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1.
Orv Hetil ; 161(36): 1522-1533, 2020 09.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886627

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Health disorders may affect negatively work productivity of individuals, leading to absence from work (absenteeism) and/or decreased functioning in the workplace (presenteeism). AIM: To assess the health-related work productivity of the adult population in Hungary by the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire (WPAI). METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was performed in 2019 involving a sample (n = 2023) representative for the adult population of Hungary. Socio-demographic characteristics were recorded. Health-related productivity of the participants was assessed by the WPAI questionnaire, health status was measured by the EQ-5D-3L measurement tool and the Minimum European Health Module (MEHM). STATISTICAL ANALYSES: Descriptive statistics were performed, subgroups were compared by Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Spearman's rank correlation was applied to analyze the relationship between WPAI, age and EQ-5D-3L index score. RESULTS: Among those in a paid job (n = 1194, 59%), altogether 70 respondents (6%) were absent from work during the week before the survey, which resulted in an average 1.9 (SD = 8.5) work hours loss per week. Presenteeism occurred in 166 (14%) cases. The average absenteeism was 3.6%, presenteeism was 4.4%, and activity impairment in the total sample was 9.5%. Absenteeism did not correlate with age and did not differ significantly across socio-demographic subgroups. Presenteeism was the highest among actively working retired people, disability pensioners and part-time employees. Presenteeism correlated moderately (r = -0.379), absenteeism weakly (r = -0.113) with EQ-5D-3L index. Correlation was significant between activity impairment and age (r = 0.412) as well as the EQ-5D-3L index score (r = -0.592). All WPAI items showed significant worsening across MEHM status levels. CONCLUSION: This is the first study in Hungary to present population reference values with the WPAI. Productivity loss due to presenteeism deserves special attention from the employers as well as from decision makers in the labour, health and social sectors. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(36): 1522-1533.


Assuntos
Absenteísmo , Eficiência , Presenteísmo/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Hungria , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 7(22): 380-384, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is a common pain syndrome treated by physicians of many disciplines and presents with many co-morbidities. We reviewed the complexities in assessing disabilities in fibromyalgia patients and the complex interrelationships between patients, their working places, and the medical community regarding preserving productivity. Flexibility is essential to keep the patients functional and productive. Job loss is costly to both society and patients and joint measures are needed to prevent unemployment.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Eficiência/fisiologia , Fibromialgia/fisiopatologia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
5.
J Environ Manage ; 270: 110794, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721289

RESUMO

Based on data of the manufacturing sector of China and Japan from 2003 to 2016, this paper attempts to measure the progresses in energy-biased technology and energy efficiency by constructing a threshold panel regression model with variables including foreign direct investment (FDI) and energy consumption structure to explain energy efficiency using energy-biased technology as the key explaining variable. The estimation indicates significant differences in the energy efficiency of China's and Japan's manufacturing industries. In general, Japan's total energy efficiency is higher than China's. The industry with more intensive technology has higher energy efficiency which rises much faster. The paper finds that the energy efficiency of China's manufacturing sector shows an upward trend in general, while Japan's fluctuates more, showing two peaks and two troughs. Our empirical results show that there is a threshold value of progress in energy-biased technology; below this, progress in energy-biased technology will have a positive effect on energy efficiency and beyond it, the effect will be negative. Since this effect is not one-way, we define it as a 'double-edged effect'. It is estimated that the level of energy-biased technology progress of most manufacturing industries in China is below the threshold value, indicating that the technology progress in China's manufacturing sector has not been excessively biased towards energy consumption, and the impact on energy efficiency is still positive. The China-Japan comparison shows that the threshold value for Japan's manufacturing sector is significantly lower than that for China's, indicating a marginal effect on the 'double-edged effect': The threshold value will decrease when energy efficiency reaches a certain level. Therefore, it is necessary to offset these negative externalities from technological progress with other factors such as by increasing FDI and improving energy consumption structure.


