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1.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e22227, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has recently spread dramatically worldwide, raising considerable concerns and resulting in detrimental effects on the psychological health of people who are vulnerable to the disease. Therefore, assessment of depression in members of the general public and their psychological and behavioral responses is essential for the maintenance of health. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of depression and the associated factors among the general public during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in China. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was conducted from February 11 to 16, 2020, in the early stages of the COVID-19 outbreak in China. A self-administrated smartphone questionnaire based on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and psychological and behavioral responses was distributed to the general public. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted to explore the associated factors of depression.aA cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was conducted from February 11 to 16, 2020, in the early stages of the COVID-19 outbreak in China. A self-administrated smartphone questionnaire based on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and psychological and behavioral responses was distributed to the general public. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted to explore the associated factors of depression. RESULTS: The prevalence of depression (PHQ-9 score ≥10) among the general public during the COVID-19 pandemic was 182/1342 (13.6%). Regression analysis indicated that feeling stressed, feeling helpless, persistently being worried even with support, never feeling clean after disinfecting, scrubbing hands and items repeatedly, hoarding food, medicine, or daily supplies, and being distracted from work or study were positively associated with depression, while social support and being calm were negatively associated with depression. CONCLUSIONS: The general public suffered from high levels of depression during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, COVID-19-related mood management and social support should be provided to attenuate depression in the general public.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Prevalência , Autorrelato , Smartphone
2.
Med Probl Perform Art ; 35(3): 121-129, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870963

RESUMO

AIMS: This study investigated the extent and characteristics of mental health issues in contemporary dance students, as clear insight into these health problems is lacking. METHODS: During one academic year, 134 dance and dance-teacher students were monitored on a monthly basis using the Performing artist and Athlete Health Monitor (PAHM). RESULTS: In total, 130 students were included in the analyses, comprising 81 dance students and 49 dance-teacher students. The response rate of the monthly questionnaires was 79.7%. Overall, 96.9% of the students reported at least one physical/mental health problem. The incidence proportion (IP) of all reported mental health issues for one academic year was 44.6% (n=58). Furthermore, 29.2% of the students reported a mental health issue as their most severe health problem, of whom 39.4% indicated a substantial mental health issue (i.e., problems leading to moderate, severe, or complete reductions in training volume or performance). The monthly IP of mental health issues ranged from 2.9 to 8.9% and 0 to 5.3% for substantial mental health issues. The most reported types of mental health issues were general anxiety (20.0%), stress due to external factors (18.3%), and constant tiredness (16.7%). Dance-teacher students of all study years and second-year students from both educational programs indicated significantly more mental health issues, while sex showed no significant differences. CONCLUSIONS: Contemporary dance students are at risk of mental health issues. Dance schools should pay special attention to stress, anxiety, and (constant) tiredness of their students. More research is needed to gain insight into specific characteristics and risk factors of mental health issues in dance students.


Assuntos
Dança , Saúde Mental , Dança/psicologia , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
J UOEH ; 42(3): 267-274, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879191

RESUMO

International immigration into Japan is increasing. It would make sense that investigating the health status of immigrants would be associated with improvements in their health and would be beneficial in building a complete social security system in which minorities can live safely and securely. The objective of this study is to describe the health status of immigrants in Japan and to explore the association between self-rated health status and employment status. As a result, half of those surveyed had some health problem, particularly a lot of mental stress. We did not find a significant relationship between self-rated health status and employment status, but it seems that people who stay in Japan 5 years or more tend to have poor self-rated health status. The factors associated with poor self-rated mental health status were being a non-employee, and having visited a hospital 1 time or more during the past 12 months. A system of mental stress care would be the most necessary health care for international students in Japan.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Emprego , Nível de Saúde , Saúde do Trabalhador , Autoavaliação , Adulto , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Fisiológico , Adulto Jovem
4.
J UOEH ; 42(3): 281-290, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879193

