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1.
Pediatrics ; 145(5)2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350022

RESUMO

A 16-year-old girl presented to her primary care physician with a one-month history of decreased appetite and abdominal pain. She had normal bowel movements and no vomiting, but her periumbilical pain limited her ability to finish most meals. She had gradual weight loss over the previous 2 years, and during the previous 4 years, she intermittently received counseling for depression after the loss of her mother. Her initial physical examination and laboratory evaluation were unremarkable. She was referred to a nutritionist, adolescent medicine, and pediatric gastroenterology. Her presentation evolved over time, which ultimately led to a definitive diagnosis.


Assuntos
Dor Abdominal/diagnóstico , Apetite/fisiologia , Doença de Crohn/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Dor Abdominal/metabolismo , Adolescente , Doença de Crohn/complicações , Doença de Crohn/metabolismo , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/etiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/metabolismo
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1729, 2020 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32265438

RESUMO

The TrkB receptor is critical for the control of energy balance, as mutations in its gene (NTRK2) lead to hyperphagia and severe obesity. The main neural substrate mediating the appetite-suppressing activity of TrkB, however, remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that selective Ntrk2 deletion within paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) leads to severe hyperphagic obesity. Furthermore, chemogenetic activation or inhibition of TrkB-expressing PVH (PVHTrkB) neurons suppresses or increases food intake, respectively. PVHTrkB neurons project to multiple brain regions, including ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN). We find that PVHTrkB neurons projecting to LPBN are distinct from those to VMH, yet Ntrk2 deletion in PVH neurons projecting to either VMH or LPBN results in hyperphagia and obesity. Additionally, TrkB activation with BDNF increases firing of these PVH neurons. Therefore, TrkB signaling is a key regulator of a previously uncharacterized neuronal population within the PVH that impinges upon multiple circuits to govern appetite.


Assuntos
Hiperfagia/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/citologia , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/metabolismo , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Animais , Apetite/genética , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Hiperfagia/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Obesidade/genética , Núcleos Parabraquiais/citologia , Núcleos Parabraquiais/metabolismo , Núcleos Parabraquiais/fisiopatologia , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Ventromedial/citologia , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Ventromedial/metabolismo
3.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(6): 1137-1149, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Longer oral processing decreases food intake. This can be attributed to greater oro-sensory exposure (OSE) and a lower eating rate (ER). How these factors contribute to food intake, and the underlying physiological mechanisms, remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the independent and simultaneous effects of OSE and ER on satiation and associated endocrine responses. METHODS: Forty participants in study 1 [mean ± SD age: 24 ± 4 y; BMI (in kg/m2): 22 ± 2] and 20 in study 2 (mean ± SD age: 23 ± 3 y; BMI: 23 ± 2) participated in a 2 × 2 randomized trial. In both studies, participants ate chocolate custard with added caramel sauce (low OSE) or caramel fudge (high OSE) and with short (fast ER) or long breaks (slow ER) in between bites, until fullness. In study 2, endocrine responses were measured during the meal. RESULTS: In study 1, participants ate (mean ± SEM) 42 ± 15 g less in the slow- than in the fast-ER condition, only within the high-OSE condition (P = 0.04). In study 2, participants ate 66 ± 21 g less in the high- than in the low-OSE condition and there were no intake differences between slow and fast ER (P = 0.35). Eight minutes after starting to eat, insulin concentrations increased by 42%-65% in all treatments compared with the control. At the end of the meal, insulin concentrations were 81% higher in the high-OSE, slow-ER than in the low-OSE, fast-ER condition (P = 0.049). Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) increased by 62%, 5 min after meal onset in the low-OSE, fast-ER condition (P = 0.005). Ghrelin concentrations did not change. CONCLUSIONS: Greater OSE increases insulin responsiveness. In contrast, PP responses are stronger when OSE is reduced and ER is fast. Insulin and PP responses may mediate the independent effects of OSE and ER on food intake. These may be beneficial eating strategies, particularly for type 2 diabetic patients, to control food intake and maintain glucose homeostasis.This trial was registered at trialregister.nl as NL6544.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Grelina/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Peptídeo YY/metabolismo , Saciação , Adulto , Apetite , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Boca/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232099, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330183

