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1.
Am Psychol ; 75(1): 117-118, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916822

RESUMO

Comments on an article by E. C. D. Gullette et al. (see record 2019-39191-007). A recent article by Gullette et al. (2019) examined guidelines for education and training at the doctoral and postdoctoral levels in consulting psychology and organizational consulting psychology. The guidelines provide an important framework and noted several specialty areas from which psychologists can provide consultation. A related area of consultation in which the guidelines can also have utility involves the consulting work provided by school psychologists within schools. By emphasizing that consultation within school psychology is significant, we hope to draw attention to the point that consulting is a core area of school psychology practice, while also drawing attention to these guidelines for school psychologists who might not otherwise see this document. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Encaminhamento e Consulta , Instituições Acadêmicas , Psicologia Educacional , Psicologia Industrial
2.
J Appl Psychol ; 104(10): 1243-1265, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945879

RESUMO

Several reviews have been critical of the degree to which scales in industrial/organizational psychology and organizational behavior adequately reflect the content of their construct. One potential reason for that circumstance is a tendency for scholars to focus less on content validation than on other validation methods (e.g., establishing reliability, performing convergent, discriminant, and criterion-related validation, and examining factor structure). We provide clear evaluation criteria for 2 commonly used content validation approaches: Anderson and Gerbing (1991) and Hinkin and Tracey (1999). To create those guidelines, we gathered all new scales introduced in Journal of Applied Psychology, Academy of Management Journal, Personnel Psychology, and Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes from 2010 to 2016. We then subjected those 112 scales to Anderson and Gerbing's (1991) and Hinkin and Tracey's (1999) approaches using 6,240 participants from Amazon's Mechanical Turk with detailed, transparent, and replicable instructions. For both approaches, our results provide evaluation criteria for definitional correspondence-the degree to which a scale's items correspond to the construct's definition-and definitional distinctiveness-the degree to which a scale's items correspond more to the construct's definition than to the definitions of other orbiting constructs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Guias como Assunto/normas , Psicologia Industrial/métodos , Psicologia Industrial/normas , Psicometria/métodos , Psicometria/normas , Estudos de Validação como Assunto , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
3.
Span J Psychol ; 22: E6, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819261

RESUMO

Our study explores the validity of a game-based assessment method assessing candidates' soft skills. Using self-reported measures of performance, (job performance, Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCBs), and Great Point Average (GPA), we examined the criterion-related and incremental validity of a game-based assessment, above and beyond the effect of cognitive ability and personality. Our findings indicate that a game-based assessment measuring soft skills (adaptability, flexibility, resilience and decision making) can predict self-reported job and academic performance. Moreover, a game-based assessment can predict academic performance above and beyond personality and cognitive ability tests. The effectiveness of gamification in personnel selection is discussed along with research and practical implications introducing recruiters and HR professionals to an innovative selection technique.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Aptidão , Emprego , Jogos Experimentais , Personalidade , Psicologia Industrial/métodos , Resiliência Psicológica , Desempenho Profissional , Adulto , Humanos
4.
Span J Psychol ; 22: E4, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819268

RESUMO

In this article, three important issues in organizational multilevel research are discussed and clarified, namely: (a) The interpretation of "cross-level direct effects" in theoretical and research multilevel models, (b) the specification of the emergence processes involved in higher-level constructs, and (c) the sample size recommendations for using multilevel statistical methods. By doing so, this article hopes to contribute to the improvement of organizational multilevel research.


Assuntos
Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Multinível , Psicologia Industrial/normas , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adulto , Humanos , Psicologia Industrial/métodos , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Tamanho da Amostra
5.
Span J Psychol ; 22: E5, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819272

RESUMO

The aim of the paper is to discuss the role of the line manager in implementing to plan, implement and evaluate successful organizational interventions using our experiences from the ARK-program. Earlier literature has shown that line managers have a major influence on an intervention's outcomes (Nielsen, 2017; Saksvik, Nytrø, Dahl-Jørgensen, & Mikkelsen, 2002), however, there is a lack of knowledge about the managements' role throughout the entire intervention process and how line managers are influenced by the context at different levels. We therefore discuss the line managers' role within the five phase cycle of an organizational intervention, including preparation, screening, action planning, implementation and evaluation. We also introduce a more in-depth understanding of the context by using of the IGLO-model (Individual, Group, Leadership and Organizational level). Based on our knowledge and experience from the ARK-program we make some recommendations for (a) what the line managers need throughout the five phases in order to contribute to a successful intervention, and (b) on what the line manager has to provide in order to develop and implement a successful intervention process.