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to investigate and clarify the relationships between occupational stress, personal factors, buffer factors and stress responses of newly graduated nurses, based on the NIOSH model. A questionnaire survey was conducted on 320 newly graduated nurses working at university hospitals where research cooperation was obtained. Data from 107 people was collected by mail (the response rate of 33.4%). In the results of the analysis, the GHQ-12 scores of the nurses on the three-shift system (23.5 ± 7.04) were found to be higher than those on the two-shift system (18.88 ± 6.03) (P = 0.007). The GHQ-12 score was significantly higher in the high stressor group (24.1 ± 6.20), who had higher job demand and lower work ratings than the low stressor group (18.93 ± 6.14) (P = 0.001, t = -3.44). The results of a multiple logistic regression analysis using high/low GHQ groups defined by a cut-off point of 4 in the GHQ-12 (GHQ method) as the dependent variables and the associated variables as the independent variables showed that the basic role identity and colleague support were found to have a significant relationship. The results of a Hosmer-Lemeshow test were P = 0.643, and the coefficient of determination was as high as 81.0%. This study was conducted approximately 6 months after the nurses entered employment, which is in the middle of the critical transition period from a student to a working member of society and can be assumed to be the most exhausting state of the year both physically and mentally. The results of this study suggest that various stressors might cause serious stress reactions. Also, as shown in previous literature, newly graduated nurses tend not to seek support from their bosses or preceptors throughout the year. Their main sources of support are family members, friends, and colleagues. Taken together, it became clear from our study that support from colleagues in the workplace is the most powerful buffer against stress and an indispensable resource to overcome the "reality shock" of working life.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Saúde do Trabalhador , Estresse Ocupacional , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Psychiatry Res ; 291: 113272, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886958

RESUMO

Nurses are acknowledged for their care and expertise on the front line of pandemics over the last century. The recent global impact of COVID-19 has been unprecedented and a parallel battle has also been fought by increasing numbers of nurses for their workplace mental health. Factors associated with nurses mental stress and consequence of suicide were identified from a retrospective analysis of six non-representative media case-reports in high and low resource countries. The need for a structured model of nursing workforce mental health preparation, monitoring, support and health care is essential to inform advocacy and timely intervention in pandemic response.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Estresse Ocupacional/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/mortalidade , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Suicídio/psicologia
8.
Cad Saude Publica ; 36(8): e00150020, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876127

RESUMO

COVID-19, the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 (novel coronavirus), emerged in China in December 2019 and spread quickly throughout the world. In this scenario, the current study aimed to identify the impact or effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescents' health. This is a scoping literature review based on the following databases: Web of Science, CINAHL, PsycINFO, SciELO, and PUBCOVID19. The study adopted the stages proposed by the Joanna Briggs Institute for scoping reviews, and the question orienting the procedures consisted of the acronym PCC (population; concept; context). Eleven articles were included in the review. Clinically, adolescents present the same COVID-19 symptoms as adults. The pandemic and the health measures taken to control transmission were found to be associated with mental health problems in adolescents. Specifically, adolescents have a negative experience with social distancing measures and closing of schools. These measures can also favor situations of violence or aggressive behaviors in the home environment. Healthcare services that treat the adolescent population had to reorient their practices, adopting a virtual model to replace face-to-face care, and even research projects involving adolescence had to be rethought. This scoping review addressed an emerging theme in relation to a population that has received little attention in studies on COVID-19. The results suggest that the pandemic can be considered a determinant that affects different dimensions of adolescents' lives.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus , Brasil , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia
9.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(704): 1582-1585, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880117

RESUMO

Our medical practice brings us to meet people from all walks of life. Some of our patients experience multiple vulnerabilities and are at greater risk of stigma and discrimination. In the field of asylum, they are often firstly designated by words reflecting their socio-administrative reality. These words are supposed to define their identity. The individual is dehumanized because reduced to an administrative status. These terms carry a denotative meaning, valuable in understanding the context in which the patient evolves ; but also a connotative meaning, which through implicit bias leads the caregiver to adopt attitudes that may be detrimental to the proper care of the patient. Words must be carefully chosen and brought in a timely manner, because words matter.