RESUMO

Food cues affect hunger and nutritional choices. Omnipresent stimulation with palatable food contributes to the epidemics of obesity. The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of food cues on appetite-related hormones and to assess the functionality of the secreted hormones on macronutrient uptake in healthy subjects. Additionally, we aimed at verifying differences in the response of total and active ghrelin to stimulation with food pictures and to a meal followed by the stimulation. We were also interested in the identification of factors contributing to response to food cues. We recruited healthy, non-obese participants for two independent cross-over studies. During the first study, the subjects were presented random non-food pictures on the first day and pictures of foods on the second day of the study. Throughout the second study, following the picture session, the participants were additionally asked to drink a milkshake. Concentrations of blood glucose, triglycerides and hunger-related hormones were measured. The results showed that concentrations of several hormones measured in the blood are interdependent. In the case of ghrelin and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) as well as ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), this co-occurrence relies on the visual cues. Regulation of total ghrelin concentration following food stimulation is highly individual and responders showed upregulated total ghrelin, while the concentration of active ghrelin decreases following a meal. Protein content and colour intensity of food pictures reversely correlated with participants' rating of the pictures. We conclude that observation of food pictures influences the concentration of several appetite-related hormones. The close link of visual clues to physiological responses is likely of clinical relevance. Additionally, the protein content of displayed foods and green colour intensity in pictures may serve as a predictor of subjective attractiveness of the presented meal.


Assuntos
Fome/fisiologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Apetite/fisiologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico/sangue , Grelina/sangue , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Nutrientes , Peptídeo YY/sangue
5.
Int J Behav Med ; 27(2): 247-254, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Distress intolerance, one's inability to withstand distressing emotional or physical states, is a transdiagnostic vulnerability implicated in affect-based health behaviors, including cigarette smoking and poor weight control. The current study evaluated associations between distress intolerance and the reliance on cigarettes for management of weight, appetite, or body dissatisfaction, which may pose a burden for cessation and increase risk of weight-related health problems. METHOD: Daily smokers (n = 577) completed an online survey assessing distress tolerance and reliance on cigarettes for weight and shape control with the four subscales of the Smoking and Weight Eating Episodes Test (SWEET). Four hierarchical regression models were constructed to test the association between distress intolerance and SWEET scores, accounting for the effect of relevant covarying factors. RESULTS: After adjusting for model covariates, distress intolerance was significantly incrementally associated with greater tendency to rely on cigarettes to suppress appetite (adjR2 = .040), prevent overeating (adjR2 = .034), cope with body dissatisfaction (adjR2 = .046), and cope with nicotine withdrawal-related appetite increases (adjR2 = .030). CONCLUSION: Distress intolerance may play an etiological role in maladaptive use of cigarettes to control appetite, weight, and body dissatisfaction among daily smokers, particularly those with weight- or shape-related concerns. Interventions aimed at increasing perceived ability to withstand distress could potentially reduce reliance on cigarettes for the aforementioned purposes.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Apetite/fisiologia , Fumantes/psicologia , Fumar/psicologia , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperfagia/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 318(4): R790-R798, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160019

