support future use of public health cooking program initiatives aimed at improving food literacy, self-efficacy and physical and mental health. The extensive data collected will inform future research into the relationship between diet, the gut-microbiota and human health. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Retrospectively registered on 16.08.2019 with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR). ACTRN12619001144101 . Protocol version 4.


Assuntos
Culinária , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Autoeficácia , Adulto , Austrália , Biomarcadores , Doença Crônica , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Satisfação Pessoal , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Projetos de Pesquisa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
4.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(10): 5778-5782, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495915

RESUMO

Since the end of 2019, China and other regions around the world have been facing a pandemic of novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19). The virus is highly transmissible, and the human population is generally susceptible. Most patients with osteoporosis are postmenopausal women or elderly people with hypoimmunity, so the osteoporosis clinic has become a new hotspot for corona virus infection. During the COVID-19 pandemic, it is necessary to establish standardized out-patient protocols to provide safe and effective treatment for osteoporosis patients and medical staff. In an osteoporosis clinic, we advocate the following suggestions to prevent and control osteoporosis during the pandemic period: (1) specialized diagnosis and treatment techniques for osteoporosis patients in the outpatient care, including enhancing the prevention for outpatient medical staff, strengthening awareness of COVID-19 prevention, strictly screening outpatients with COVID-19 infection, and insistent administration of anti-osteoporosis drugs during outbreaks; (2) home prevention for osteoporosis patients including keeping windows open, exposing them to sunlight, supplementing them with enough protein, exercising regularly, and administrating calcium supplements; and (3) simplifying the follow-up and evaluation of osteoporosis using online platforms.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Osteoporose/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Betacoronavirus , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Corpo Clínico/psicologia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Osteoporose/complicações , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 727: 138648, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32498183

RESUMO

The gut microbiota appears to be a significant contributor to musculoskeletal health and disease. Genetic background, age, gender, diet, lifestyle and socio-economic aspects are also important factors that contribute to musculoskeletal health, as well as to the normal balance of the intestinal microbiota. Through the production of a large and diverse pool of bioactive small molecules, the gut microbiota can in fact signal to extra-intestinal organs, establishing a systems-level connection with the host metabolic, endocrine, immune and nervous apparatus. The gut microbiota has therefore been extensively studied in recent years, for health promotion, disease prevention and disease treatment, as well as for exercise performance. Practically, physical activity is recommended as a useful tool to prevent disease and improve prognosis when an athlete gets sick or injured. Therefore, the findings of studies performed on athletes should not be automatically transferred to all subjects undertaking non-competitive exercise.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Intestinos , Estilo de Vida
7.
Orv Hetil ; 161(27): 1137-1145, 2020 07.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564005

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Population-specific obesity in different age groups and in the Roma population as well as the presence of noncommunicable diseases that are linked to obesity necessitate the development of ethnical-specific prevention and intervention programmes. AIM: Our goal is to model the effects on nutritional status of interventional programmes of different intensities carried out in various age groups of the Roma population. METHOD: We defined the effect of different public health interventions on the state of health of the Roma population by use of the Dynamic Modeling for Health Impact Assessment software. Two models of interventions were studied throughout our research: one that focuses on only one aspect of lifestyle changes; and one that includes radical prevention programmes that aim to change lifestyles as a whole and have an impact on nutritional status. RESULTS: Nearly 20% of Roma men and women are obese, and by 2070, one third of the Roma population will be overweight or obese without any public health intervention. Not even when the most efficient proceedings of the scientific literature are applied do prevention-intervention programmes of moderate-intensity offer a perceptible result about the incidence and prevalence of diseases linked to obesity. In the case of application of these programs, not more than a ten-person order of magnitude decrease can be achieved. This is not enough to prove a statistical detectability on the population level. Whereas, complex intervention programmes, based on a comprehensive transformation of lifestyle and food consumption patterns can present perceptible outcome primarily among the middle-aged and the elderly. CONCLUSION: The survey results direct attention to the fact that reducing the burden of disease in the Roma population caused by obesity is only to be achieved as a complex, all-councils act that requires resources much greater than what is available now. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(27): 1137-1145.