Assuntos
Indústrias , Tecnologia , China , Eficiência , Japão
6.
J Environ Manage ; 270: 110859, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721307

RESUMO

Improving water-use efficiency (WUE) is a crucial way of achieving green industrial production and sustainable development. Applying an improved Super-slacks-based measure model with undesirable outputs, this paper investigates industrial WUE in mainland China. The results show that: (1) Industrial WUE in China is improving with the efficiency value increasing from 0.9874 to 0.9962 in 2012-2015. (2) The regions of water absolute scarcity and the vulnerability show the highest industry-related WUE, whereas the water stressed region, water scarce region, and water abundant region failed to achieve efficiency during the observation period. (3) The overall index value using the conventional model was higher than that of the improved model, indicating the need for a more reasonable water-use structure and environmentally friendly discharge structure. This study provides a new perspective for measuring industrial WUE and advances related studies by (1) incorporating the actual structure of water used and wastewater discharged with weights assigned to input and output slacks according to marginal use cost of water and marginal treatment cost of wastewater; and (2) adding realistic constraints on the amount of water used and wastewater discharged to the model. The estimated provinces in mainland China can adjust their industrial water-use structures and wastewater-discharge structures based on the results of this study, and thus improve the industrial WUE.


Assuntos
Indústrias , Água , China , Eficiência , Águas Residuárias
7.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235443, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603373

RESUMO

The core problem in the distribution dilemma is the trade-off between equity and efficiency. With the development of socio-economic conditions, the optimal decision changes between equitable and efficient options. The methods for nudging decision-makers to make optimal decisions without changing the event are extremely important. This study used two laboratory behavior experiments to explore the impact of maxim information on the trade-off between equity and efficiency. The study explores whether stake levels and division schemes affect the nudging effect of the maxim in a Trade-Off Game (TOG). We found that participants were affected by maxim information in decision-making scenarios, and participants showed different equity preferences as the maxim information changed, without relevance of the stake level. Additionally, the nudging effect of the maxim only exists under the condition that the distributor's interests is not affected.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Tomada de Decisões , Jogos Experimentais , Adolescente , Eficiência , Feminino , Declarações Financeiras , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
8.
Waste Manag ; 115: 56-64, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721857

RESUMO

The paper proposes a procedure based on data envelopment analysis (DEA) in order to identify the optimal dimension for inter-municipal cooperation in waste management. Given: (a) a set of decision making units (DMUs) and a production process that virtually transforms municipal expenditure in different amounts of sorted and unsorted waste, (b) a set of exogenous variables conditioning the operational environment of the DMUs and (c) a variable used for measuring the dimension of inter-municipal cooperation, the procedure realizes an iterative correction of input values and efficiency scores to purge, first, the effects of the exogenous variables, and then those of the dimensional variable. In this way, an indicator of the impact of the dimensional variable on the efficiency is obtained for each of the observed DMUs. An application on waste collection services is proposed using data relative to a set of Italian DMUs with a population ranging between 20,000 and 300,000. The results show that DMUs not exceeding the total population of around 55,000 (upper bound of the eighth population decile) provide the best solution for inter-municipal cooperation. Over that level, increases of the population consistently worsen average efficiency (the mean of the impact of the dimensional variable on efficiency scores more than doubles from the eighth to the ninth decile and more than quintuples from the eighth to the last decile). The procedure can be applied to different regional and national contexts and even to inter-municipal cooperation concerning other public services.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Eficiência , Organizações , Resíduos Sólidos/análise
9.
J Hosp Infect ; 106(1): 163-175, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687870

RESUMO

Inadequate supply of filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) for healthcare workers during a pandemic such as the novel coronavirus outbreak (SARS-CoV-2) is a serious public health issue. The aim of this study was to synthesize existing data on the effectiveness of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) for N95 FFR decontamination. A systematic review (PROSPERO CRD42020176156) was conducted on UVGI in N95 FFRs using Embase, Medline, Global Health, Google Scholar, WHO feed, and MedRxiv. Two reviewers independently determined eligibility and extracted predefined variables. Original research reporting on function, decontamination, or mask fit following UVGI were included. Thirteen studies were identified, comprising 54 UVGI intervention arms and 58 N95 models. FFRs consistently maintained certification standards following UVGI. Aerosol penetration averaged 1.19% (0.70-2.48%) and 1.14% (0.57-2.63%) for control and UVGI arms, respectively. Airflow resistance for the control arms averaged 9.79 mm H2O (7.97-11.70 mm H2O) vs 9.85 mm H2O (8.33-11.44 mm H2O) for UVGI arms. UVGI protocols employing a cumulative dose >20,000 J/m2 resulted in a 2-log reduction in viral load. A >3-log reduction was observed in seven UVGI arms using >40,000 J/m2. Impact of UVGI on fit was evaluated in two studies (16,200; 32,400 J/m2) and no evidence of compromise was found. Our findings suggest that further work in this area (or translation to a clinical setting) should use a cumulative UV-C dose of 40,000 J/m2 or greater, and confirm appropriate mask fit following decontamination.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção/normas , Reutilização de Equipamento/normas , Guias como Assunto , Máscaras/normas , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Raios Ultravioleta , Betacoronavirus , Eficiência , Humanos , Segurança/normas
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-602644