Assuntos
Hospitais Psiquiátricos , Idioma , Saúde Mental , Preconceito , Humanos , Vergonha , Estigma Social
10.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(9): 3493-3502, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876243

RESUMO

Prisional health is, in its essence, public health. The COVID-19 pandemic poses a great threat to the world and has shown that preventing the disease escalation in prisons integrates the novel corona virus clash in society in general. Up to this moment, the most effective known measure to curb the disease spread is social isolation. Nevertheless, in penal institutions, often overcrowded, social isolation becomes difficult to carry out and, when it happens, it takes the enclosed population to overisolation, with consequences to their mental health. Besides, prisoners suffer with clogged up environment, lack of materials for personal hygiene, poor basic sanitary conditions and difficulties in accessing health services. This paper deals with a narrative review on the pandemic effects in prisons and how government and civil society have organized themselves in order to reduce the disease consequences at those places. The text has been divided into three sections: the first with literature review on the current health theme; the second discusses how different countries have been dealing with the prison situation in the pandemic context, and, the last part focuses on how the Brazilian Penal System has reacted to the new disease.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisões/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Isolamento Social
11.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(9): 3401-3411, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876269

RESUMO

Pandemics such as that of COVID-19 affect a relatively large number of people and impose new rules and social habits on the world population. Information about the pandemic is constant in the media. Moreover, social distancing has been adopted in Brazil to prevent the spread of COVID-19, which may have economic and psychosocial consequences. This study aimed to verify the factors associated with indicators of mental disorders symptoms in residents of Rio Grande do Sul during the initial period of the social distancing policy. The study was approved by CONEP. There were 799 participants, aged between 18 and 75 years (M = 36.56; SD = 12.88); 82.7% were women, who answered a sociodemographic questionnaire of social distancing and the Self-Report Questionnaire (SRQ-20). The results indicated that having decreased income in the period, being part of the risk group and being more exposed to information about deaths and infected, are factors that can significantly harm mental health in this pandemic period. Investigating social determinants that contribute to greater vulnerability to the mental illness of the population is vital in the field of collective health for the planning of public actions and policies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
12.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(9): 3465-3474, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876270

RESUMO

This work aims to systematize a set of scientific evidence presented in international papers that identify the main problems affecting health professionals directly involved in coping with the COVID-19 pandemic and point out actions and strategies for the protection and healthcare of these professionals. The risk of infection is the main issue and has led to absence from work, illness, death, and intense psychological distress, expressed in generalized anxiety and sleep disorders, fear of becoming ill and infecting colleagues and relatives. In the Brazilian reality, this work revives the analysis of the chronic problems affecting health workers, resulting from the underfinancing of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), the sector's spending freeze, the deterioration of services and workforce's insecurity, and points out the acute challenges of work management and staff training, given the expanded hospital bed infrastructure and reorganization of the work process in primary care to face the pandemic, emphasizing the necessary measures for the protection and promotion of the physical and mental health of health professionals and workers.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia
13.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(6): 613-619, 2020 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879116

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a global public health crisis, which elicits psychological problems in different population. This study is to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on mental health in the front-line staff. METHODS: Patient Health Questionnare-9 (PHQ-9), Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Fatigue Self-assessment Scale (FSAS) were used to assess the depression, anxiety, and fatigue in front-line staff. RESULTS: The detection rates of depression, anxiety, and fatigue were 49.1%, 21.8%, and 76.0% among the front-line staff. The rates of depression, anxiety, and fatigue in community workers were higher than those in medical workers and other occupational staff (P<0.01). The PHQ-9 of front-line staffs was negatively correlated with age, family income, family members' support, satisfaction of service objects, and sleep quality (all P<0.01), while positively correlated with education level, fatigue, fear of pneumonia, and the duration of daily attention to the COVID-19 (all P<0.01). SAS was negatively correlated with age, family income, family support, satisfaction of objects service, and sleep quality (all P<0.01), while positively correlated with gender, fatigue, fear of pneumonia, and duration of daily attention to the COVID-19 (all P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The front-line workers should manage work and rest time reasonably to adjust their negative mood and fatigue. The government and the society should pay more attention to the psychological state of the front-line staff, particularly for the staff working in the community or villages and towns in preventing the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, front-line staff can be obtained mental intervention or be taken a rest from the high-intensive work.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Depressão/diagnóstico , Fadiga/diagnóstico , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
14.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(6): 633-640, 2020 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879119