Assuntos
Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde/métodos , Obesidade/etnologia , Qualidade de Vida , Roma/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Hungria/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Sobrepeso/etnologia
8.
Am J Bot ; 107(6): 876-885, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496601

RESUMO

PREMISE: Pyrophilous fungi form aboveground fruiting structures (ascocarps) following wildfires, but their ecology, natural history, and life cycles in the absence of wildfires are largely unknown. Sphaerosporella is considered to be pyrophilous. This study explores Sphaerosporella ascocarp appearance following a rare 2016 wildfire in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP), compares the timing of ascocarp formation with recovery of Sphaerosporella DNA sequences in soils, and explores the association of Sphaerosporella with post-fire Table Mountain pine (Pinus pungens) seedlings. METHODS: Burned sites in the GSMNP were surveyed for pyrophilous fungal ascocarps over 2 years. Ascocarps, mycorrhizae, and endophyte cultures were evaluated morphologically and by Sanger sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal ITS gene region (fungal barcode; Schoch et al., 2012). DNA from soil cores was subjected to Illumina sequencing. RESULTS: The timing and location of post-fire Sphaerosporella ascocarp formation was correlated with recovery of Sphaerosporella DNA sequences in soils. Genetic markers (fungal barcode) of Sphaerosporella were also recovered from mycorrhizal root tips and endophyte cultures from seedlings of Pinus pungens. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that Sphaerosporella species, in the absence of fire, are biotrophic, forming both mycorrhizal and endophytic associations with developing Pinus pungens seedlings and may persist in nature in the absence of wildfire as a conifer symbiont. We speculate that Sphaerosporella may fruit only after the host plant is damaged or destroyed and that after wildfires, deep roots, needle endophytes, or heat-resistant spores could serve as a source of soil mycelium.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Pinus , Fungos , Estilo de Vida , Raízes de Plantas , Plântula
9.
J Frailty Aging ; 9(3): 144-149, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frailty is a clinical state defined as an increase in an individual's vulnerability to developing adverse health-related outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We propose that healthy behaviors could lower the incidence of frailty. The aim is to describe the association between healthy behaviors (physical activity, vaccination, tobacco use, and cancer screening) and the incidence of frailty. DESIGN: This is a secondary longitudinal analysis of the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS) cohort. SETTING: MHAS is a population-based cohort, of community-dwelling Mexican older adults. With five assessments currently available, for purposes of this work, 2012 and 2015 waves were used. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 6,087 individuals 50-year or older were included. MEASUREMENTS: Frailty was defined using a 39-item frailty index. Healthy behaviors were assessed with questions available in MHAS. Individuals without frailty in 2012 were followed-up three years in order to determine their frailty incidence, and its association with healthy behaviors. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the odds of frailty occurring according to the four health-related behaviors mentioned above. RESULTS: At baseline (2012), 55.2% of the subjects were male, the mean age was 62.2 (SD ± 8.5) years old. The overall incidence (2015) of frailty was 37.8%. Older adults physically active had a lower incidence of frailty (48.9% vs. 42.2%, p< 0.0001). Of the activities assessed in the adjusted multivariate models, physical activity was the only variable that was independently associated with a lower risk of frailty (odds ratio: 0.79, 95% confidence interval 0.71-0.88, p< 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Physically active older adults had a lower 3-year incidence of frailty even after adjusting for confounding variables. Increasing physical activity could therefore represent a strategy for reducing the incidence of frailty. Other so-called healthy behaviors were not associated with incident frailty, however there is still uncertainty on the interpretation of those results.


Assuntos
Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(1): 1-11, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503005

RESUMO

Objective: Little is known about how lifestyle affects psychological well-being in overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We investigated the effects of behavioral modification on psychological well-being and the impact of well-being and personality traits on successful weight loss. Design: A 4-month randomized controlled trial with a 12-month follow-up at a University Hospital. Methods: Sixty-eight women with PCOS, aged 18 to 40 years with a BMI ≥27 kg/m2, were randomized (1:1) into a behavioral modification program (intervention) or minimal intervention (control). The outcome measures were the psychological well being index and the Swedish universities scales of personality. Results: At baseline, 60% had a global psychological well being index corresponding to severe distress and 40% to moderate distress. There was no significant change in mean global well-being score at 4 months within or between groups. However, after 4 months, the intervention group expressed less anxiety (P = .035), higher general health (P = .012) and lower depressed mood (P = .033). Anxiety and general health tended to differ between groups (P = .06, respectively) favoring intervention. In the whole population, women achieving ≥5% weight loss at 12 months (n = 18) were less anxious at baseline compared to those who had not (P = .004). Personality trait-analysis showed that the weight-loss group had higher social desirability (P = .033) and lower embitterment (P = .023). Conclusions: Psychological well-being is severely impacted in overweight women with PCOS. Behavioral modification can positively impact dimensions of well-being, although not fully significant, compared to control treatment. Personality factors could contribute to the understanding of successful weight loss.