RESUMO

The WHO declared the novel coronavirus disease a pandemic, with severe consequences for health and global economic activity and Italy is one of the hardest hit countries. This study aims to assess the socio-economic burden of COVID-19 pandemic in Italy through the estimation of Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) and productivity loss. The observational study was based on data from official governmental sources collected since the inception of epidemic until 28 April 2020. DALYs for a disease combines the years of life lost due to premature mortality in the population and the years lost due to disability of the disease. In addition to DALYs, temporary productivity loss due to absenteeism from work and permanent productivity loss due to premature mortality were estimated using the Human Capital Approach. The total DALYs amount to 2.01 per 1000 persons. The total permanent productivity loss was around EUR 300 million while the temporary productivity loss was around EUR 100 million. This evaluation does not consider other economic aspects related to lockdown, quarantine of contacts, healthcare direct costs etc. The burden of disease methodology is functional metric for steering choices of health policy and allowing the government to be accountable for the utilization of resources.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Mortalidade Prematura , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Custos e Análise de Custo , Eficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Adulto Jovem
14.
Elife ; 92020 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-598772

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in school closures and distancing requirements that have disrupted both work and family life for many. Concerns exist that these disruptions caused by the pandemic may not have influenced men and women researchers equally. Many medical journals have published papers on the pandemic, which were generated by researchers facing the challenges of these disruptions. Here we report the results of an analysis that compared the gender distribution of authors on 1893 medical papers related to the pandemic with that on papers published in the same journals in 2019, for papers with first authors and last authors from the United States. Using mixed-effects regression models, we estimated that the proportion of COVID-19 papers with a woman first author was 19% lower than that for papers published in the same journals in 2019, while our comparisons for last authors and overall proportion of women authors per paper were inconclusive. A closer examination suggested that women's representation as first authors of COVID-19 research was particularly low for papers published in March and April 2020. Our findings are consistent with the idea that the research productivity of women, especially early-career women, has been affected more than the research productivity of men.


Assuntos
Autoria , Bibliometria , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Pesquisadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Mulheres , Eficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Medicina , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Isolamento Social , Estados Unidos
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32545827

RESUMO

The WHO declared the novel coronavirus disease a pandemic, with severe consequences for health and global economic activity and Italy is one of the hardest hit countries. This study aims to assess the socio-economic burden of COVID-19 pandemic in Italy through the estimation of Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) and productivity loss. The observational study was based on data from official governmental sources collected since the inception of epidemic until 28 April 2020. DALYs for a disease combines the years of life lost due to premature mortality in the population and the years lost due to disability of the disease. In addition to DALYs, temporary productivity loss due to absenteeism from work and permanent productivity loss due to premature mortality were estimated using the Human Capital Approach. The total DALYs amount to 2.01 per 1000 persons. The total permanent productivity loss was around EUR 300 million while the temporary productivity loss was around EUR 100 million. This evaluation does not consider other economic aspects related to lockdown, quarantine of contacts, healthcare direct costs etc. The burden of disease methodology is functional metric for steering choices of health policy and allowing the government to be accountable for the utilization of resources.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Mortalidade Prematura , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Custos e Análise de Custo , Eficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Adulto Jovem
16.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 182(3): 679-688, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562119

