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1.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(2): 189-200, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844272

RESUMO

It has long been hypothesized that individual recollection fits collective memory. To look for a collective schema, we analysed the content of 30 years of media coverage of World War II on French national television. We recorded human brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging as participants recalled World War II displays at the Caen Memorial Museum following an initial tour. We focused on the medial prefrontal cortex, a key region for social cognition and memory schemas. The organization of individual memories captured using the distribution of the functional magnetic resonance imaging signal in the dorsal part of the medial prefrontal cortex was more accurately predicted by the structure of the collective schema than by various control models of contextual or semantic memory. Collective memory, which exists outside and beyond individuals, can also organize individual memories and constitutes a common mental model that connects people's memories across time and space.


Assuntos
Associação , Mapeamento Encefálico , Processos Grupais , Memória Episódica , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , França , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Museus , Fotografação , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Televisão , II Guerra Mundial
2.
Dev Sci ; 23(1): e12883, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254425

RESUMO

The current study examined the influence of observing another's lie- or truth-telling - and its consequences - on children's own honesty about a transgression. Children (N = 224, 5-8 years of age) observed an experimenter (E) tell the truth or lie about a minor transgression in one of five conditions: (a) Truth-Positive Outcome - E told the truth with a positive outcome; (b) Truth-Negative Outcome - E told the truth with a negative outcome; (c) Lie-Positive Outcome - E lied with a positive outcome; (d) Lie-Negative Outcome - E lied with a negative outcome; (e) Control - E did not tell a lie or tell the truth. Later, to examine children's truth- or lie-telling behavior, children participated in a temptation resistance paradigm where they were told not to peek at a trivia question answer. They either peeked or not, and subsequently lied or told the truth about that behavior. Additionally, children were asked to give moral evaluations of different truth- and lie-telling vignettes. Overall, 85% of children lied. Children were less likely to lie about their own transgression in the TRP when they had previously witnessed the experimenter tell the truth with a positive outcome or tell a lie with a negative outcome.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Decepção , Aprendizagem , Revelação da Verdade , Associação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Condicionamento Psicológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Princípios Morais , Motivação
3.
Neuron ; 105(5): 909-920.e5, 2020 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879163

RESUMO

Dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) regulate reward association and motivation. It remains unclear whether there are distinct dopamine populations to mediate these functions. Using mouse genetics, we isolated two populations of dopamine-producing VTA neurons with divergent projections to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core and shell. Inhibition of VTA-core-projecting neurons disrupted Pavlovian reward learning, and activation of these cells promoted the acquisition of an instrumental response. VTA-shell-projecting neurons did not regulate Pavlovian reward learning and could not facilitate acquisition of an instrumental response, but their activation could drive robust responding in a previously learned instrumental task. Both populations are activated simultaneously by cues, actions, and rewards, and this co-activation is required for robust reinforcement of behavior. Thus, there are functionally distinct dopamine populations in the VTA for promoting motivation and reward association, which operate on the same timescale to optimize behavioral reinforcement.


Assuntos
Associação , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/fisiologia , Motivação , Núcleo Accumbens/fisiologia , Recompensa , Área Tegmentar Ventral/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Dependovirus , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/citologia , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Vetores Genéticos , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Camundongos , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Núcleo Accumbens/citologia , Receptores de Neuropeptídeos/genética , Receptores de Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Reforço Psicológico , Área Tegmentar Ventral/citologia
4.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2019: 2367075, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814816

RESUMO

Mammalian brains respond to new concepts via a type of neural coding termed "concept coding." During concept coding, the dentate gyrus (DG) plays a vital role in pattern separation and pattern integration of concepts because it is a brain region with substantial neurogenesis in adult mammals. Although concept coding properties of the brain have been extensively studied by experimental work, modeling of the process to guide both further experimental studies and applications such as natural language processing is scarce. To model brain-like concept coding, we built a spiking neural network inspired by adulthood neurogenesis in the DG. Our model suggests that neurogenesis may facilitate integration of closely related concepts and separation of less relevant concepts. Such pattern agrees with the previous experimental observations in classification tasks and place cells in the hippocampus. Therefore, our simulation provides insight for future experimental studies on the neural coding difference between perception and cognition. By presenting 14 contexts each containing 4 concepts to the network, we found that neural responses of the DG changed dynamically as the context repetition time increased and were eventually consistent with the category organization of humans. Thus, our work provides a new framework of word representation for the construction of brain-like knowledge map.