RESUMO

The fatty acid, lauric acid (C12), and the amino acid, leucine (Leu) stimulate gut hormones, including CCK, associated with suppression of energy intake. In our recent study, intraduodenal infusion of a combination of C12 and l-tryptophan, at loads that individually did not affect energy intake, reduced energy intake substantially, associated with much greater stimulation of CCK. We have now investigated whether combined administration of C12 and Leu would enhance the intake-suppressant effects of each nutrient, when given at loads that each suppress energy intake individually. Sixteen healthy, lean males (age: 23 ± 2 yr) received, in randomized, double-blind fashion, 90-min intraduodenal infusions of control (saline), C12 (0.4 kcal/min), Leu (0.45 kcal/min), or C12+Leu (0.85 kcal/min). Antropyloroduodenal pressures were measured continuously and plasma CCK at 15-min intervals, and energy intake from a standardized buffet-meal, consumed immediately postinfusion, was quantified. All nutrient infusions stimulated plasma CCK compared with control (P < 0.05). Moreover, C12 and C12+Leu stimulated CCK compared with Leu (P < 0.05) (mean concentration, pmol/L; control: 2.3 ± 0.3, C12: 3.8 ± 0.3, Leu: 2.7 ± 0.3, and C12+Leu: 4.0 ± 0.4). C12+Leu, but not C12 or Leu, stimulated pyloric pressures (P < 0.05). C12+Leu and C12 reduced energy intake (P < 0.05), and there was a trend for Leu to reduce (P = 0.06) energy intake compared with control, with no differences between the three nutrient treatments (kcal; control: 1398 ± 84, C12: 1226 ± 80, Leu: 1260 ± 92, and C12+Leu: 1208 ± 83). In conclusion, combination of C12 and Leu, at the loads given, did not reduce energy intake beyond their individual effects, possibly because maximal effects had been evoked.


Assuntos
Colecistocinina/sangue , Ingestão de Energia , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Láuricos/farmacologia , Leucina/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Método Duplo-Cego , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Ácidos Láuricos/administração & dosagem , Leucina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
7.
Med Care ; 58(4): 336-343, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure patients have high rates of repeat acute care use. Current efforts for risk prediction often ignore postdischarge data. OBJECTIVE: To identify postdischarge patient-reported clinical factors associated with repeat acute care use. RESEARCH DESIGN: In a prospective cohort study that followed patients with chronic heart failure for 30 days postdischarge, for 7 days after discharge (or fewer days if patients used acute care within 7 days postdischarge), patients reported health status, heart failure symptoms, medication management, knowledge of follow-up plans, and other issues using a daily interactive automatic phone call. SUBJECTS: A total of 156 patients who had responded to phone surveys. MEASURES: The outcome variable was dichotomous 30-day acute care use (rehospitalization or emergency department visit). We examined the association between each patient-reported issue and the outcome, using multivariable logistic regression to adjust for confounders. RESULTS: Patients were 63 years old (SD=12.4), with 51% African-American and 53% women. Within 30 days postdischarge, 30 (19%) patients used acute care. After adjustment, poor health status [odds ratio (OR)=3.53; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06-11.76], pain (OR=2.44; 95% CI, 1.02-5.84), and poor appetite (OR=3.05; 95% CI, 1.13-8.23) were positively associated with 30-day acute care utilization. Among 58 reports of pain in follow-up nursing notes, 39 (67%) were noncardiac, 2 (3%) were cardiac, and 17 (29%) were indeterminate. CONCLUSIONS: Patient-reported poor health status, pain, and poor appetite were positively associated with 30-day acute care utilization. These novel postdischarge markers require further study before incorporation into risk prediction to drive quality improvement efforts.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Retratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Apetite , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 24(2): 152-159, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003404

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although it has been shown that specific foods and nutrients are associated with sleep quality, few studies have examined the association of dietary variety and appetite with sleep quality in older adults. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional study was conducted that examined the association of dietary variety and appetite with sleep quality in Japanese adults aged ≥70 years who resided in the metropolitan area of Tokyo, Japan. PARTICIPANTS: Data were collected in two steps: a mailed interview survey and an on-site survey. Those who responded to the surveys and met the inclusion criteria were included. MEASUREMENTS: Dietary variety, appetite, and sleep quality were assessed using a Dietary Variety Score (DVS), Council on Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire (CNAQ) score, and sleep efficiency, respectively. The sleep efficiency is the ratio of sleep duration to total time in bed (retiring time-awakening time). We defined the individuals with a sleep efficiency less than 75% as having poor sleep quality. RESULTS: Mean DVS and CNAQ score were 3.8 and 29.6 points, respectively. The rate of individuals with poor sleep quality was 11.7%. In the fully adjusted model, the odds ratios (OR) for low sleep efficiency in the middle and highest group categories of the DVS were 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54-1.29) and 0.50 (95% CI, 0.28-0.90), respectively, in reference to the lowest group category (p for trend = 0.023). The OR for low sleep efficiency in the middle and highest group categories of the CNAQ score were 0.73 (95% CI, 0.47-1.14) and 0.54 (95% CI, 0.30-0.96), respectively, in reference to the lowest group category (p for trend = 0.031). CONCLUSIONS: The higher DVS and CNAQ scores were significantly associated with higher sleep efficiency. Thus, dietary variety and good appetite might help maintain good sleep quality in urban-dwelling older Japanese adults.