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the psychological status of medical staff in the epidemic period of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and to analyze its influential factors. METHODS: A total of 373 medical staff from Xiangya Hospital and the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University were enrolled for this study. The General Sociological Data Questionnaire, Symptom Check-List 90 (SCL-90), and self-designed public opinion response questionnaire were used to assess general sociological data, mental health scores, and ability to respond to COVID-19 related public opinion information of medical staff. The mental health scores of medical staff with different general sociological data and public opinion information coping abilities were compared. Influential factors of mental health were analyzed. RESULTS: The average score of 10 factors in SCL-90 of 373 medical staff was less than 2 points. 14.21% medical staff had one or more factor scores more than two points, including 11.26% with terror symptoms, 7.77% with compulsive symptoms, and 5.63% with anxiety. The main sources of COVID-19 information for medical staff included WeChat, microblog, Jinri toutiao, TV and radio. 66.22% medical staff regularly verified information about COVID-19 through official websites or formal channels. A great deal of COVID-19 information in WeChat could make medical staff nervous (34.05%), anxious (30.29%), and insecure (29.22%). 68.63% medical staff sometimes were worried about getting infected because they knew information about COVID-19. Different departments of medical staff, getting cough or having a fever recently, and the degree of fear of infection had an impact on the SCL-90 score of medical staff, the differences were all statistically significant (all P<0.05). Stepwise regression analysis showed that the impact of COVID-19 information on their life in WeChat, getting cough or having a fever recently, insomnia-early caused by COVID-19 information in WeChat, different departments, and the degree of fear of infection COVID-19 were the influential factors for the mental health of medical staff (all P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: During the epidemic of COVID-19, medical staff suffered from psychological problems to various degrees. It is necessary to establish a psychological assistance platform and guide the direction of public opinion correctly to promote the mental health of medical staff.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Nível de Saúde , Corpo Clínico/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Ansiedade , Betacoronavirus , China , Comportamento Compulsivo , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Medo , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(6): 649-656, 2020 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879121

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To understand medical students' mental health, professional pride, and intention to work in the front-line during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, and provide a reference for psychological intervention. METHODS: We used the depression-anxiety-stress scale and self-designed questionnaire on professional pride, intention to work in the front-line and the extent of family support. Medical students from 4 medical schools in Fujian and Hunan were investigated. Their mental health status, professional pride and first-line work willingness with different characteristics were compared, and the influential factors for professional pride and first-line work willingness were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 266 valid questionnaires were collected. During the pandemic, there were significant differences in the proportion of depressed students among different college and universities, majors and stages (P<0.05), and the professional pride was significantly different (P<0.001). Medical students with different mental health status showed significant differences in professional pride (P<0.01). Marriage, pressure and extent of family support were the influential factors for their professional pride (P<0.05). The latter two were also influential factors for their intention to work in the front-line (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: During the pandemic, students from college and nursing have relatively better mental health and higher professional pride. The professional pride is low in medical students who married, with abnormal stress or low family support. The intention to work in front-line is decreased in students with abnormal stress or low family support.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , China , Família , Humanos , Intenção , Pandemias , Profissionalismo , Apoio Social , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(6): 657-664, 2020 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879122