Assuntos
Formação de Conceito , Giro Denteado , Modelos Neurológicos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Potenciais de Ação , Animais , Associação , Simulação por Computador , Formação de Conceito/fisiologia , Giro Denteado/fisiologia , Humanos , Neurogênese/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal , Neurônios/fisiologia
5.
Behav Res Methods ; 51(5): 2194-2208, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515742

RESUMO

The implicit association test (IAT) is widely used in psychology. Unfortunately, the IAT cannot be run within online surveys, requiring researchers who conduct online surveys to rely on third-party tools. We introduce a novel method for constructing IATs using online survey software (Qualtrics); we then empirically assess its validity. Study 1 (student n = 239) revealed good psychometric properties, expected IAT effects, and expected correlations with explicit measures for survey-software IATs. Study 2 (MTurk n = 818) showed predicted IAT effects across four survey-software IATs (ds = 0.82 [Black-White IAT] to 2.13 [insect-flower IAT]). Study 3 (MTurk n = 270) compared survey-software IATs and IATs run via Inquisit, yielding nearly identical results and intercorrelations that would be expected for identical IATs. Survey-software IATs appear to be reliable and valid, offer numerous advantages, and make IATs accessible for researchers who use survey software to conduct online research. We present all the materials, links to tutorials, and an open-source tool that rapidly automates survey-software IAT construction and analysis.


Assuntos
Software , Adolescente , Associação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 33(6): 561-566, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512887

RESUMO

While most tobacco users want to quit using tobacco, only a small minority succeed in quitting. Affective attitudes might influence health-related intentions and behavior. Emotional attachment to tobacco brands is an aspect of such affective attitudes. The aim of this study is to investigate emotional attachment to the personal snus or cigarette pack, as well as associations with quitting plans, among snus users and smokers. A sample of 1,450 smokers and 1,423 snus users (16-83 years, mean age 41 years, 41% women) was recruited from a web panel and weighted according to national statistics on smoking and snus use. Positive package-related feelings loaded on a single component in principal component analysis. Multinomial adjusted regressions were performed for smokers and snus users, with quitting plans as the dependent variable (no quitting plan, plan to quit within 6 months, plan to quit later) and emotional attachment as an independent variable. Smokers and snus users often endorsed statements expressing positive feelings related to buying and using their choice of tobacco brand, with endorsements ranging from 17% to 73%. Adjusted multinomial regressions showed that emotional attachment was associated with lower likelihood of planning to quit smoking within the next 6 months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.68, p < .001) and lower likelihood of planning to quit snus use within the next 6 months (AOR = 0.54, p < .001) or later (AOR = 0.81, p < .01). Emotional attachment to tobacco brands is negatively associated with quitting plans among smokers and snus users. Policies to reduce brand attachment might lead to increased quitting plans and potentially increased quit attempts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Associação , Emoções , Motivação , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Fumar/psicologia , Tabagismo/psicologia , Tabaco sem Fumaça , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Razão de Chances , Tabagismo/reabilitação , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Psycholinguist Res ; 48(6): 1377-1390, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410704

