Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 18.009
Filtrar
1.
Braz Oral Res ; 34: e049, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578759

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate adolescents' aesthetic perceptions and their social judgments regarding different enamel opacities. Sample size was calculated and resulted in the inclusion of 100 adolescents (aged 10 to 15 years) from a public school in Jequié, Bahia, Brazil. Images of enamel opacities were manipulated to create aesthetic enamel defects, such as enamel color changes (unilateral and bilateral white opacity, unilateral and bilateral yellowish opacity, and unilateral and bilateral yellowish opacity with loss of structure). The images of the opacities were based on Fédération Dentaire Internationale's Developmental Defects of Enamel (DDE) Index. Aesthetic perception and social judgments were evaluated using a validated questionnaire with 12 questions (six positive and six negative points) on social aspects, considering the six manipulated images and the control. The photographic analyses were projected one-by-one by computer to adolescents individually in a classroom. Participants had one minute to observe each image and answer the questionnaire. The data were analyzed by descriptions, and the Friedman Wilcoxon test (p < 0.05). The results indicate that all opacities negatively impacted social judgment (p < 0.001). The enamel aesthetic defects most affecting an individual's perception were bilateral yellow opacity with or without loss of structure (p < 0.001). Regarding social judgment, all participants showed a negative perception of all the tested opacity types (p < 0.001). In conclusion, even opacities presenting only a color change caused aesthetic dissatisfaction to the individuals and changes in their social judgment toward others. Color changes in dental enamel have several aesthetic consequences.


Assuntos
Esmalte Dentário , Estética Dentária/psicologia , Julgamento , Percepção Social , Descoloração de Dente/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
J Environ Manage ; 268: 110676, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510433

RESUMO

This study presents the most comprehensive set of ecosystem service provision estimates for diverse oyster-based resources to date. We use expert elicitation methods to derive estimates of five ecosystem services provided by oysters: oyster harvest (as indicated by oyster density), improved water quality (net nitrogen assimilation), shoreline protection (net erosion), and other fish habitat (blue crab and red drum density). Distributions are estimated for three distinct resources: on-bottom production, off-bottom farms, and non-harvested restoration/conservation efforts, under twelve distinct scenarios according to varying environmental conditions (eutrophication, sedimentation, and salinity regimes). Our expert-derived estimates of ecosystem services provide useful comparisons across oyster resources of both expected ecosystem service delivery levels and the amount of variation in those levels. These estimates bridge an information gap regarding relative performance of diverse oyster resources along multiple dimensions and should serve as a useful guide for resource managers facing competing interests.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Ostreidae , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Eutrofização , Julgamento , Salinidade
3.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e75, 2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349809

RESUMO

Morality has two key features: (1) moral judgments are not solely determined by what your group thinks, and (2) moral judgments are often applied to members of other groups as well as your own group. Cooperative motives do not explain how young children reject unfairness, and assert moral obligations, both inside and outside their groups. Resistance and experience with conflicts, alongside cooperation, is key to the emergence and development of moral obligation.


Assuntos
Obrigações Morais , Princípios Morais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Julgamento
4.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e57, 2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349814

RESUMO

We argue that Tomasello's account overlooks important psychological distinctions between how humans judge different types of moral obligations, such as prescriptive obligations (i.e., what one should do) and proscriptive obligations (i.e., what one should not do). Specifically, evaluating these different types of obligations rests on different psychological inputs and has distinct downstream consequences for judgments of moral character.


Assuntos
Obrigações Morais , Princípios Morais , Humanos , Julgamento
5.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230304, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32310957

RESUMO

Michael S. Moore is among the most prominent normative theorists to argue that retributive justice, understood as the deserved suffering of offenders, justifies punishment. Moore claims that the principle of retributive justice is pervasively supported by our judgments of justice and sufficient to ground punishment. We offer an experimental assessment of these two claims, (1) the pervasiveness claim, according to which people are widely prone to endorse retributive judgments, and (2) the sufficiency claim, according to which no non-retributive principle is necessary for justifying punishment. We test these two claims in a survey and a related survey experiment in which we present participants (N = ~900) with the stylized description of a criminal case. Our results seem to invalidate claim (1) and provide mixed results concerning claim (2). We conclude that retributive justice theories which advance either of these two claims need to reassess their evidential support.