Assuntos
Apetite/fisiologia , Dieta/métodos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/dietoterapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , População Urbana
9.
J Oral Rehabil ; 47(5): 643-650, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32073156

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the longitudinal association of the combination of poor appetite (PA) and low masticatory function (LMF) with sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: In total, 173 community-dwelling Japanese adults aged ≥ 75 years participated in the 3-year cohort study. Appetite assessment using the Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire (SNAQ) and masticatory function assessment using spectrophotometric measurement of differences in gum colour before and after masticating colour-changeable chewing gum (ΔE*ab) were performed at baseline. SNAQ score of ≤ 14 was defined as PA. The lowest tertile of ΔE*ab was defined as LMF. Follow-up examinations were administered annually over a 3-year period to determine sarcopenia incidence, which was defined by the criteria proposed by the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of sarcopenia incidence according to the presence of PA and LMF were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: At baseline, 81 participants (46.8%) had neither PA nor LMF, 34 (19.7%) had PA alone, 35 (20.2%) had LMF alone, and 23 (13.3%) had both PA and LMF. On follow-up, 31 participants (17.9%) developed sarcopenia. After adjusting for covariates, the adjusted HR for sarcopenia in participants with both PA and LMF was 4.4 (95% confidence interval = 1.6-12.2) compared with those without PA or LMF. PA or LMF alone was not significantly associated with sarcopenia development. CONCLUSIONS: Coexisting PA and LMF increase the risk of sarcopenia development among community-dwelling Japanese adults aged ≥ 75 years.


Assuntos
Sarcopenia , Idoso , Apetite , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Vida Independente , Japão
10.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(2): 55-60, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009364

RESUMO

Background: Patients with acute and chronic illness experience loss of appetite (LOA). Timely diagnosis and accurate clinical management are crucial to prevent nutritional deficiencies and malnutrition. There is a paucity of information on physician's perception, approach, and practices in treating LOA during illnesses in India. The aim of this study was to assess the need gap by evaluating physicians' perception and approach towards LOA. Methods: This cross-sectional, non-interventional, observational, multicentric, questionnaire-based survey was conducted by telephonically interviewing 300 physicians (general physicians [GP]: 150; consultant physicians [CP]: 75; and pediatricians [PP]: 75) across India. All the parameters were summarized using descriptive statistics. Results: Mean years of experience for GPs were 16 years and that for CPs and PPs were 15 years. About 27% of GPs and 47% of CPs highlighted the importance of patient counseling and 39% of PPs proposed information leaflets, awareness campaigns to improve awareness. Overall, 98% and 93% of the physicians responded that patients with acute illnesses and chronic illnesses, respectively also have LOA. The most common age of patients presenting with LOA was below 12 years. Common symptoms presenting with LOA were weakness and fatigue. Patients are mostly concerned for LOA because of weakness as per 44% of CPs and GPs. Improving nutritional deficiency was considered as the reason to treat LOA by 59% physicians and 40% PPs. Multivitamin and multimineral containing appetite-stimulating preparations were preferred for LOA by 54% physicians. Overall, 58% of the physicians recommended appetite-stimulating tonics for one month, while 34% recommended them for 2 weeks. Conclusion: Nearly all the patients with acute or chronic illnesses have LOA with weakness and fatigue as the most common presenting symptoms. There is a need to increase awareness among physicians to implement clear guidelines for the diagnosis and management of LOA. Majority of the physicians considered appetite-stimulating tonics as appropriate for the management of LOA.