RESUMO

To directly investigate the reciprocal causal relationship of the conceptual and affective meaning of words, two priming experiments were conducted with the lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, the influence of semantic relatedness on the affective priming effect was explored by manipulating the semantic associative strength between the prime and target words (i.e., high vs. low) while keeping the affective association between them constant (i.e., affectively congruent). In Experiment 2, the influence of the affective meaning on the semantic priming effect was explored by manipulating the emotional congruency of the prime and target words (i.e., congruent vs. incongruent) while keeping the semantic association between them constant (i.e., high associative strength). The results of Experiment 1 showed that when the semantic associative strength between the prime and target words was high, there was a significant affective priming effect, while no significant affective priming effect was found when the associative strength was low. The results of Experiment 2 revealed that in both the emotionally congruent and incongruent conditions, a significant semantic priming effect was obtained. These findings suggest that conceptual meaning is a more obligatory representation in words and that the processing of the affective meaning is constrained by the conceptual meaning of words.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Associação , Formação de Conceito/fisiologia , Psicolinguística , Semântica , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
9.
Percept Mot Skills ; 126(6): 1047-1057, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412741

RESUMO

This study tested the hypothesis that two lexical properties, both phonological neighborhood density (ND) and neighborhood frequency (NF), influence the recognition of target words when preceded by either a semantically congruent or semantically neutral context. Our study is the first to test this hypothesis using a language other than English (i.e., Spanish). We used highly familiar bisyllabic nouns with medium-frequency occurrence as target words, and we expected recognition accuracy to increase as ND and NF decreased in both semanticallly congruent and semantically neutral sentences. We presented 48 undergraduate listeners with a set of 80 words, differing in ND and NF, within these two sentence contexts (i.e., 160 sentences). We then tested the relationships between ND, NF, and variations in semantic sentence context within a linear logistic model and found that words with a low frequency of neighbors were more likely to be correctly recognized in both sentence contexts. Thus, during word recognition, the influence of phonological competition outweighed semantic sentence context even when words were presented in Spanish.


Assuntos
Associação , Fonética , Semântica , Percepção da Fala , Teste do Limiar de Recepção da Fala , Adulto , Atenção , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino
10.
Neuroimage ; 201: 116020, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323259

RESUMO

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have demonstrated a critical role of hippocampus and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in associative memory. Similarly, evidence from structural MRI studies suggests a relationship between gray-matter volume in these regions and associative memory. However, how brain volume and activity relate to each other during associative-memory formation remains unclear. Here, we used joint independent component analysis (jICA) to examine how gray-matter volume and brain activity would be associated during associative encoding, especially in medial-temporal lobe (MTL) and IFG. T1-weighted images were collected from 27 young adults, and functional MRI was employed during intentional encoding of object pairs. A subsequent recognition task tested participants' memory performance. Unimodal analyses using voxel-based morphometry revealed that participants with better associative memory showed larger gray-matter volume in left anterior hippocampus. Results from the jICA revealed one component that comprised a covariance pattern between gray-matter volume in anterior and posterior MTL and encoding-related activity in IFG. Our findings suggest that gray matter within the MTL modulates distally distinct parts of the associative encoding circuit, and extend previous studies that demonstrated MTL-IFG functional connectivity during associative memory tasks.


Assuntos
Substância Cinzenta/anatomia & histologia , Substância Cinzenta/fisiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Córtex Pré-Frontal/anatomia & histologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/anatomia & histologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Adulto , Associação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória , Tamanho do Órgão , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
11.
Schmerz ; 33(4): 287-294, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dipyrone (metamizole) is widely used for perioperative pain management in countries where it is marketed; however, uncertainty exists concerning the safe use of this drug, specifically considering the rare adverse event of an agranulocytosis. METHODS: As evidence from published studies was lacking, an expert panel developed recommendations for the perioperative use of dipyrone. After a formal, structured consensus process, the recommendations were approved by the involved medical societies. RESULTS: The panel agreed that blood cell counts shall not be standard for short-term perioperative use in patients unless they are at risk for neutropenia. The medical staff shall be aware of the symptoms and course of action when agranulocytosis is suspected. Patients shall be informed about the risks and benefits of dipyrone and about potential alternatives. The expert group concluded that dipyrone has a relatively positive risk-benefit ratio compared to other nonopioid analgesics. The group strongly recommended educating patients about the symptoms of agranulocytosis if they have received dipyrone over several days and/or treatment is to be continued after discharge, because agranulocytosis can occur several days after discontinuation of metamizole. Further recommendations refer to the information of the physician taking over the patient's care after discharge and the avoidance of re-exposure in patients having previously suffered from dipyrone-induced agranulocytosis. CONCLUSION: The group's recommendations shall be communicated in order to raise medical staff's and patients' awareness of the appropriate use of dipyrone in the perioperative period.