Assuntos
Julgamento , Punição/psicologia , Justiça Social/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
8.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230603, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187207

RESUMO

Sense of agency refers to the feeling of being in control of one's actions. Previous research has demonstrated that sense of agency is produced through the sensorimotor system, which is involved in comparing internal predictions with sensory feedback in motor control. Therefore, sensorimotor deficits might impair agency through a sensorimotor system malfunction. The present study examined this hypothesis by investigating post-stroke patients who had suffered a subcortical stroke that damaged regions associated with sensorimotor function. To examine agency judgments with respect to motor control, we adopted a self-other attribution task and applied it to post-stroke patients. Participants traced a horizontal straight line and received visual feedback through a cursor on a monitor. The cursor movement reflected either the participants' actual movement or the movement of an "other" that had been previously recorded. Participants judged whether the cursor movement reflected their own movement (self) or an other's movement while they engaged in four cycles of the horizontal tracing movement. After each trial, participants reported their self-other judgment on a nine-point scale. Post-stroke patients completed the experiment with their paretic as well as their non-paralyzed upper limbs. Compared to healthy controls, patients made significantly more self-attributions of others' movements. Interestingly, such misattributions were observed in the patients' performance using both paretic and non-paralyzed upper limbs. These results suggest that post-stroke patients with sensorimotor deficits form misattributions that cannot be explained solely by the sensorimotor system's role in motor control. We discuss these misattributions in post-stroke patients in terms of cue integration theory.


Assuntos
Julgamento , Córtex Sensório-Motor/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estimulação Luminosa , Desempenho Psicomotor
9.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1923): 20193010, 2020 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208834

RESUMO

The timing of acoustic events is central to human speech and music. Tempo tends to be slower in aesthetic contexts: rates in poetic speech and music are slower than non-poetic, running speech. We tested whether a general aesthetic preference for slower rates can account for this, using birdsong as a stimulus: it structurally resembles human sequences but is unbiased by their production or processing constraints. When listeners selected the birdsong playback tempo that was most pleasing, they showed no bias towards any range of note rates. However, upon hearing a novel stimulus, listeners rapidly formed a robust, implicit memory of its temporal properties, and developed a stimulus-specific preference for the memorized tempo. Interestingly, tempo perception in birdsong stimuli was strongly determined by individual, internal preferences for rates of 1-2 Hz. This suggests that processing complex sound sequences relies on a default time window, while aesthetic appreciation appears flexible, experience-based and not determined by absolute event rates.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva , Estética , Vocalização Animal , Estimulação Acústica , Animais , Humanos , Julgamento
10.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229412, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191721

RESUMO

Substandard drugs are a major public health issue worldwide. Key person such as the Qualified Person in China and Europe is responsible for rejecting substandard drugs during the manufacturing stage. This study applies the Hunt-Vitell ethical decision-making model to study their rejection intentions on substandard drugs. Using the experimental vignette methodology, two scenarios were developed to represent different levels of deviation from regulations in pharmaceutical manufacturing. Responses from 204 Chinese key persons show a decline in deontology, ethical judgment, and rejection intention, and an increase in teleology in the minor deviation scenario, in comparison with the major deviation scenario. The results from the two scenarios show that the Hunt-Vitell ethical decision-making model is well fitted to explain substandard drug rejection intentions. Organizational and occupational commitments have a significant positive impact on deontological evaluation. Whereas, occupational commitments have a significant negative impact on teleological evaluation. This study suggests that strengthening occupational commitment can significantly affect key person's rejection intentions of substandard drugs.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões/ética , Prova Pericial/normas , Intenção , Julgamento/ética , Modelos Teóricos , Controle de Qualidade , Medicamentos Fora do Padrão/provisão & distribução , Adulto , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229515, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130232