Assuntos
Obesidade/psicologia , Obesidade/terapia , Personalidade , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/psicologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/terapia , Programas de Redução de Peso , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade/complicações , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento , Perda de Peso , Adulto Jovem
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570737

RESUMO

This cross-sectional study aimed to characterize the lifestyle habits, anxiety levels and basic psychological needs (BPN), in Portuguese adults during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, including a comparison between genders and age groups. In total, 1404 adults (36.4 ± 11.7 years; 69.6% female) answered sociodemographic data and three instruments: the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the Basic Need General Satisfaction Scale and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Males revealed higher values for the total energy expenditure (z = -2.26; p = 0.024; η 2 = 0.004) and for the level of satisfaction of competence (z = -2.62; p = 0.009; η 2 = 0.005). Females showed higher scores for the anxiety state (z = -7.87; p ≤ 0.001; η 2 = 0.044) and anxiety trait (z = -6.49; p ≤ 0.001; η 2 = 0.030). Regarding age, higher values for the anxiety trait (p ≤ 0.001; η H 2 = 0.030) were found in the 18-34 years-old group compared to all the other age groups, also presenting significantly higher values of total energy expenditure (χ² = 13.93; p = 0.008; η H 2 = 0.007) when compared to the 35-44 years-old group. Significant differences were observed between the 18-34 years-old group and the other age groups for the satisfaction of competence (χ² = 40.97; p ≤ 0.001; η H 2 = 0.026), except for the >65 years-old group. Strategies for promoting well-being during periods of social isolation should consider the role of psychological dimensions and lifestyle habits according to the gender or age group.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Portugal/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2020: 7036151, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32547636

RESUMO

Background: Africans are experiencing a rapid epidemiological transition characterized by urbanization and lifestyle changes, which are thought to contribute to increased incidence and prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in many African countries, including Ethiopia. Despite this, however, there is scarcity of evidence on cardiovascular disease risk factors among adults in the current research setting. This study thus aimed at assessing determinants of selected cardiovascular diseases among adult patients at Debre Berhan Referral Hospital (DBRH). Methodology. An unmatched case-control study was conducted on 143 newly diagnosed patients with CVDs and 286 controls at the cardiac clinic of DBRH from June to September 2017. Primary data were collected using the WHO-STEPS wise structured questionnaires. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify potential risk factors for cardiovascular diseases at p values < 0.05. Result: The mean age of study participants is estimated as 45.5 ± 13.8 and ranges from 25 to 64 years. Sixty-one (42.7%) of cases and 147 (51.4%) of controls are males. Half of the cases (49.9%) had ischemic heart diseases (IHD), and 44.1% of cases had hypertensive heart disease (HHD), whereas the rest had chronic valvular heart disease (CRVHD) (4.2%) and peripheral and vascular disease (2.1%). This study identified older age as a risk factor for CVD: age group 35-44 years (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.20; 95% CI: 1.05-4.62), 45-54 years (AOR = 4.23; 95% CI: 2.19-8.16), and 55-64 years (AOR = 5.98; 95% CI: 3.26-10.98). Other risk factors were smoking history (AOR = 9.52; 95% CI: 2.12-42.8), low level of physical activity (AOR = 2.19; 95% CI: 1.10-5.02), and higher waist circumference (AOR = 2.75; 95% CI: 1.16-6.56). Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that the most frequent risk factors for CVD were older age, cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, and abdominal obesity. Therefore, behavior change communication focusing on lifestyle modification including regular physical activities, smoking cessation, and a balanced diet should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Serviço Hospitalar de Cardiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Ambulatório Hospitalar , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia
13.
F1000Res ; 92020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32509277

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum of disease that can range from isolated macrovesicular hepatocellular steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with or without fibrosis to cirrhosis. The prevalence of NAFLD has increased over several decades, mirroring the global obesity pandemic. NAFLD currently represents the most common etiology of chronic liver disease in children and adolescents worldwide. Disease presentation in childhood strongly suggests that these children may have unique susceptibilities and more severe long-term consequences. Emerging data demonstrate that the pathogenesis of early-onset NAFLD is secondary to a complex interplay involving genetic, metabolic, environmental, and microbiological factors. Such influences may begin in utero. Dietary and lifestyle modifications remain the primary effective therapeutic interventions, although long-term efficacy is limited by poor adoption or adherence. Advances in the development and validation of non-invasive biomarkers and imaging modalities will facilitate diagnosis for affected children and adolescents and facilitate long-term natural history studies and the development of therapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Adolescente , Biomarcadores , Criança , Dieta , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Cirrose Hepática , Pediatria
14.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200045, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491047