Assuntos
Agranulocitose , Dipirona , Dor Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Aguda/prevenção & controle , Agranulocitose/induzido quimicamente , Agranulocitose/prevenção & controle , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos/efeitos adversos , Anestesiologia/normas , Associação , Cuidados Críticos , Dipirona/administração & dosagem , Dipirona/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Período Perioperatório
12.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 81(8): 2666-2672, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309530

RESUMO

Attention is biased towards learned predictors of reward. The influence of reward history on attentional capture has been shown to be context-specific: When particular stimulus features are associated with reward, these features only capture attention when viewed in the context in which they were rewarded. Selection history can also bias attention, such that prior target features gain priority independently of reward history. The contextual specificity of this influence of selection history on attention has not been examined. In the present study, we demonstrate that the consequences of repetitive selection on attention robustly generalize across context, such that prior target features capture attention even in contexts in which they were never seen previously. Our findings suggest that the learning underlying attention driven by outcome-independent selection history differs qualitatively from the learning underlying value-driven attention, consistent with a distinction between associative and reinforcement learning mechanisms.


Assuntos
Associação , Viés de Atenção/fisiologia , Generalização Psicológica/fisiologia , Reforço Psicológico , Recompensa , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação
13.
Neuroimage ; 200: 540-551, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254647

RESUMO

Although the effects of cognitive reappraisal in regulating negative emotion are generally well documented, its regulatory effects are usually not very strong because the ordinary reappraisals employed in previous studies were insufficient to overcome the mental set or response bias toward negative situations. In this study, we developed a new strategy employing creative reappraisals that provides an insightful reinterpretation of the negative stimulus. We believe this approach, through adopting a guided (creative) reappraisal rather than self-generation strategy, will greatly improve the emotion regulation effect of reappraisal through activating the neural networks representing the process of deep and structural mental representational change accompanied by the feeling of positive emotion and mental reward. The behavioral results suggested that 1) regarding the transient regulatory effect, creative reappraisal resulted in a positive rating for standardized negative pictures; 2) creative reappraisal had a long-lasting effect in reducing negative affect. In parallel with these behavioral results, the imaging data indicated that 1) creative reappraisal was specifically associated with greater engagement of the amygdala and hippocampus as well as regions in the ventral striatum, and 2) the engagement of the amygdala predicted the transient regulatory effect of creative reappraisal, while the involvement of the hippocampus and the ventral striatum predicted long-term regulatory effects. These findings suggest that the superior regulatory effect of creative reappraisal could be mediated by amygdala-based salient emotional arousal, hippocampus-based new association formation, and striatum-based mental rewarding to lead to a novel and positive experience that could be kept in long-term memory. This research indicates the key role of creative insight in reappraisal and presents a novel and highly efficient reappraisal strategy.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Associação , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Corpo Estriado/fisiologia , Regulação Emocional/fisiologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Recompensa , Adulto , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Corpo Estriado/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
14.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 72(12): 2776-2787, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234724

RESUMO

Attribute-framing bias (AFB) refers to bias in evaluating positively framed objects more favourably than the same objects framed negatively. In most AFB studies, framing is manipulated by contrasting the positive and negative outcomes, using the corresponding positive (success) or negative (failure) labels as descriptors. This study examined the unique contributions of the outcomes of the scenario and the labels describing these outcomes by manipulating them orthogonally. In three experiments, framing scenarios were presented to participants with either positive outcomes rendered with positive (65% passed) or negative (65% didn't fail) descriptors, or negative outcomes rendered with positive (35% didn't pass) or negative (35% failed) descriptors. All experiments revealed a strong effect for the outcome with a weaker effect for the descriptor valence, suggesting that outcomes have a stronger influence on AFB than do descriptors. We discuss the results within a theoretical framework that maps the outcome effects onto attention mechanisms and descriptor effects onto association-activation mechanisms.