Assuntos
Apetite , Padrões de Prática Médica , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Índia , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Metabolism ; 105: 154171, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Based on the metabolic effect of exogenous ATPase inhibitory factor 1 (IF1) on glucose metabolism, we tested whether IF1 treatment is effective in ameliorating weight gain and whether its effects are sex specific. METHODS: HFD-fed C57BL/6 mice were treated with IF1 (5 mg/kg body weight, injected intraperitoneally). The underlying mechanisms of effect of IF1 on body weight were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Associations between genotypes of IF1 and obesity and relevant phenotype were further tested at the population level. RESULTS: Chronic treatment with IF1 significantly decreased body weight gain by regulating food intake of HFD-fed male mice. IF1 activated the AKT/mTORC pathway and modulated the expression of appetite genes in the hypothalamus of HFD-fed male mice and its effect was confirmed in hypothalamic cell lines as well as hypothalamic primary cells. This required the interaction of IF1 with ß-F1-ATPase on the plasma membrane of hypothalamic cells, which led to an increase in extracellular ATP production. In addition, IF1 treatment showed sympathetic nerve activation as measured by serum norepinephrine levels and UCP-1 expression in the subcutaneous fat of HFD-fed male mice. Notably, administration of recombinant IF1 to HFD-fed ovariectomized female mice showed remarkable reductions in food intake as well as body weight, which was not observed in wild-type 5-week female mice. Lastly, sex-specific genotype associations of IF1 with obesity prevalence and metabolic traits were demonstrated at the population level in humans. IF1 genetic variant (rs3767303) was significantly associated with lower prevalence of obesity and lower levels of body mass index, waist circumference, hemoglobin A1c, and glucose response area only in male participants. CONCLUSION: IF1 is involved in weight regulation by controlling food intake and potentially sympathetic nerve activation in a sex-specific manner.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/genética , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas/farmacologia , Animais , Apetite/genética , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Ovariectomia , Prevalência , Caracteres Sexuais , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Nat Neurosci ; 23(3): 423-432, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959933

RESUMO

Sodium appetite is a powerful form of motivation that can drive ingestion of high, yet aversive concentrations of sodium in animals that are depleted of sodium. However, in normal conditions, sodium appetite is suppressed to prevent homeostatic deviations. Although molecular and neural mechanisms underlying the stimulation of sodium appetite have received much attention recently, mechanisms that inhibit sodium appetite remain largely obscure. Here we report that serotonin 2c receptor (Htr2c)-expressing neurons in the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBNHtr2c neurons) inhibit sodium appetite. Activity of these neurons is regulated by bodily sodium content, and their activation can rapidly suppress sodium intake. Conversely, inhibition of these neurons specifically drives sodium appetite, even during euvolemic conditions. Notably, the physiological role of Htr2c expressed by LPBN neurons is to disinhibit sodium appetite. Our results suggest that LPBNHtr2c neurons act as a brake against sodium appetite and that their alleviation is required for the full manifestation of sodium appetite.


Assuntos
Apetite/fisiologia , Receptor 5-HT2C de Serotonina/fisiologia , Sódio na Dieta , Tonsila do Cerebelo/citologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Animais , Plexo Braquial/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Glutamatos/fisiologia , Homeostase , Hipovolemia/psicologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Receptor 5-HT2C de Serotonina/genética , Neurônios Serotoninérgicos/fisiologia , Sódio/metabolismo
13.
Cell ; 180(1): 25-32, 2020 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923398

RESUMO

The function of central appetite neurons is instructing animals to ingest specific nutrient factors that the body needs. Emerging evidence suggests that individual appetite circuits for major nutrients-water, sodium, and food-operate on unique driving and quenching mechanisms. This review focuses on two aspects of appetite regulation. First, we describe the temporal relationship between appetite neuron activity and consumption behaviors. Second, we summarize ingestion-related satiation signals that differentially quench individual appetite circuits. We further discuss how distinct appetite and satiation systems for each factor may contribute to nutrient homeostasis from the functional and evolutional perspectives.