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze weight gain (WG) and change in nutritional status (NS) after the age of 20 years in the Brazilian adult population between 2006 and 2012. METHODS: Time series using seven surveys from the Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey (VIGITEL). The analyses were stratified by region, age, sex and education, considering the sampling weights and complex design. In addition, relative weight change (RWC) in the period was determined for each category of independent variables using linear regression models. RESULTS: Analyses showed an increase in WG after 20 years in two vectors: by survey year and age group, where the increase was higher in women. From 2006 to 2012, individuals 25-29 years old (women: RWC = 70%; ßyear = 0.54 kg/year) and 30-34 years old (women: RWC = 56%; ßyear = 0.57 kg/year) showed greater RWC. In 2012, the higher WG occurred in the age groups of 21-24 and 25-29 years old. Regarding the change in NS, individuals who were overweight at 20 years had a higher probability of remaining in this condition (or shifting to obesity) over time. However, among those who had a normal weight, the probability of not becoming overweight or obese was > 80%, independently of sex. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian population displayed progressive WG in adulthood, especially in the first decade after the age of 20, in addition to the period effect. On the other hand, individuals with normal weight in their 20s tended to maintain the same condition.


Assuntos
Estado Nutricional , Ganho de Peso , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 229, 2020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On December 12th 2019, a new coronavirus (SARS-Cov2) emerged in Wuhan, China, sparking a pandemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans (COVID-19). On the 24th of April 2020, the number of COVID-19 deaths in the world, according to the COVID-Case Tracker by Johns Hopkins University, was 195,313, and the number of COVID-19 confirmed cases was 2,783,512. The COVID-19 pandemic represents a massive impact on human health, causing sudden lifestyle changes, through social distancing and isolation at home, with social and economic consequences. Optimizing public health during this pandemic requires not only knowledge from the medical and biological sciences, but also of all human sciences related to lifestyle, social and behavioural studies, including dietary habits and lifestyle. METHODS: Our study aimed to investigate the immediate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on eating habits and lifestyle changes among the Italian population aged ≥ 12 years. The study comprised a structured questionnaire packet that inquired demographic information (age, gender, place of residence, current employment); anthropometric data (reported weight and height); dietary habits information (adherence to the Mediterranean diet, daily intake of certain foods, food frequency, and number of meals/day); lifestyle habits information (grocery shopping, habit of smoking, sleep quality and physical activity). The survey was conducted from the 5th to the 24th of April 2020. RESULTS: A total of 3533 respondents have been included in the study, aged between 12 and 86 years (76.1% females). The perception of weight gain was observed in 48.6% of the population; 3.3% of smokers decided to quit smoking; a slight increased physical activity has been reported, especially for bodyweight training, in 38.3% of respondents; the population group aged 18-30 years resulted in having a higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet when compared to the younger and the elderly population (p < 0.001; p < 0.001, respectively); 15% of respondents turned to farmers or organic, purchasing fruits and vegetables, especially in the North and Center of Italy, where BMI values were lower. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we have provided for the first time data on the Italian population lifestyle, eating habits and adherence to the Mediterranean Diet pattern during the COVID-19 lockdown. However, as the COVID-19 pandemic is ongoing, our data need to be confirmed and investigated in future more extensive population studies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Estilo de Vida , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Dieta Mediterrânea , Ingestão de Líquidos , Emergências , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Sono , Fumar , Adulto Jovem
16.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200044, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520099

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) self-reported in Brazil and characterize the factors associated with it. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional health survey with a household-based, the National Health Survey, performed in 2013. The outcome in the present study was the prevalence of CKD. The groups of explanatory variables were socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyles, chronic self-reported diseases, anthropometry, and health evaluation. The prevalence of CKD, e their 95% respective confidence interval were estimated, univariate analysis and the multiple logistic regression model were calculated, and remained the variables statistically significant (p < 0.05). RESULTS: It noticed that 1.42% (95%CI 1.33 - 1.52) of the 60,202 interviewees self-reported CKD. The OR increased progressively with age, being 2.68 among the elderly with 65 years or more (95%CI 1.75 - 4.09). Having health plans with OR = 1.51 (95%CI 1.28 - 1.78), as well as smoking, hypertension and high cholesterol and poor self-reported health with OR = 1.75 (95%CI 1.45 - 2.12), OR = 1.20 (95%CI 1.02 - 1.42), OR = 1.83 (95%CI 1.56 - 2.15), OR = 4.70 (95%CI 3.75 - 5.88), respectively, showed a higher chance of CKD. CONCLUSIONS: The associated variables were increasing age, health plan coverage, smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and regular or poor health status. The knowledge of CKD prevalence in Brazil and risk and protection factors are essential for disease prevention and the establishment of supporting public health policies.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 56, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556022