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) brought psychological stress to the public, especially to patients. This study aims to investigate the mental health of patients with COVID-19 in Changsha. METHODS: We took cross-section investigation for the mental health of 112 patients with COVID-19 via questionnaires. Mann-Whitney U test, Chi-square test, and Fisher's exact test were performed to compare general and clinical data between the slight-ordinary patients and severe patients. Single sample t-tests were used to compare the difference between the factor scores of the Symptom Check-List 90 (SCL-90) in COVID-19 patients with the norm of 2015 and factor scores of SCL-90 in patients with the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). RESULTS: The obsessive-compulsive, depression, sleep and eating disorders had the highest frequency among the positive symptoms of SCL-90 in patients with COVID-19 in Changsha. The factor scores of somatization, depression, anxiety, phobia anxiety, sleep and eating disorders in patients with COVID-19 were higher than those of the norm (P≤0.001 or P<0.05). Slight-ordinary patients with COVID-19 in Changsha showed lower factor scores of somatization, depression, anxiety, and hostility compared with the patients with SARS (P<0.001 or P<0.05). There was no difference in factor scores of SCL-90 between the patients with severe COVID-19 and those with SARS(P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The levels of somatization, depression, anxiety, phobia anxiety, sleep and eating disorders in patients with COVID-19 in Changsha are higher than those of the norm. However, the mental health of slight-ordinary patients with COVID-19 is better than that of patients with SARS. It needs to provide targeting psychological interventions depending on the severity of patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Nível de Saúde , Saúde Mental , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Ansiedade , Betacoronavirus , China , Depressão , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Pandemias , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 1): 105-113, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890372

RESUMO

A growing body of research suggests that neuropsychiatric disorders are closely associated with a background state of chronic, low-grade inflammation. This insight highlights that these disorders are not just localized to dysfunction within the brain, but also have a systemic aspect, which accounts for the frequent comorbid presentation of chronic inflammatory conditions and metabolic syndromes. It is possible that a treatment resistant subgroup of neuropsychiatric patients may benefit from treatment regimens that target their associated proinflammatory state. Lifestyle factors such as physical activity (PA) and exercise (i.e. structured PA) are known to influence mental health. In turn, mental disorders may limit health-seeking behaviors - a proposed "bidirectional relationship" that perpetuates psychopathology. PA is renowned for its positive physical, physiological and mental health benefits. Evidence now points to inflammatory pathways as a potential mechanism for PA in improving mental illness. Relevant pathways include modulation of immune-neuroendocrine and neurotransmitter systems, the production of tissue-derived immunological factors that alter the inflammatory milieu and neurotrophins that are critical mediators of neuroplasticity. In this paper, we will focus on the role of PA in positively improving mental health through potential modulation of chronic inflammation, which is often found in individuals with mental disorders. In a related paper by Edirappuli and colleagues (2020), we will focus on the role of nutrition (another significant lifestyle factor) on mental health. Thus, inflammation appears to be a central process underlying mental illness, which may be mitigated by lifestyle modifications. Lifestyle factors are advantageous as first-line interventions due to their cost efficacy, low side-effect profile, and both preventative and therapeutic attributes. By promoting these lifestyle modifications and addressing their limitations and barriers to their adoption, it is hoped that their preventative and remedial benefits may galvanize therapeutic progress for neuropsychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Transtornos Mentais , Reabilitação Psiquiátrica , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Saúde Mental
18.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 1): 114-120, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890373