Assuntos
Apetite/fisiologia , Fome/fisiologia , Sede/fisiologia , Animais , Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Homeostase/fisiologia , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos do Sistema Nervoso , Neurônios/fisiologia , Saciação/fisiologia , Sódio/metabolismo
14.
Gene ; 733: 144363, 2020 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935510

RESUMO

CRF system is comprised of 4 homologous lineages, 2 main receptors (CRF-R1 and CRF-R2), and a binding protein CRF-BP. The homologous lineages are corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), urotensin I (UI)/sauvagine (SVG)/urocortin 1 (UCN1), urocortin 2 (UCN2), and urocortin 3 (UCN3), and UI, SVG, UCN1 are orthologous genes. CRF system genes are widely distributed in the brain and gastrointestinal tract, which may relate to feeding regulation. According the research progress about CRF system on mammals and non-mammals, this paper summarized the discovery, structure, tissue distribution, appetite regulation and mechanism of CRF system in animals, which can provide the reference for further research and production of feeding regulation and growth in mammals and fish species.


Assuntos
Apetite/genética , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/metabolismo , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/fisiologia , Proteínas de Anfíbios , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/genética , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Hormônios Peptídicos , Urocortinas , Urotensinas
15.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(3): 545-554, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs; e.g., acetate, propionate, and butyrate) are produced by microbial fermentation of fiber in the colon. Evidence is lacking on how high-fiber diets that differ in macronutrient composition affect circulating SCFAs. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare the effects of 3 high-fiber isocaloric diets differing in %kcal of carbohydrate, protein, or unsaturated fat on circulating SCFAs. Based on previous literature, we hypothesized that serum acetate, the main SCFA in circulation, increases on all high-fiber diets, but differently by macronutrient composition of the diet. METHODS: OmniHeart is a randomized crossover trial of 164 men and women (≥30 y old); 163 participants with SCFA data were included in this analysis. We provided participants 3 isocaloric high-fiber (∼30 g/2100 kcal) diets, each for 6 wk, in random order: a carbohydrate-rich (Carb) diet, a protein-rich (Prot) diet (protein predominantly from plant sources), and an unsaturated fat-rich (Unsat) diet. We used LC-MS to quantify SCFA concentrations in fasting serum, collected at baseline and the end of each diet period. We fitted linear regression models with generalized estimating equations to examine change in ln-transformed SCFAs from baseline to the end of each diet; differences between diets; and associations of changes in SCFAs with cardiometabolic parameters. RESULTS: From baseline, serum acetate concentrations were increased by the Prot (ß: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.35), Unsat (ß: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.33), and Carb (ß: 0.12; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.24) diets; between diets, only Prot compared with Carb was significant (P = 0.02). Propionate was decreased by the Carb (ß: -0.10; 95% CI: -0.16, -0.03) and Unsat (ß: -0.10; 95% CI: -0.16, -0.04) diets, not the Prot diet; between diet comparisons of Carb vs. Prot (P = 0.006) and Unsat vs. Prot (P = 0.002) were significant. The Prot diet increased butyrate (ß: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.09) compared with baseline, but not compared with the other diets. Increases in acetate were associated with decreases in insulin and glucose; increases in propionate with increases in leptin, LDL cholesterol, and blood pressure; and increases in butyrate with increases in insulin and glucose, and decreases in HDL cholesterol and ghrelin (Ps < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Macronutrient composition of high-fiber diets affects circulating SCFAs, which are associated with measures of appetite and cardiometabolic health. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00051350.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Gorduras Insaturadas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/sangue , Adulto , Apetite , Pressão Sanguínea , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Gorduras Insaturadas/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(3): 536-544, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dynamic changes in body composition which occur during weight loss may have an influential role on subsequent energy balance behaviors and weight. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this article is to consider the effect of proportionate changes in body composition during weight loss on subsequent changes in appetite and weight outcomes at 26 wk in individuals engaged in a weight loss maintenance intervention. METHODS: A subgroup of the Diet, Obesity, and Genes (DiOGenes) study (n = 209) was recruited from 3 European countries. Participants underwent an 8-wk low-calorie diet (LCD) resulting in ≥8% body weight loss, during which changes in body composition (by DXA) and appetite (by visual analog scale appetite perceptions in response to a fixed test meal) were measured. Participants were randomly assigned into 5 weight loss maintenance diets based on protein and glycemic index content and followed up for 26 wk. We investigated associations between proportionate fat-free mass (FFM) loss (%FFML) during weight loss and 1) weight outcomes at 26 wk and 2) changes in appetite perceptions. RESULTS: During the LCD, participants lost a mean ± SD of 11.2 ± 3.5 kg, of which 30.4% was FFM. After adjustment, there was a tendency for %FFML to predict weight regain in the whole group (ß: 0.041; 95% CI: -0.001, 0.08; P = 0.055), which was significant in men (ß: 0.09; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.15; P = 0.009) but not women (ß: 0.01; 95% CI: -0.04, 0.07; P = 0.69). Associations between %FFML and change in appetite perceptions during weight loss were inconsistent. The strongest observations were in men for hunger (r = 0.69, P = 0.002) and desire to eat (r = 0.61, P = 0.009), with some tendencies in the whole group and no associations in women. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that composition of weight loss may have functional importance for energy balance regulation, with greater losses of FFM potentially being associated with increased weight regain and appetite. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00390637.