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence and persistence of fear of falling in older adults and the clinical/functional, psychosocial and lifestyle-related risk factors. METHODS: A longitudinal study with 393 community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years and over (110 men/ 283 women) resident in the North Zone of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The fear of falling was assessed by the Falls Efficacy Scale-I-BR. The explanatory variables assessed were: number of comorbidities and medicines, history of falls, fracture from falling, use of walking aids, functional dependence in basic and instrumental activities of daily living, hearing and visual impairment, hand grip strength, walking speed, self-rated health, body mass index, depressive symptoms, cognitive impairment, living alone and activity level. Incidence, persistence and risk factors were estimated. Multivariate analysis was performed using Poisson Regression, obtaining relative risks (RR) and corresponding to 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Among the 393 participants, fear of falling occurred in 33.5% and was persistent in 71.3%. Incidence was found to associate with using seven or more medicines and reporting worse activity level than the prior year. Risk factors for persistent fear were: using seven or more medicines, a history of one or two falls, reduced walking speed, hearing impairment, cognitive impairment, depressive symptoms and poor or very poor self-rated health. CONCLUSION: Fear of falling is a frequent and persistent condition. Many factors related to persistent fear showed no association with the incidence of fear, emphasizing the need for focused strategies to reduce risk factors that may be associated with the chronification of fear of falling.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação Geriátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Medo , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Distribuição de Poisson , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32518967

RESUMO

There is no convincing, science-based treatment or care concept for adolescents with severe obesity in Germany or other countries. The affected young people have an increased risk of numerous somatic comorbidities (e.g. type 2 diabetes mellitus, orthopaedic disorders and sleep apnoea syndrome), mental disorders (e.g. depression and anxiety disorders, social phobia and self-harming behaviour), as well as social isolation (e.g. avoidance of school and unemployment), which develops due to functional impairments and stigmatisation. Despite the negative effects of severe obesity in adolescence, these young people are medically difficult to reach and treat. Only a small percentage of patients actively seek treatment.Aware of these difficulties, the German multi-centre Youth with Extreme Obesity (YES) Study (funded by the German Ministry of Education and Science; 01 GI 1120 A and B) was carried out between 2012 and 2019 with the aim of improving care concepts for this neglected group of young people. In our article, we show possible supply routes. These consist of accompanying the adolescents and treating their comorbidities, sustainable lifestyle interventions in a protected environment and treatment for weight reduction through bariatric surgery. The overriding goals for patients are an increase in self-esteem, early diagnosis and treatment of secondary diseases and integration into the training and labour market.


Assuntos
Obesidade Mórbida , Adolescente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Alemanha , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade
20.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564111

RESUMO

Obesity in children has an increased risk to persist in adulthood. In most cases, obesity starts to develop in children at school age. Lower social economic status and migration background are severe risk factors for obesity. Additionally, genetic predisposition for the development of obesity plays an especially important role in children and adolescents. However, the individual cause for obesity is heterogeneous and complex. This is the reason why only a systematic analysis of individually existing problems is necessary for a differentiated and realistic planning of the treatment. Long-lasting therapy concepts need to be based on current available evidence.The treatment of childhood obesity should rely on multiprofessional lifestyle programs. An exception might be rare monogenic or syndromic forms of obesity, because defects within the central regulatory pathways of body weight regulation could be present. In general, a key component of the treatment strategy should include an improvement of nutrition, physical exercise and self-esteem combined with a reduction of stress. Moreover, the inclusion of parents into the treatment strategy has shown to be beneficial and necessary. Long-term follow-up studies on the development of associated comorbidities are rare. Unfortunately, patient groups at risk are currently not necessarily reached with available treatment programs.A multiprofessional analysis of individual problems and differentiated treatment planning with a participative approach (acknowledging the cultural background and involving members of the family) should lead to long-lasting improvement of the therapeutic outcome. The individual main treatment aim should also include - apart from the reduction of body weight - the improvement of associated comorbidities and quality of life, especially by avoiding any stigmatization. A health-promoting environment is desirable for this salutogenetic approach.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Exercício Físico , Alemanha , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Qualidade de Vida
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