RESUMO

Category-based induction involves the generalization of a novel property (conclusion property) to a new category (conclusion category), based on the knowledge that a category exemplar (premise category) has the respective novel property. Previous studies have shown that conclusion specificity (i.e., specific [S] or generic categories [G]) influences category-based induction. However, the timing of brain activity underlying this effect is not well known, especially with controlling the similarities of premise and conclusion categories between S and G arguments. In this study, the event-related potential (ERP) responses to category-based induction between S and G arguments were compared under both congruent (+, premise and conclusion categories are related) and incongruent (-, premise and conclusion categories are unrelated) arguments; additionally, the similarities of premise and conclusion categories between S and G arguments were controlled. The results showed that replicating this effect, S+ arguments have increased "strong" response rates compared to G+ arguments, suggesting that category-based induction is contingent on factors beyond matched similarities. Moreover, S arguments have more liberal inductive decision thresholds than G arguments, which suggest that conclusion specificity affects the inductive decision reflected by inductive decision thresholds. Furthermore, G+ arguments elicit greater P3a amplitudes than S+ arguments, which suggest greater attention resources allocation to the review of decisions for G+ arguments than that for S+ arguments. Taken together, the conclusion specificity effect during semantic category-based induction can be revealed by "strong" response rates, inductive decision thresholds, and P3a component after controlling the premise-conclusion similarity, providing evidence that category-based induction rely on more than simple similarity judgment and conclusion specificity would affect category-based induction.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Generalização Psicológica/fisiologia , Humanos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Conhecimento , Masculino , Semântica , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229180, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084181

RESUMO

The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is the second-largest and most contentious public assistance program administered by the United States government. The media forums where SNAP discourse occurs have changed with the advent of social and web-based media. We used machine learning techniques to characterize media coverage of SNAP over time (1990-2017), between outlets with national readership and those with narrower scopes, and, for a subset of web-based media, by the outlet's political leaning. We applied structural topic models, a machine learning methodology that categorizes and summarizes large bodies of text that have document-level covariates or metadata, to a corpus of print media retrieved via LexisNexis (n = 76,634). For comparison, we complied a separate corpus via web-scrape algorithm of the Google News API (2012-2017), and assigned political alignment metadata to a subset documents according to a recent study of partisanship on social media. A similar procedure was used on a subset of the print media documents that could be matched to the same alignment index. Using linear regression models, we found some, but not all, topics to vary significantly with time, between large and small media outlets, and by political leaning. Our findings offer insights into the polarized and partisan nature of a major social welfare program in the United States, and the possible effects of new media environments on the state of this discourse.


Assuntos
Assistência Alimentar , Julgamento , Política , Publicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Meios de Comunicação de Massa/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo
13.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0225617, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040474

RESUMO

Two fundamental goals of decision making are to select actions that maximize rewards while minimizing costs and to have strong confidence in the accuracy of a judgment. Neural signatures of these two forms of value: the subjective value (SV) of choice alternatives and the value of the judgment (confidence), have both been observed in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). However, the relationship between these dual value signals and their relative time courses are unknown. Twenty-eight men and women underwent fMRI while performing a two-phase approach-avoidance (Ap-Av) task with mixed-outcomes of monetary rewards paired with painful shock stimuli. Neural responses were measured during offer valuation (offer phase) and choice valuation (commit phase) and analyzed with respect to observed decision outcomes, model-estimated SV and confidence. During the offer phase, vmPFC tracked SV and the decision but not confidence. During the commit phase, vmPFC tracked confidence, computed as the quadratic extension of SV, but not the offer valuation nor the decision. In fact, vmPFC responses from the commit phase were selective for confidence even for reject decisions wherein confidence and SV are inversely related. Conversely, activation of the cognitive control network, including within lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) was associated with ambivalence, during both the offer and commit phases. Taken together, our results reveal complementary representations in vmPFC during value-based decision making that temporally dissociate such that offer valuation (SV) emerges before decision valuation (confidence).