Assuntos
Apetite , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Restrição Calórica , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Perda de Peso , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(7): 1830-1836, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729225

RESUMO

Protein sufficiency is tightly controlled through different sensing and signaling processes that modulate and adapt protein and energy metabolism and feeding behavior to reach and maintain a well-balanced protein status. High-protein diets, often discussed in the context of body weight management, usually activate anorexigenic pathways, leading to higher satiety, decreased food and energy intake, and decreased body weight and adiposity. Diets marginally low in protein (3-8% energy) or marginally deficient in some indispensable amino acid more often activate orexigenic pathways, with higher appetite and a specific appetite for protein, a response that leads to an increase in protein intake to partially compensate for the deficit in protein and amino acid. Diets severely deficient in protein (2-3% energy as protein) usually depress food intake and induce lower weight and lower fat mass and lean tissues that characterize a status of protein deficiency. The control of protein sufficiency involves various peripheral and central signals, including modulation of both metabolic pathways at the periphery as well as central pathways of the control of food and protein intake, including a reward-driven specific sensitivity to the protein content of foods.


Assuntos
Apetite , Proteínas/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Proteínas/análise , Saciação
18.
Phytother Res ; 34(2): 379-387, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Grape seed extract (GSE) is a natural supplement known for its various health benefits, including anti-inflammatory effect. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of GSE supplementation on inflammatory markers, neuropeptide Y, anthropometric measurements, and appetite in obese or overweight individuals. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A randomized, double-blind clinical trial was performed on 40 obese or overweight subjects who were randomly assigned to receive GSE (300 mg/day) or placebo for a period of 12-weeks. Both groups were under a restricted calorie diet (RCD)(~250 kcal lower than the estimated energy requirement). Anthropometric measurements, biochemical biomarkers and dietary intakes were determined during the study period. RESULTS: The reductions of body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and waist to hip ratio were significantly higher in the GSE group compared to the placebo group (P = 0.045, 0.033, 0.029, and 0.021, respectively). Lower levels of neuropeptide Y, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein were observed in the GSE group in comparison with the placebo group (P = 0.041, 0.001, and 0.034, respectively). CONCLUSION: GSE supplement with a RCD has favorable effects in reducing anthropometric measurements and inflammatory markers in obese or overweight individuals, and may play an effective role in the treatment of obesity.