RESUMO

PURPOSE: As our hospitals conserve and re-allocate resources during the COVID-19 crisis, there is urgent need to determine how best to continue caring for breast cancer patients. During the time window before the COVID-19 critical peak and particularly thereafter, as hospitals are able to resume cancer operations, we anticipate that there will be great need to maximize efficiency to treat breast cancer. The goal of this study is to present a same-day protocol that minimizes resource utilization to enable hospitals to increase inpatient capacity, while providing care for breast cancer patients undergoing mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction during the COVID-19 crisis. METHODS: IRB exempt patient quality improvement initiative was conducted to detail the operationalization of a novel same-day breast reconstruction protocol. Consecutive patients having undergone immediate breast reconstruction were prospectively enrolled between February and March of 2020 at Massachusetts General Hospital during the COVID-19 crisis. Peri-operative results and postoperative complications were summarized. RESULTS: Time interval from surgical closure to patient discharge was 5.02 ± 1.29 h. All patients were discharged home, with no re-admissions or emergency department visits. No postoperative complications were observed. CONCLUSION: This report provides an instruction manual to operationalize a same-day breast reconstruction protocol, to meet demands of providing appropriate cancer treatment during times of unprecedented resource limitations. Pre-pectoral implant-based breast reconstruction can be the definitive procedure or be used as a bridge to autologous reconstruction. Importantly, we hope this work will be helpful to our patients and community as we emerge from the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios/métodos , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/cirurgia , Mamoplastia/métodos , Mastectomia/métodos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Adulto , Assistência ao Convalescente , Anestesiologia , Betacoronavirus , Implante Mamário , Implantes de Mama , Protocolos Clínicos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Eficiência , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Recursos em Saúde , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Readmissão do Paciente , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela , Cirurgia Plástica , Oncologia Cirúrgica , Telemedicina , Dispositivos para Expansão de Tecidos
17.
J Environ Manage ; 269: 110810, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561014

RESUMO

Water companies consume up to 8% of global energy demand, at billions of dollars' cost. Benchmarking of performance between utilities can facilitate improvements in efficiency; however, inconsistencies in benchmarking practices may obscure pathways to improvement. The aspiration was to conduct an unbiased efficiency comparison within a sample of 17 water only companies and water and sewerage companies in England and Wales, accounting for exogenous factors, whilst evaluating the accuracy of common proxies. Proxies were tested, and bias-corrected energy and economic efficiency scores with explanatory factors were analysed using a double-bootstrap data envelopment method. Bias correction altered the rankings of two companies for energy efficiency only. Results imply that on average, companies could reduce energy inputs by 91.7%, and economic inputs by 92.3%, which was symptomatic of the companies specialising in drinking water supply considerably out-performing combined water and sewerage companies. As exogenous influences were likely to be a factor in the disparity between the companies, five indicators were evaluated. The results varied but of note were average pumping head height, which displayed a significant negative effect for energy efficiency, and proportion of water passing through the largest four treatment works, that exhibited a significant negative effect on economic efficiency. Within proxy performance, population served for drinking water was an adequate replacement for volume of water produced, with results matching the core variable apart from two companies changing rank in the economic analysis. Conversely, length of water mains performed poorly when replacing capital expenditure, implying companies were on average 12.6% more efficient, resulting in ten companies changing their rank and causing explanatory variables to contradict direction of influence and significance. The findings contribute new insights for benchmarking, including how different types of water companies perform under bias-correcting methods, the degree to which factors affect efficiency and how appropriate some proxies are.


Assuntos
Eficiência , Água , Inglaterra , País de Gales , Abastecimento de Água
18.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 16: 1745506520929165, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495707