Assuntos
Associação , Atenção/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Julgamento/fisiologia , Psicolinguística , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
15.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(6)2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142005

RESUMO

Background and objectives: Existing studies concerning the associations of cognitive function with adiposity in young adults are sparse. The purpose of the study was to examine the associations of adiposity with cognitive control in young adults. Materials and Methods: Participants were 213 young adults (98 women and 115 men). Cognitive control was measured using a modified task-switching paradigm. Anthropometrics were measured by standardized procedures. Body fat mass and visceral fat area were measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Results: The results showed that increased body mass index (BMI, p = 0.02), body fat percentage (p = 0.02), and visceral fat area (p = 0.01) were significantly correlated with larger global switch costs of accuracy in women. In men, high levels of body fat percentage (p = 0.01) and visceral fat area (p = 0.03) were significantly correlated with larger local switch costs of reaction time. Conclusions: The results indicated that elevated adiposity was associated with worse performance on measures of cognitive control in young adults.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Cognição/fisiologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Antropometria/métodos , Associação , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/fisiologia , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
16.
Prog Neurobiol ; 179: 101615, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054931

RESUMO

How is the strength of a memory determined? This review discusses three main factors that contribute to memory enhancement - 1) emotion, 2) targeted memory reactivation, and 3) neural reinstatement. Whilst the mechanisms through which memories become enhanced vary, this review demonstrates that activation of the basolateral amygdala and hippocampal formation are crucial for facilitating encoding, consolidation, and retrieval. Here we suggest methodological factors to consider in future studies, and discuss several unanswered questions that should be pursued in order to clarify selective memory enhancement.


Assuntos
Associação , Complexo Nuclear Basolateral da Amígdala/fisiologia , Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Consolidação da Memória/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Adulto , Animais , Complexo Nuclear Basolateral da Amígdala/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Humanos
17.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 128(5): 423-430, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058523

RESUMO

Cognitive mechanisms underlying auditory hallucinations (AH) in schizophrenia have been related to working memory (WM), although the formative mechanism is unknown. The phonological loop refers to subvocal rehearsals of information held online for supporting WM. As WM deficiency is frequent in schizophrenia, we hypothesized that AH and WM deficit share a common dysfunction in phonological loop operation, especially when it is taxed by ambiguous auditory and verbal associations. We developed an active phonological priming (APP) paradigm in which participants generated arbitrary verbal associations to pseudowords with ambiguous meaning. They were later asked to rate their familiarity to each pseudoword, a task that required subvocal evaluation of ambiguous auditory-verbal information. Factor and mediation analyses were used to test the hypothesis that WM, AH, and APP induced phonological bias toward perceiving ambiguous contents as familiar may share a common underlying mechanism. In 32 patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and 20 healthy controls (HC), SZ rated ambiguous pseudowords as significantly more familiar compared with HC (p = .006), indicating a proneness to APP-induced bias. This increased subjective bias to perceive ambiguous contents as familiar after APP significantly correlated with AH severity (p = .001) and mediated the relationship between WM and AH. Factor analysis demonstrated a common latent factor among WM, AH, and the bias induced by active priming to ambiguous contents. A heightened phonological loop priming to ambiguous contents appears to be mechanistically linked to WM deficits and AH in schizophrenia. These findings emphasize the importance of jointly addressing WM deficits and AH in clinical practice and research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Associação , Alucinações/fisiopatologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/fisiopatologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Alucinações/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquizofrenia/complicações
18.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 207(6): 423-428, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045952