Assuntos
Liderança , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Psicologia Industrial/métodos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adulto , Humanos
7.
PDA J Pharm Sci Technol ; 73(4): 391-400, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30770484

RESUMO

A clear picture of what Human Performance success looks like is now available from BioPhorum, where members of the Human Performance workstream have defined a blue-sky for the industry. This blue-sky document is both a guide and an assessment tool, which includes warning flags that help to identify significant obstacles in the way of effective human performance integration with operations that must be addressed. The effort to improve reliable operations within biopharma using elements of human performance borrowed from other industries have experienced uneven results and slow progress across the last seven years and has been bogged down for multiple significant reasons. These include a mental model that persists within the industry where workers are assumed to be the problem that needs fixing, the mistaken belief that Lean/Operational Excellence is a cure-all and nearly equivalent to human performance, neglecting the need to fundamentally rethink why and how investigations are performed, and truly underestimating the time, effort, strength of sponsor support, and strategy needed to change how work is designed, executed, and then later learned from.LAY ABSTRACT: Human Performance is an integrated risk management approach to improving systems, that includes human factors and systems safety, that leads to higher reliability and enhanced operational resilience. A clear picture of what Human Performance looks like in biopharma is available from the BioPhorum, where members of the Human Performance workstream have defined a blue-sky for the industry. This blue-sky document is both a guide and an assessment tool that will help to identify the steps to effective human performance integration with operations. The effort to improve reliable operations within biopharma using elements of human performance borrowed from other industries has experienced uneven results and slow progress across the last seven years and has been bogged down for multiple significant reasons. These include a mental model that persists within the industry where workers are assumed to be the problem that needs fixing, the mistaken belief that Lean practices (intended to improve productivity & efficiency) is a cure-all and nearly equivalent to human performance, neglecting the need to fundamentally rethink why and how investigations are performed, and truly underestimating the time, effort, strength of sponsor support needed to change how work is designed, executed, and then later learned from.


Assuntos
Biofarmácia/normas , Indústria Farmacêutica/normas , Gestão de Riscos , Erro Experimental/tendências , Biofarmácia/organização & administração , Indústria Farmacêutica/organização & administração , Humanos , Psicologia Industrial , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
8.
J Appl Psychol ; 104(7): 907-928, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30640488

RESUMO

Few studies have systematically considered how individuals design work. In a replication study (N = 211, Study 1), we showed that students naturally tend to develop simplified, low variety work. In 2 further simulation studies, we quantitatively assessed participants' work design behaviors via 2 new measures ("enriching task allocation" and "enriching work strategy selection"). As a comparison measure, we assessed individuals' tendency to choose individualistic rather than work design strategies ("person-focused strategy selection"). We then investigated how work design behaviors are affected by capacity (professional expertise, explicit knowledge, job autonomy) and willingness (life values). For a sample of human service professionals (N = 218, Study 2), participants scored higher on enriching task allocation and enriching work strategy selection if they had expertise as an industrial/organizational psychologist and if they had high autonomy in their own job. Explicit knowledge about work design predicted lower scores on person-focused strategy selection, and mediated the effects of professional expertise on this outcome. Individuals high in openness values scored higher on enriching work strategy selection, and those high in conservation values scored lower on enriching task allocation. These findings were replicated in Study 3 among working professionals (N = 602). We then showed that openness to change values predicted enriching work strategy selection via the more proximal processes of valence (valuing intrinsic work characteristics) and affect (positive affect when enriching others' work). This article opens up a new area of inquiry: how and why individuals design work for others in the way they do. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Ergonomia/métodos , Psicologia Industrial/métodos , Desempenho Profissional/organização & administração , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudantes , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
9.
Am Psychol ; 73(5): 678-682, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29792445