Assuntos
Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Restrição Calórica , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neuropeptídeo Y , Vitis , Circunferência da Cintura , Relação Cintura-Quadril
19.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(2): 319-328, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The viscosity of oat ß-glucan (OBG) determines its effect on serum cholesterol and glycemic responses, but whether OBG viscosity affects gastric emptying, appetite, and ad libitum food intake is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the effect of altering the amount or molecular weight (MW) and, hence, viscosity of OBG in a breakfast meal on the primary endpoint of food intake at a subsequent meal. METHODS: Overnight-fasted males (n = 16) and nonpregnant females (n = 12) without diabetes, aged 18-60 y, with BMI 20.0-30.0 kg/m² who were unrestrained eaters participated in a double-blind, randomized, crossover study at a contract research organization. Participants consumed, in random order, breakfast meals equivalent in weight, energy, and macronutrients consisting of white-bread, butter, jam, and 2% milk plus hot cereal [Cream of Rice (CR), or instant-oatmeal plus either 3 g oat-bran (2gOBG), 10 g oat-bran (4gOBG), or 10 g oat-bran plus ß-glucanase (4gloMW) to reduce OBG MW and viscosity compared with 4gOBG]. Gastric emptying, subjective appetite, and glucose, insulin, ghrelin, and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) responses were assessed for 3 h and then subjects were offered an ad libitum lunch (water and pizza). RESULTS: Pizza intakes (n = 28) after CR, 2gOBG, 4gOBG, and 4gloMW (mean ± SEM: 887 ± 64, 831 ± 61, 834 ± 78, and 847 ± 68 kcal, respectively) were similar (nonsignificant). Compared with CR, 4gOBG significantly reduced glucose (78 ± 10 compared with 135 ± 15 mmol × min/L) and insulin (14.0 ± 1.6 compared with 26.8 ± 3.5 nmol × min/L) incremental area-under-the-curve and delayed gastric-emptying half-time (geometric mean: 285; 95% CI: 184, 442, compared with geometric mean: 105; 95% CI: 95, 117 min), effects not seen after 4gloMW. Subjective appetite, PYY, and ghrelin responses after 2gOBG, 4gOBG, and 4gloMW were similar to those after CR. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that OBG viscosity determines its effect on postprandial glucose, insulin, and gastric emptying. However, we were unable to demonstrate a significant effect of OBG on appetite or food intake, regardless of its viscosity.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03490851.


Assuntos
Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Avena , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Insulina/sangue , beta-Glucanas/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Desjejum , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Viscosidade , Adulto Jovem , beta-Glucanas/administração & dosagem
20.
Support Care Cancer ; 28(3): 1173-1181, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203507

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Taste changes due to chemotherapy may contribute to the high prevalence of malnutrition in cancer patients. It is believed that 50-70% of patients with cancer suffer from taste disorders. The aim of the present study was to analyze the taste alterations in patient population compared with that in controls, also in relation to gender. In this way, it could open to a new approach for a personalized diet to prevent and/or reduce taste alterations and malnutrition in cancer patients. METHODS: Forty-five cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy were compared with healthy controls (n = 32). Taste function test was used to determine taste sensitivity. Different concentrations for each of the four basic tastes (salty, sweet, sour, bitter) and also fat and water tastes were evaluated. RESULTS: A significant difference in taste sensitivity between patients and control group was found, in line with previous similar studies. As in the control group, taste perception in patients was better in females than in males, suggesting interaction effect between group and gender. CONCLUSIONS: Coping strategies regarding subjective taste impairment should be provided since alterations in taste sensitivity influence food preferences and appetite. Clinicians could thus have the potential to underpin changes in dietary intake and consequently in nutritional status; understanding the extent of the contribution of each taste would help in the development of effective interventions in future. Consequently, patients can adopt appropriate appetizing strategies and, based on that, change their feeding habits.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Disgeusia/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/patologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/fisiopatologia , Percepção Gustatória/fisiologia , Adulto , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Apetite , Dieta , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Caracteres Sexuais , Paladar
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