RESUMO

Neuropsychiatric disorders are closely associated with a persistent low-grade inflammatory state. This suggests that the development of psychopathology is not only limited to the brain, but rather involves an additional systemic aspect, accounting for the large body of evidence demonstrating co-presentation of mental illness with chronic inflammatory conditions and metabolic syndromes. Studies have shown that inflammatory processes underlie the development of neuropsychiatric symptoms, with recent studies revealing not only correlative, but causative relationships between the immune system and psychopathology. Lifestyle factors such as diet and exercise may influence psychopathology, and this may occur via a bidirectional relationship. Mental illness may prevent health-seeking behaviours such as failing to maintain a balanced diet, whilst adopting a 'healthy' diet rich in fruits, vegetables and fish alongside nutritional supplementation correlates with a reduction in psychiatric symptoms in patients. Obesity and the gut microbiome have proven to be further factors which play an important role in inflammatory signalling and the development of psychiatric symptoms. In a related paper we focus on the role of exercise (another significant lifestyle factor) on mental health (Venkatesh et al. 2020). Lifestyle modifications which target diet and nutrition may prove therapeutically beneficial for many patients, especially in treatment-resistant subgroups. The current evidence base provides equivocal evidence, however future studies will prove significant, as this is a highly attractive therapeutic avenue, due to its cost efficacy, low side effect profile and preventative potential. By promoting lifestyle changes and addressing the limitations and barriers to adoption, these therapies may prove revolutionary for mental health conditions.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Saúde Mental , Estado Nutricional , Animais , Dieta , Humanos , Estilo de Vida
19.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 1): 130-134, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890375

RESUMO

Mental health problems are over-represented in doctors and medical students. However, stigma and 'a culture of shame' are formidable barriers to mental health services and consequently many doctors and medical students with mental health difficulties continue to suffer in silence despite the availability of effective treatment. Indeed, a recent study on over 2100 female physicians who met the diagnostic criteria for a mental disorder revealed that 50% were reluctant to seek professional help due to fear of exposure to stigma. Left untreated or undertreated, mental health problems in doctors can result in impairment of occupational functioning, compromise patient safety and place considerable strain on the economy (by increasing the amount of sick leave taken). Moreover, the consequences of mental health stigma in the medical profession can be fatal. Dr Daksha Emson, a psychiatrist with bipolar affective disorder, tragically killed herself and her baby daughter during a psychotic episode. An independent inquiry into Dr Emson's death concluded that she was the victim of stigma in the National Health Service. The mental health of medical students and doctors, in all of its aspects, must therefore be addressed with the urgency that it demands. Stephanie Knaak and colleagues conducted a data synthesis of evaluative studies on anti-stigma programmes for healthcare providers and identified six key ingredients one of which was a personal testimony from a trained speaker who has lived experience of mental illness. In this paper we outline a study protocol with the aim of answering the following research question, 'Does attending an anti-stigma programme comprised of a medic with first-hand experience of a mental health condition cause immediate and sustained reductions in mental health stigma from medical students and doctors towards their peers with mental health difficulties?'


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Saúde Mental , Médicos , Estigma Social , Estudantes de Medicina , Feminino , Humanos , Médicos/psicologia , Medicina Estatal , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia
20.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 1): 153-157, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: These last years adolescents in transition to young adulthood (ATYA) have become a new matter of research. This population encounter specific issues and challenges regarding their mental health particularly when they have attained age boundaries and deal with the issue of transition from child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) to adult mental health services (AMHS). Many key questions regarding how to sustain continuity of mental health care for ATYA during transition remain. The aim of this paper is to review recent literature in the domain to identify dimensions that should be considered to improve ATYA transition from CAMHS to AMHS. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A qualitative literature review was performed in Scopus-Elsevier database using the PRISMA method as reporting guidelines. Only papers discussing dimensions involved in the transition process from CAMHS to AMHS were considered. We restricted the review to researches published between 2010 and 2020. RESULTS: We identified 85 potential researches, after filtering; only 10 articles were finally included in the qualitative synthesis of the literature. Five main dimensions were identified: patient, professional, organization, policy, and ethic related. Those dimensions should be considered in order to improve ATYA transition process out of CAMHS to AMHS. CONCLUSION: This work contributes to identify principal dimensions that should be considered by mental health professionals and organizations in order to improve ATYA transition from CAMHS to AMHS.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente , Transtornos Mentais , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Transição para Assistência do Adulto , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Adulto Jovem
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