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The transition to motherhood is associated with declines in physical activity in women. Working mothers may be particularly at-risk for low levels of physical activity, since they have to balance the competing interests of work and family life, and exercise often takes a backseat to more seemingly pressing concerns. The potential benefits working mothers can experience from physical activity are numerous. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the percentage of working mothers from the United States who met the World Health Organization's and the American College of Sports Medicine's recommended guidelines for weekly physical activity and investigate the associations between physical activity, quality of life, and self-rated work productivity in this sample of working mothers. METHODS: Participants were 334 working mothers from the United States (mean age = 35.00 years; standard deviation (SD) = 5.85; 77.8% White) recruited from a Qualtrics research panel. To be eligible to participate in the study, a woman had to be 18 years or older with at least one child aged 5 years or younger, work at least 30 h per week at a job, live with her child(ren) at least 50% of the time, and have a minimum of a bachelor's degree. Participants completed the Godin leisure time exercise questionnaire, the World Health Organization-five well-being index, a single-item indicator of self-rated work productivity, and a demographic questionnaire. RESULTS: Of the working mothers in the sample, 45.5% met the recommended guidelines of at least 150 min of moderate exercise in the past week. Approximately 39% of working mothers reported engaging in no 30-min bouts of strenuous exercise in the past week. Non-white working mothers, working mothers with a higher singular annual income, and working mothers who obtained a higher educational level were more likely to meet the recommended guidelines for physical activity in the past week. Meeting the recommended physical activity guidelines in the past week was associated with better quality of life (r = 0.39; p < 0.001) and self-rated work productivity (r = 0.13; p < 0.05). Only the association between physical activity and quality of life remained significant in a multivariate analysis (standardized beta coefficient = 0.33; p < 0.001) after controlling for race/ethnicity, maternal singular annual income, and maternal highest level of education. CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight that working mothers in the United States are a group at risk for low levels of physical activity. Given the great benefits that these women do experience as a function of getting exercise, it is critically important we pay more attention to how individual, organizational, and societal-level interventions might assist them in attaining target levels of physical activity.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/psicologia , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Eficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234300, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mortality statistics are traditionally used to quantify the burden of disease and to determine the relative importance of the various causes of death. Some of the most frequently used indices to quantify the burden of disease are the years of potential life lost (YPLL) and years of potential productive life lost (YPPLL). These two measures reflect the mortality trends in younger age groups and they provide a more accurate picture of premature mortality. This study was carried out to determine YPLL, YPPLL and cost of productivity lost (CPL) due to premature mortality caused by selected causes of deaths in Tanzania. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Malaria, respiratory diseases, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, cancers and injuries were selected for this analysis. The number of deaths by sex and age groups were obtained from hospital death registers and ICD-10 reporting forms in 39 public hospitals in Tanzania, covering a period of 2006-2015. The life expectancy method and human capital approach were used to estimate the YPLL, YPPLL and CPL due to premature mortality. During 2006-2015, malaria, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, respiratory diseases, HIV+tuberculosis, cancer and injury were responsible for a total of 96,834 hospital deaths, of which 46.4% (n = 57,508) were among individuals in the productive age groups (15-64 years). The reported deaths contributed to 2,850,928 YPLL (female = 1,326,724; male = 1,524,205) with an average of 29 years per death. The average YPLL among females (32) was higher than among males (28). Malaria (YPLL = 38 per death) accounted for over one-third (35%) of the total YPLL. There was a significant increase in YPLL due to the selected underlying causes of death over the 10-year period. Deaths from the selected causes resulted into 1,207,499 YPPLL (average = 21 per death). Overall, HIV/AIDS contributed to the highest YPPLL (323,704), followed by malaria (243,490) and injuries (196,505). While there was a general decrease in YPPLL due to malaria, there was an increase of YPPLL due to HIV/AIDS, respiratory diseases, cancer and injuries during the 10-year period. The total CPL due to the six diseases was US$ 148,430,009 for 10 years. The overall CPL was higher among males than females by 29.1%. Over half (58%) of the losses were due to deaths among males. HIV/AIDS accounted for the largest (29.2%) CPL followed by malaria (17.8%) and respiratory diseases (14.6%). The CPL increased from US$11.4 million in 2006 to US$17.9 million in 2016. CONCLUSIONS: The YPLL, YPPLL and CPL due to premature death associated with the six diseases in Tanzania are substantially high. While malaria accounted for highest YPLL, HIV/AIDS accounted for highest YPPLL and CPL. The overall CPL was higher among males than among females. Setting resource allocation priorities to malaria, HIV/AIDS and respiratory diseases that are responsible for the majority of premature deaths could potentially reduce the costs of productivity loss in Tanzania.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Prematura , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eficiência , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade Prematura/tendências , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(29): 36664-36676, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564315

RESUMO

In order to realize sustainable development, ecological efficiency is particularly important and deserving of further study and discussion in China. Thus, the study proposed a comprehensive index for ecological efficiency in Jiangsu and evaluated the ecological efficiency of 13 cities in the year of 2007, 2012, and 2017 by using entropy-weighting TOPSIS method. Based on coupling model, the study discussed the interaction between economic growth and ecological efficiency in Jiangsu. The results indicated that the ecological efficiency of Jiangsu in these three years differed considerably. Ecological efficiency is the highest in central Jiangsu, whereas ecological efficiency in the northern and southern parts of Jiangsu is relatively low from the perspective of horizontal space. In terms of coupling, Wuxi and Suzhou were the stablest in southern Jiangsu. Economic growth in the central Jiangsu fluctuated, Suqian lagged. Furthermore, based on the findings, the industrial structure should be adjusted to improve ecological efficiency. In addition, the use of innovation and rational foreign direct investment and other measures should be promoted. These proposals aim at improving ecological efficiency and achieving overall sustainable development in Jiangsu, China.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , China , Cidades , Eficiência
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