RESUMO

The Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP, Division 14 of the American Psychological Association [APA]) maintains Guidelines for Education and Training to provide guidance for the training of industrial-organizational (I-O) psychologists. The 2016/2017 revision combines separate documents for master's- and doctoral-level training into one document, because the competencies required for each degree are not very different. Instead, the degrees differ in breadth and depth. The updated Guidelines were approved as APA policy in August 2017. In this article, we briefly review the revision process and highlight the updates made in the latest version of the Guidelines. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Psicologia Industrial/educação , Sociedades Científicas , Humanos
10.
Am Psychol ; 73(4): 576-592, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29792469

RESUMO

Psychologists have studied small-group and team effectiveness for decades, and although there has been considerable progress, there remain significant challenges. Meta-analyses and systematic research have provided solid evidence for core team cognitive, motivational, affective, and behavioral processes that contribute to team effectiveness and empirical support for interventions that enhance team processes (e.g., team design, composition, training, and leadership); there has been substantial evidence for a science of team effectiveness. Nonetheless, there have also been concerns that team processes, which are inherently dynamic, have primarily been assessed as static constructs. Team-level processes and outcomes are multilevel phenomena that emerge, bottom-up from the interactions among team members over time, under the shifting demands of a work context. Thus, theoretical development that appropriately conceptualizes the multiple levels, process dynamics, and emergence of team phenomena over time are essential to advance understanding. Moreover, these conceptual advances necessitate innovative research methodologies to better capture team process dynamics. We explicate this foundation and then describe 2 promising streams of scientific inquiry-team interaction sensors and computational modeling-that are advancing new, unobtrusive measurement techniques and process-oriented research methods focused on understanding the dynamics of cohesion and cognition in teamwork. These are distinct lines of research, each endeavoring to advance the science, but doing so through the development of very different methodologies. We close by discussing the near-term research challenges and the potential long-term evolution of these innovative methods, with an eye toward the future for process-oriented theory and research on team effectiveness. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Processos Grupais , Psicologia Industrial/métodos , Psicologia Social/métodos , Pesquisa , Humanos
11.
J Appl Psychol ; 103(6): 659-675, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29355341

RESUMO

To address a long-standing concern regarding a gap between organizational science and practice, scholars called for more intuitive and meaningful ways of communicating research results to users of academic research. In this article, we develop a common language effect size index (CLß) that can help translate research results to practice. We demonstrate how CLß can be computed and used to interpret the effects of continuous and categorical predictors in multiple linear regression models. We also elaborate on how the proposed CLß index is computed and used to interpret interactions and nonlinear effects in regression models. In addition, we test the robustness of the proposed index to violations of normality and provide means for computing standard errors and constructing confidence intervals around its estimates. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Modelos Estatísticos , Psicologia Industrial/normas , Pesquisa/normas , Terminologia como Assunto , Humanos
12.
Assessment ; 25(4): 513-526, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27056730

RESUMO

This article describes an investigation of whether Thurstonian item response modeling is a viable method for assessment of maladaptive traits. Forced-choice responses from 420 working adults to a broad-range personality inventory assessing six maladaptive traits were considered. The Thurstonian item response model's fit to the forced-choice data was adequate, while the fit of a counterpart item response model to responses to the same items but arranged in a single-stimulus design was poor. Monotrait heteromethod correlations indicated corresponding traits in the two formats overlapped substantially, although they did not measure equivalent constructs. A better goodness of fit and higher factor loadings for the Thurstonian item response model, coupled with a clearer conceptual alignment to the theoretical trait definitions, suggested that the single-stimulus item responses were influenced by biases that the independent clusters measurement model did not account for. Researchers may wish to consider forced-choice designs and appropriate item response modeling techniques such as Thurstonian item response modeling for personality questionnaire applications in industrial psychology, especially when assessing maladaptive traits. We recommend further investigation of this approach in actual selection situations and with different assessment instruments.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Inventário de Personalidade , Psicologia Industrial/instrumentação , Austrália , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Nova Zelândia , Inventário de Personalidade/normas , Psicometria , África do Sul , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
13.
Nonlinear Dynamics Psychol Life Sci ; 22(1): 53-76, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29223198