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Autoimagem , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Humanos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Punição , Recompensa , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229130, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092079

RESUMO

Human adults are faster to respond to small/large numerals with their left/right hand when they judge the parity of numerals, which is known as the SNARC (spatial-numerical association of response codes) effect. It has been proposed that the size of the SNARC effect depends on response latencies. The current study introduced a perceptual orientation task, where participants were asked to judge the orientation of a digit or a frame surrounding the digit. The present study first confirmed the SNARC effect with native Chinese speakers (Experiment 1) using a parity task, and then examined whether the emergence and size of the SNARC effect depended on the response latencies (Experiments 2, 3, and 4) using a perceptual orientation judgment task. Our results suggested that (a) the automatic processing of response-related numerical-spatial information occurred with Chinese-speaking participants in the parity task; (b) the SNARC effect was also found when the task did not require semantic access; and (c) the size of the effect depended on the processing speed of the task-relevant dimension. Finally, we proposed an underlying mechanism to explain the SNARC effect in the perceptual orientation judgment task.


Assuntos
Julgamento/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Processamento Espacial/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Matemática , Adulto Jovem
15.
Codas ; 32(4): e20190074, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049106

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To verify and compare the immediate effects of the voiced oral high-frequency oscillation (VOHFO) technique and the phonation into a silicone resonance tube in the elderly self-perception of vocal and laryngeal symptoms and in their voice quality. METHODS: 14 elderly women, over 60 years old, performed the VOHFO and phonation into a resonance tube technique (35cm in length and 9mm in diameter) with one-week interval between both to avoid carry-over effect. Initially, all participants answered questions regarding the frequency and intensity of their vocal/laryngeal symptoms. Recordings of the sustained vowel /a/ and counting numbers were performed for posterior perceptual and acoustic analyses of the voice quality. The maximum phonation time (MPT) for /a/, /s/, /z/ and counting numbers were also obtained. After that, a draw lot established which technique (VOHFO or resonance tube) would be initially applied for three minutes. After the exercise performance the same procedures were carried out and the elderly women answered a self-assessment questionnaire about the effect of the techniques in her voice, larynx, breathing and articulation. Comparison pre and post each technique were analyzed using ANOVA, Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests. The sensations after the techniques were assessed using the Chi-square test (p<0.05). RESULTS: The comparison of both techniques showed decrease in roughness and improvement in resonance for counting numbers after the resonance tube and same outcomes post VOHFO. There were no significant differences for the other analyzed variables between groups. CONCLUSION: The phonation into a resonance tube exercise improves the vocal quality of elderly women. In addition, both exercises are similar regarding self-perception of vocal / laryngeal symptoms and sensations post three minutes of the technique, suggesting that VOHFO can be safely applied in voice therapy for this population.


Assuntos
Laringe/fisiopatologia , Fonação/fisiologia , Acústica da Fala , Qualidade da Voz/fisiologia , Treinamento da Voz , Idoso , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Feminino , Ventilação de Alta Frequência/métodos , Humanos , Julgamento , Doenças da Laringe/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autoimagem , Autorrelato , Patologia da Fala e Linguagem/métodos , Distúrbios da Voz/fisiopatologia , Distúrbios da Voz/psicologia
16.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 203: 103002, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004640

RESUMO

How accurate are individuals in judging the originality of their own ideas? Most metacognitive research has focused on well-defined tasks, such as learning, memory, and problem solving, providing limited insight into ill-defined tasks. The present study introduces a novel metacognitive self-judgment of originality, defined as assessments of the uniqueness of an idea in a given context. In three experiments, we examined the reliability, potential biases, and factors affecting originality judgments. Using an ideation task, designed to assess the ability to generate multiple divergent ideas, we show that people accurately acknowledge the serial order effect-judging later ideas as more original than earlier ideas. However, they systematically underestimate their ideas' originality. We employed a manipulation for affecting actual originality level, which did not affect originality judgments, and another one designed to affect originality judgments, which did not affect actual originality performance. This double dissociation between judgments and performance calls for future research to expose additional factors underlying originality judgments.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Criatividade , Julgamento/fisiologia , Metacognição/fisiologia , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Viés , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resolução de Problemas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autoavaliação , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Environ Manage ; 260: 110047, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090805