RESUMO

Assessments based on reaction time and language-based interviews postulate that unconscious attachment processes be measured. Nevertheless, a possible empirical equivalence of these two approaches has not yet been investigated. To fill this void, the Adult Attachment Interview and the Implicit Association Test were implemented with a group of patients with panic disorder (n = 157, mean age = 29, SD = 2.47) based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, axis I and II disorders and a group of healthy individuals (n = 138). In total, the securely attached individuals showed significantly more positive attitudes toward their mother than the insecurely attached individuals. In the healthy individuals, the secure and disorganized classifications showed significantly more positive attitudes toward the mother in comparison with the insecure attachment classification, as well as the patient group. In summary, implicit attachment patterns based on reaction times are not equivalent to an attachment representation based on language markers. For the disorganized attachment representation, no differences were present between the information processing of the memory/association network and the autobiographic memory function.


Assuntos
Agorafobia/fisiopatologia , Relações Mãe-Filho , Apego ao Objeto , Transtorno de Pânico/fisiopatologia , Inconsciente Psicológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Associação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória Episódica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Acad Med ; 94(8): 1204-1210, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045605

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Learners and practicing health professionals may dismiss emotionally charged feedback related to self, yet little research has examined how to address feedback that threatens an individual's identity. The implicit association test (IAT) provides feedback to individuals regarding their implicit biases. Anticipating feedback about implicit bias might be emotionally charged for mental health professionals, this study explored their experience of taking the IAT and receiving their results, to better understand the challenges of identity-threatening feedback. METHOD: The researchers sampled 32 psychiatry nurses, psychiatrists, and psychiatric residents at Western University in Ontario, Canada, after they completed the mental illness IAT and received their results. Using constructivist grounded theory, semistructured interviews were conducted from April to October 2017 regarding participants' experience of taking the IAT. Using constant comparative analysis, transcripts were iteratively coded and analyzed for results. RESULTS: While most participants critiqued the IAT and questioned its credibility, many also described the experience of receiving feedback about their implicit biases as positive or neutral. Most justified their implicit biases while acknowledging the need to better manage them. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight a feedback paradox, calling into question assumptions regarding self-related feedback. Participants' reactions to the IAT suggest that potentially threatening self-related feedback may still be useful to participants who question its credibility. Further exploration of how the feedback conversation influences engagement with self-related feedback is needed.


Assuntos
Associação , Retroalimentação , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Autoavaliação , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Viés , Feminino , Teoria Fundamentada , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Ontário , Preconceito
20.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 72(10): 2423-2436, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30931820

RESUMO

During the last decades, there have been a large number of studies into the number-related abilities of humans. As a result, we know that humans and non-human animals have a system known as the approximate number system that allows them to distinguish between collections based on their number of items, separately from any counting procedures. Dehaene and others have argued for a model on which this system uses representations for numbers that are spatial in nature and are shared by our symbolic and non-symbolic processing of numbers. However, there is a conflicting theoretical perspective in which there are no representations of numbers underlying the approximate number system, but only quantity-related representations. This perspective would then suggest that there are no shared representations between symbolic and non-symbolic processing. We review the evidence on spatial biases resulting from the activation of numerical representations, for both non-symbolic and symbolic tests. These biases may help decide between the theoretical differences; shared representations are expected to lead to similar biases regardless of the format, whereas different representations more naturally explain differences in biases, and thus behaviour. The evidence is not yet decisive, as the behavioural evidence is split: we expect bisection tasks to eventually favour shared representations, whereas studies on the spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect currently favour different representations. We discuss how this impasse may be resolved, in particular, by combining these behavioural studies with relevant neuroimaging data. If this approach is carried forward, then it may help decide which of these two theoretical perspectives on number representations is correct.


Assuntos
Associação , Conceitos Matemáticos , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos
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