RESUMO

In recent years, research in organizational psychology has witnessed a shift in attention from a mostly variable-focused approach, to a mostly person-focused approach. Indeed, it has been widely recognized that the study of worker's heterogeneity is a meaningful and necessary task of researchers dealing with human behavior in organizational contexts. As a consequence, there has been growing interest in the application of statistical analyses able to uncover latent sub-groups of workers. The present contribution was conceived as a tutorial for the application of one of these statistical analyses, namely second-order growth mixture modeling, and to illustrate its inner links with concepts from non-linear dynamic models. Throughout the paper, we provided (a) a discussion on the relationships between growth mixture modeling and the cusp catastrophe model; (b) Mplus syntaxes and output excerpts of a longitudinal analysis conducted on job performance (N = 420 employees rated once a year for four consecutive years);


Assuntos
Modelos Estatísticos , Psicologia Industrial , Desempenho Profissional , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos
14.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 158(1): 21-23, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28898163

RESUMO

Increasing attention has been paid to the selection of otolaryngology residents, a highly competitive process but one with room for improvement. A recent commentary in this journal recommended that residency programs more thoroughly incorporate theory and evidence from personnel psychology (part of the broader field of organizational science) in the resident selection process. However, the focus of this recommendation was limited to applicants' cognitive abilities and independent work-oriented traits (eg, conscientiousness). We broaden this perspective to consider critical interpersonal skills and traits that enhance resident effectiveness in interdependent health care organizations and we expand beyond the emphasis on selection to consider how these skills can be honed during residency. We advocate for greater use of standardized team-based care simulations, which can aid in assessing and developing the key interpersonal leadership skills necessary for success as an otolaryngology resident.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Otolaringologia/educação , Seleção de Pessoal , Habilidades Sociais , Competência Clínica , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Modelos Psicológicos , Personalidade , Psicologia Industrial
15.
Psychol Res ; 82(1): 4-11, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29098444

RESUMO

Although multitasking has been the subject of a large number of papers and experiments, the term task is still not well defined. In this opinion paper, we adopt the ideomotor perspective to define the term task and distinguish it from the terms goal and action. In our opinion, actions are movements executed by an actor to achieve a concrete goal. Concrete goals are represented as anticipated sensory consequences that are associated with an action in an ideomotor manner. Concrete goals are nested in a hierarchy of more and more abstract goals, which form the context of the corresponding action. Finally, tasks are depersonalized goals, i.e., goals that should be achieved by someone. However, tasks can be assigned to a specific person or group of persons, either by a third party or by the person or the group of persons themselves. By accepting this assignment, the depersonalized task becomes a personal goal. In our opinion, research on multitasking needs to confine its scope to the analysis of concrete tasks, which result in concrete goals as anticipated sensory consequences of the corresponding action. We further argue that the distinction between dual- and single-tasking is dependent on the subjective conception of the task assignment, the goal representation and previous experience. Finally, we conclude that it is not the tasks, but the performing of the tasks, i.e. the actions that cause costs in multitasking experiments.


Assuntos
Movimento (Física) , Psicologia Industrial/classificação , Desempenho Psicomotor/classificação , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Am Psychol ; 72(7): 713, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29016183

RESUMO

Presents an obituary for Paul W. Thayer, who died on January 25, 2017, at the age of 89. Thayer was an industrial and organizational psychologist probably most distinguished by his professional service. He was a fellow of the American Psychological Association (APA), American Psychological Society (APS), and Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP). He received multiple awards for his service, including SIOP's Distinguished Professional Contributions Award (1986) and its Distinguished Service Award (1990), as well as the APA Award for Distinguished Service to Psychological Science (2014). Paul's most recognized scientific contribution was in industrial training. He coauthored (with William McGehee) the first scientific book on the topic titled, Training in Business and Industry (New York, NY: Wiley), in 1961, which is considered a classic in the field. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Psicologia Industrial/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos
17.
J Appl Psychol ; 102(12): 1636-1657, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28749149

RESUMO

To reduce adverse impact potential and improve diversity outcomes from personnel selection, one promising technique is De Corte, Lievens, and Sackett's (2007) Pareto-optimal weighting strategy. De Corte et al.'s strategy has been demonstrated on (a) a composite of cognitive and noncognitive (e.g., personality) tests (De Corte, Lievens, & Sackett, 2008) and (b) a composite of specific cognitive ability subtests (Wee, Newman, & Joseph, 2014). Both studies illustrated how Pareto-weighting (in contrast to unit weighting) could lead to substantial improvement in diversity outcomes (i.e., diversity improvement), sometimes more than doubling the number of job offers for minority applicants. The current work addresses a key limitation of the technique-the possibility of shrinkage, especially diversity shrinkage, in the Pareto-optimal solutions. Using Monte Carlo simulations, sample size and predictor combinations were varied and cross-validated Pareto-optimal solutions were obtained. Although diversity shrinkage was sizable for a composite of cognitive and noncognitive predictors when sample size was at or below 500, diversity shrinkage was typically negligible for a composite of specific cognitive subtest predictors when sample size was at least 100. Diversity shrinkage was larger when the Pareto-optimal solution suggested substantial diversity improvement. When sample size was at least 100, cross-validated Pareto-optimal weights typically outperformed unit weights-suggesting that diversity improvement is often possible, despite diversity shrinkage. Implications for Pareto-optimal weighting, adverse impact, sample size of validation studies, and optimizing the diversity-job performance tradeoff are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Modelos Estatísticos , Seleção de Pessoal/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicologia Industrial/métodos , Adulto , Humanos
18.
Am Psychol ; 72(3): 242-254, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28383977

RESUMO

For many terrorist organizations, also known as violent extremist organizations (VEOs), their ability to perpetuate violence is often contingent upon successful recruitment and selection of organizational members. Although academic work on terrorist recruitment and selection has improved in recent years, researchers have generally focused more heavily on aspects of radicalization rather than organization attraction and entry. Moreover, a number of terrorism scholars have lamented the lack of conceptual frameworks with which to interpret and extend findings linked to recruitment and selection, specifically. In light of these difficulties, we propose that considering literature bases outside of terrorism may be useful in extending lines of inquiry and offering alternative ways of thinking about how terrorist organizations operate. Specifically, we draw on Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Human Resource Management, and Organizational Behavior literature bases to offer alternative and extended modes of thought on terrorist recruitment and selection. In doing so, we believe both terrorism and more traditional organizational scholars can make substantive and novel contributions to future investigations of increasingly pressing issues surrounding violent extremism. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Seleção de Pessoal , Psicologia Industrial , Terrorismo/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Internet , Teoria Psicológica , Fatores Sociológicos
19.
Stress Health ; 33(5): 691-698, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28156046

RESUMO

Over the past several years, interest into the role of sleep in the workplace has grown. The theoretical shift from research questions examining sleep as an outcome to placing sleep as the independent variable has increased experimental approaches to manipulating sleep in organizational studies. This is an exciting trend that is likely to continue in the organizational sciences. However, sleep experimentation can also pose special challenges for organizational researchers unaccustomed to sleep science. In this commentary, I discuss five ethical considerations of conducting negative sleep interventions in organizational psychology research. I also provide recommendations for organizational researchers-or even other researchers in disciplines outside of sleep science-who wish to implement sleep interventions in their studies.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/ética , Pesquisa Comportamental/ética , Educação em Saúde/ética , Saúde do Trabalhador/ética , Psicologia Industrial/ética , Sono , Humanos
20.
J Appl Psychol ; 102(3): 589-598, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28206773

RESUMO

In a century of research published in the Journal of Applied Psychology, we have seen significant advances in our science. The results of this science have broad applications to the workplace and implications for improving organizational effectiveness through a variety of avenues. Research has focused on understanding constructs, relationships, and processes at multiple levels, including individual, team, and organizational. A plethora of research methods and questions have driven this work, resulting in a nuanced understanding of what matters in the workplace. In this paper, we synthesize the most salient discoveries, findings, and/or conclusions in 19 domains. We seek to summarize the progress that has been made and highlight the most salient directions for future work such that the next century of research in industrial and organizational psychological science can be as impactful as the first century has been. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Organização e Administração , Psicologia Industrial/tendências , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Psicologia Industrial/história
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