RESUMO

When confronted with concerns or backlash as a result of their environmental or sustainability performance, companies may elect to address them head-on by directly correcting their real or perceived misdeeds. However, it is often the case that businesses are unwilling or unable to address their transgressions directly; in these cases, they may elect to draw attention to indirect substantiality benefits unfolding in areas unrelated to where the concerns or backlash initially arose. In this study, we sought to test the effect of these indirect and direct responses to sustainability challenges on two dependent variables: public perception of company reputation, and their willingness to grant a company "social license" for future business activities. Compared to a business-as-usual control condition, and across three company contexts, consumers provided favorable ratings of reputation, and were willing to grant social license, when companies responded indirectly to a sustainability challenge. These results highlight the powerful effect of indirect responses, which may be perceived as "greenwash", and the importance of intuitive judgmental heuristics and individual value orientations when consumers form impressions about corporate sustainability.


Assuntos
Julgamento , Virtudes , Atitude , Comércio , Organizações
18.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228655, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017791

RESUMO

Mindful individuals are able to acknowledge mind wandering and live in the present moment in a nonjudgmental way. Previous studies have found that both mind wandering and mindfulness are associated with subjective well-being. However, the main predictor of happiness is personality; more specifically, happier people are emotionally stable and extraverted. The present study aimed to explore the contribution of the five factors of personality, dispositional mindfulness facets and a mindfulness intervention to happiness. A sample of 372 university students was assessed with the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, and another sample of 217 community adults answered the Big Five Personality Trait Short Questionnaire. Both samples, 589 participants in all, completed the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Furthermore, 55 participants from the general population sample took a 6-week training course in meditation and developing mindfulness. The regression analyses showed that emotional stability and extraversion traits were the strongest predictors of subjective well-being. Nonetheless, the nonjudging facet, which is nonevaluative/acceptance awareness of thoughts and feelings, still remained a significant predictor of happiness when personality was accounted for. Finally, mindfulness training did not increase subjective well-being. Being nonjudgmental of one's inner thoughts, feelings and sensations contributes to happiness even when personality is taken into account. Accordingly, it seems reasonable that mindfulness training that intends to improve subjective well-being should focus on noticing thoughts without judging them.


Assuntos
Felicidade , Atenção Plena , Personalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Extroversão Psicológica , Humanos , Julgamento , Meditação/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0227880, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084136

RESUMO

This study measured automatic walking synchronization and how it associates with social impression. Previous studies discovered positive social consequence of motor synchrony with ecological paradigms (e.g. body movement synchrony between therapists and patients in clinical sessions, and the synchrony of side-by-side walkers). However, most studies of joint movement with high ecological validity face the same challenge, namely that conversations between participants might be the main or a partial contributor to the observed social benefits, as conversation is well documented to promote understanding and motor synchronization. We addressed this issue by using a novel paradigm to remove the conversation component and examined how synchrony per se interacted with social impression. Participants were paired to walk side by side in silence (i.e. without conversation) and their social impression toward each other was rated before/after the paired walk. Our results showed that walkers' first impression was positively associated with their step synchronization rate in the silent paired walk. Together with past findings, the bi-directional relation between body entrainment and social functions suggests that implicit nonverbal communication plays a significant role in providing a basis for interpersonal interaction.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Caminhada/fisiologia , Aceleração , Comunicação , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento , Masculino , Movimento (Física) , Ajustamento Social , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Fatores de Tempo , Percepção do Tempo , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0227758, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101548

RESUMO

This study is the first to investigate whether the introduction of additional assistant referees in the UEFA Europa League (2009-2010 season) and the UEFA Champions League (2010-2011 season) was associated with lower referee bias in terms of home and "big" team favouritism. To this end, we analyse a unique database with pre- and within-game characteristics of all games in seven recent seasons in these leagues by means of bivariate probit regression models. We find evidence for substantial referee bias before the introduction of additional referees, while no such evidence is found after the introduction. Furthermore, additional assistants go hand in hand with more yellow cards for both home and away teams. We show that these findings are robust to multiple operationalisations of referee bias and that they are not just picking up a general time evolution towards less referee bias or the effect of parallel reforms.


Assuntos
Viés , Julgamento , Futebol , Humanos , Análise de Regressão , Estatística como Assunto
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA