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1.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(6): 1137-1149, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Longer oral processing decreases food intake. This can be attributed to greater oro-sensory exposure (OSE) and a lower eating rate (ER). How these factors contribute to food intake, and the underlying physiological mechanisms, remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the independent and simultaneous effects of OSE and ER on satiation and associated endocrine responses. METHODS: Forty participants in study 1 [mean ± SD age: 24 ± 4 y; BMI (in kg/m2): 22 ± 2] and 20 in study 2 (mean ± SD age: 23 ± 3 y; BMI: 23 ± 2) participated in a 2 × 2 randomized trial. In both studies, participants ate chocolate custard with added caramel sauce (low OSE) or caramel fudge (high OSE) and with short (fast ER) or long breaks (slow ER) in between bites, until fullness. In study 2, endocrine responses were measured during the meal. RESULTS: In study 1, participants ate (mean ± SEM) 42 ± 15 g less in the slow- than in the fast-ER condition, only within the high-OSE condition (P = 0.04). In study 2, participants ate 66 ± 21 g less in the high- than in the low-OSE condition and there were no intake differences between slow and fast ER (P = 0.35). Eight minutes after starting to eat, insulin concentrations increased by 42%-65% in all treatments compared with the control. At the end of the meal, insulin concentrations were 81% higher in the high-OSE, slow-ER than in the low-OSE, fast-ER condition (P = 0.049). Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) increased by 62%, 5 min after meal onset in the low-OSE, fast-ER condition (P = 0.005). Ghrelin concentrations did not change. CONCLUSIONS: Greater OSE increases insulin responsiveness. In contrast, PP responses are stronger when OSE is reduced and ER is fast. Insulin and PP responses may mediate the independent effects of OSE and ER on food intake. These may be beneficial eating strategies, particularly for type 2 diabetic patients, to control food intake and maintain glucose homeostasis.This trial was registered at trialregister.nl as NL6544.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Grelina/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Peptídeo YY/metabolismo , Saciação , Adulto , Apetite , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Boca/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Med Care ; 58(4): 336-343, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure patients have high rates of repeat acute care use. Current efforts for risk prediction often ignore postdischarge data. OBJECTIVE: To identify postdischarge patient-reported clinical factors associated with repeat acute care use. RESEARCH DESIGN: In a prospective cohort study that followed patients with chronic heart failure for 30 days postdischarge, for 7 days after discharge (or fewer days if patients used acute care within 7 days postdischarge), patients reported health status, heart failure symptoms, medication management, knowledge of follow-up plans, and other issues using a daily interactive automatic phone call. SUBJECTS: A total of 156 patients who had responded to phone surveys. MEASURES: The outcome variable was dichotomous 30-day acute care use (rehospitalization or emergency department visit). We examined the association between each patient-reported issue and the outcome, using multivariable logistic regression to adjust for confounders. RESULTS: Patients were 63 years old (SD=12.4), with 51% African-American and 53% women. Within 30 days postdischarge, 30 (19%) patients used acute care. After adjustment, poor health status [odds ratio (OR)=3.53; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06-11.76], pain (OR=2.44; 95% CI, 1.02-5.84), and poor appetite (OR=3.05; 95% CI, 1.13-8.23) were positively associated with 30-day acute care utilization. Among 58 reports of pain in follow-up nursing notes, 39 (67%) were noncardiac, 2 (3%) were cardiac, and 17 (29%) were indeterminate. CONCLUSIONS: Patient-reported poor health status, pain, and poor appetite were positively associated with 30-day acute care utilization. These novel postdischarge markers require further study before incorporation into risk prediction to drive quality improvement efforts.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Retratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Apetite , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(2): 55-60, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009364

RESUMO

Background: Patients with acute and chronic illness experience loss of appetite (LOA). Timely diagnosis and accurate clinical management are crucial to prevent nutritional deficiencies and malnutrition. There is a paucity of information on physician's perception, approach, and practices in treating LOA during illnesses in India. The aim of this study was to assess the need gap by evaluating physicians' perception and approach towards LOA. Methods: This cross-sectional, non-interventional, observational, multicentric, questionnaire-based survey was conducted by telephonically interviewing 300 physicians (general physicians [GP]: 150; consultant physicians [CP]: 75; and pediatricians [PP]: 75) across India. All the parameters were summarized using descriptive statistics. Results: Mean years of experience for GPs were 16 years and that for CPs and PPs were 15 years. About 27% of GPs and 47% of CPs highlighted the importance of patient counseling and 39% of PPs proposed information leaflets, awareness campaigns to improve awareness. Overall, 98% and 93% of the physicians responded that patients with acute illnesses and chronic illnesses, respectively also have LOA. The most common age of patients presenting with LOA was below 12 years. Common symptoms presenting with LOA were weakness and fatigue. Patients are mostly concerned for LOA because of weakness as per 44% of CPs and GPs. Improving nutritional deficiency was considered as the reason to treat LOA by 59% physicians and 40% PPs. Multivitamin and multimineral containing appetite-stimulating preparations were preferred for LOA by 54% physicians. Overall, 58% of the physicians recommended appetite-stimulating tonics for one month, while 34% recommended them for 2 weeks. Conclusion: Nearly all the patients with acute or chronic illnesses have LOA with weakness and fatigue as the most common presenting symptoms. There is a need to increase awareness among physicians to implement clear guidelines for the diagnosis and management of LOA. Majority of the physicians considered appetite-stimulating tonics as appropriate for the management of LOA.


Assuntos
Apetite , Padrões de Prática Médica , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Índia , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
J Oral Rehabil ; 47(5): 643-650, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32073156

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the longitudinal association of the combination of poor appetite (PA) and low masticatory function (LMF) with sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: In total, 173 community-dwelling Japanese adults aged ≥ 75 years participated in the 3-year cohort study. Appetite assessment using the Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire (SNAQ) and masticatory function assessment using spectrophotometric measurement of differences in gum colour before and after masticating colour-changeable chewing gum (ΔE*ab) were performed at baseline. SNAQ score of ≤ 14 was defined as PA. The lowest tertile of ΔE*ab was defined as LMF. Follow-up examinations were administered annually over a 3-year period to determine sarcopenia incidence, which was defined by the criteria proposed by the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of sarcopenia incidence according to the presence of PA and LMF were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: At baseline, 81 participants (46.8%) had neither PA nor LMF, 34 (19.7%) had PA alone, 35 (20.2%) had LMF alone, and 23 (13.3%) had both PA and LMF. On follow-up, 31 participants (17.9%) developed sarcopenia. After adjusting for covariates, the adjusted HR for sarcopenia in participants with both PA and LMF was 4.4 (95% confidence interval = 1.6-12.2) compared with those without PA or LMF. PA or LMF alone was not significantly associated with sarcopenia development. CONCLUSIONS: Coexisting PA and LMF increase the risk of sarcopenia development among community-dwelling Japanese adults aged ≥ 75 years.


Assuntos
Sarcopenia , Idoso , Apetite , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Vida Independente , Japão
5.
Metabolism ; 105: 154171, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Based on the metabolic effect of exogenous ATPase inhibitory factor 1 (IF1) on glucose metabolism, we tested whether IF1 treatment is effective in ameliorating weight gain and whether its effects are sex specific. METHODS: HFD-fed C57BL/6 mice were treated with IF1 (5 mg/kg body weight, injected intraperitoneally). The underlying mechanisms of effect of IF1 on body weight were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Associations between genotypes of IF1 and obesity and relevant phenotype were further tested at the population level. RESULTS: Chronic treatment with IF1 significantly decreased body weight gain by regulating food intake of HFD-fed male mice. IF1 activated the AKT/mTORC pathway and modulated the expression of appetite genes in the hypothalamus of HFD-fed male mice and its effect was confirmed in hypothalamic cell lines as well as hypothalamic primary cells. This required the interaction of IF1 with ß-F1-ATPase on the plasma membrane of hypothalamic cells, which led to an increase in extracellular ATP production. In addition, IF1 treatment showed sympathetic nerve activation as measured by serum norepinephrine levels and UCP-1 expression in the subcutaneous fat of HFD-fed male mice. Notably, administration of recombinant IF1 to HFD-fed ovariectomized female mice showed remarkable reductions in food intake as well as body weight, which was not observed in wild-type 5-week female mice. Lastly, sex-specific genotype associations of IF1 with obesity prevalence and metabolic traits were demonstrated at the population level in humans. IF1 genetic variant (rs3767303) was significantly associated with lower prevalence of obesity and lower levels of body mass index, waist circumference, hemoglobin A1c, and glucose response area only in male participants. CONCLUSION: IF1 is involved in weight regulation by controlling food intake and potentially sympathetic nerve activation in a sex-specific manner.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/genética , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas/farmacologia , Animais , Apetite/genética , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Ovariectomia , Prevalência , Caracteres Sexuais , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(3): 545-554, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs; e.g., acetate, propionate, and butyrate) are produced by microbial fermentation of fiber in the colon. Evidence is lacking on how high-fiber diets that differ in macronutrient composition affect circulating SCFAs. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare the effects of 3 high-fiber isocaloric diets differing in %kcal of carbohydrate, protein, or unsaturated fat on circulating SCFAs. Based on previous literature, we hypothesized that serum acetate, the main SCFA in circulation, increases on all high-fiber diets, but differently by macronutrient composition of the diet. METHODS: OmniHeart is a randomized crossover trial of 164 men and women (≥30 y old); 163 participants with SCFA data were included in this analysis. We provided participants 3 isocaloric high-fiber (∼30 g/2100 kcal) diets, each for 6 wk, in random order: a carbohydrate-rich (Carb) diet, a protein-rich (Prot) diet (protein predominantly from plant sources), and an unsaturated fat-rich (Unsat) diet. We used LC-MS to quantify SCFA concentrations in fasting serum, collected at baseline and the end of each diet period. We fitted linear regression models with generalized estimating equations to examine change in ln-transformed SCFAs from baseline to the end of each diet; differences between diets; and associations of changes in SCFAs with cardiometabolic parameters. RESULTS: From baseline, serum acetate concentrations were increased by the Prot (ß: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.35), Unsat (ß: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.33), and Carb (ß: 0.12; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.24) diets; between diets, only Prot compared with Carb was significant (P = 0.02). Propionate was decreased by the Carb (ß: -0.10; 95% CI: -0.16, -0.03) and Unsat (ß: -0.10; 95% CI: -0.16, -0.04) diets, not the Prot diet; between diet comparisons of Carb vs. Prot (P = 0.006) and Unsat vs. Prot (P = 0.002) were significant. The Prot diet increased butyrate (ß: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.09) compared with baseline, but not compared with the other diets. Increases in acetate were associated with decreases in insulin and glucose; increases in propionate with increases in leptin, LDL cholesterol, and blood pressure; and increases in butyrate with increases in insulin and glucose, and decreases in HDL cholesterol and ghrelin (Ps < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Macronutrient composition of high-fiber diets affects circulating SCFAs, which are associated with measures of appetite and cardiometabolic health. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00051350.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Gorduras Insaturadas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/sangue , Adulto , Apetite , Pressão Sanguínea , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Gorduras Insaturadas/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(3): 536-544, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dynamic changes in body composition which occur during weight loss may have an influential role on subsequent energy balance behaviors and weight. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this article is to consider the effect of proportionate changes in body composition during weight loss on subsequent changes in appetite and weight outcomes at 26 wk in individuals engaged in a weight loss maintenance intervention. METHODS: A subgroup of the Diet, Obesity, and Genes (DiOGenes) study (n = 209) was recruited from 3 European countries. Participants underwent an 8-wk low-calorie diet (LCD) resulting in ≥8% body weight loss, during which changes in body composition (by DXA) and appetite (by visual analog scale appetite perceptions in response to a fixed test meal) were measured. Participants were randomly assigned into 5 weight loss maintenance diets based on protein and glycemic index content and followed up for 26 wk. We investigated associations between proportionate fat-free mass (FFM) loss (%FFML) during weight loss and 1) weight outcomes at 26 wk and 2) changes in appetite perceptions. RESULTS: During the LCD, participants lost a mean ± SD of 11.2 ± 3.5 kg, of which 30.4% was FFM. After adjustment, there was a tendency for %FFML to predict weight regain in the whole group (ß: 0.041; 95% CI: -0.001, 0.08; P = 0.055), which was significant in men (ß: 0.09; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.15; P = 0.009) but not women (ß: 0.01; 95% CI: -0.04, 0.07; P = 0.69). Associations between %FFML and change in appetite perceptions during weight loss were inconsistent. The strongest observations were in men for hunger (r = 0.69, P = 0.002) and desire to eat (r = 0.61, P = 0.009), with some tendencies in the whole group and no associations in women. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that composition of weight loss may have functional importance for energy balance regulation, with greater losses of FFM potentially being associated with increased weight regain and appetite. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00390637.


Assuntos
Apetite , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Restrição Calórica , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Perda de Peso , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nat Neurosci ; 23(3): 423-432, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959933

RESUMO

Sodium appetite is a powerful form of motivation that can drive ingestion of high, yet aversive concentrations of sodium in animals that are depleted of sodium. However, in normal conditions, sodium appetite is suppressed to prevent homeostatic deviations. Although molecular and neural mechanisms underlying the stimulation of sodium appetite have received much attention recently, mechanisms that inhibit sodium appetite remain largely obscure. Here we report that serotonin 2c receptor (Htr2c)-expressing neurons in the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBNHtr2c neurons) inhibit sodium appetite. Activity of these neurons is regulated by bodily sodium content, and their activation can rapidly suppress sodium intake. Conversely, inhibition of these neurons specifically drives sodium appetite, even during euvolemic conditions. Notably, the physiological role of Htr2c expressed by LPBN neurons is to disinhibit sodium appetite. Our results suggest that LPBNHtr2c neurons act as a brake against sodium appetite and that their alleviation is required for the full manifestation of sodium appetite.


Assuntos
Apetite/fisiologia , Receptor 5-HT2C de Serotonina/fisiologia , Sódio na Dieta , Tonsila do Cerebelo/citologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Animais , Plexo Braquial/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Glutamatos/fisiologia , Homeostase , Hipovolemia/psicologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Receptor 5-HT2C de Serotonina/genética , Neurônios Serotoninérgicos/fisiologia , Sódio/metabolismo
9.
Gene ; 733: 144363, 2020 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935510

RESUMO

CRF system is comprised of 4 homologous lineages, 2 main receptors (CRF-R1 and CRF-R2), and a binding protein CRF-BP. The homologous lineages are corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), urotensin I (UI)/sauvagine (SVG)/urocortin 1 (UCN1), urocortin 2 (UCN2), and urocortin 3 (UCN3), and UI, SVG, UCN1 are orthologous genes. CRF system genes are widely distributed in the brain and gastrointestinal tract, which may relate to feeding regulation. According the research progress about CRF system on mammals and non-mammals, this paper summarized the discovery, structure, tissue distribution, appetite regulation and mechanism of CRF system in animals, which can provide the reference for further research and production of feeding regulation and growth in mammals and fish species.


Assuntos
Apetite/genética , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/metabolismo , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/fisiologia , Proteínas de Anfíbios , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/genética , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Hormônios Peptídicos , Urocortinas , Urotensinas
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(7): 1830-1836, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729225

RESUMO

Protein sufficiency is tightly controlled through different sensing and signaling processes that modulate and adapt protein and energy metabolism and feeding behavior to reach and maintain a well-balanced protein status. High-protein diets, often discussed in the context of body weight management, usually activate anorexigenic pathways, leading to higher satiety, decreased food and energy intake, and decreased body weight and adiposity. Diets marginally low in protein (3-8% energy) or marginally deficient in some indispensable amino acid more often activate orexigenic pathways, with higher appetite and a specific appetite for protein, a response that leads to an increase in protein intake to partially compensate for the deficit in protein and amino acid. Diets severely deficient in protein (2-3% energy as protein) usually depress food intake and induce lower weight and lower fat mass and lean tissues that characterize a status of protein deficiency. The control of protein sufficiency involves various peripheral and central signals, including modulation of both metabolic pathways at the periphery as well as central pathways of the control of food and protein intake, including a reward-driven specific sensitivity to the protein content of foods.


Assuntos
Apetite , Proteínas/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Proteínas/análise , Saciação
11.
Phytother Res ; 34(2): 379-387, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Grape seed extract (GSE) is a natural supplement known for its various health benefits, including anti-inflammatory effect. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of GSE supplementation on inflammatory markers, neuropeptide Y, anthropometric measurements, and appetite in obese or overweight individuals. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A randomized, double-blind clinical trial was performed on 40 obese or overweight subjects who were randomly assigned to receive GSE (300 mg/day) or placebo for a period of 12-weeks. Both groups were under a restricted calorie diet (RCD)(~250 kcal lower than the estimated energy requirement). Anthropometric measurements, biochemical biomarkers and dietary intakes were determined during the study period. RESULTS: The reductions of body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and waist to hip ratio were significantly higher in the GSE group compared to the placebo group (P = 0.045, 0.033, 0.029, and 0.021, respectively). Lower levels of neuropeptide Y, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein were observed in the GSE group in comparison with the placebo group (P = 0.041, 0.001, and 0.034, respectively). CONCLUSION: GSE supplement with a RCD has favorable effects in reducing anthropometric measurements and inflammatory markers in obese or overweight individuals, and may play an effective role in the treatment of obesity.


Assuntos
Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Restrição Calórica , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neuropeptídeo Y , Vitis , Circunferência da Cintura , Relação Cintura-Quadril
12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(2): 319-328, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The viscosity of oat ß-glucan (OBG) determines its effect on serum cholesterol and glycemic responses, but whether OBG viscosity affects gastric emptying, appetite, and ad libitum food intake is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the effect of altering the amount or molecular weight (MW) and, hence, viscosity of OBG in a breakfast meal on the primary endpoint of food intake at a subsequent meal. METHODS: Overnight-fasted males (n = 16) and nonpregnant females (n = 12) without diabetes, aged 18-60 y, with BMI 20.0-30.0 kg/m² who were unrestrained eaters participated in a double-blind, randomized, crossover study at a contract research organization. Participants consumed, in random order, breakfast meals equivalent in weight, energy, and macronutrients consisting of white-bread, butter, jam, and 2% milk plus hot cereal [Cream of Rice (CR), or instant-oatmeal plus either 3 g oat-bran (2gOBG), 10 g oat-bran (4gOBG), or 10 g oat-bran plus ß-glucanase (4gloMW) to reduce OBG MW and viscosity compared with 4gOBG]. Gastric emptying, subjective appetite, and glucose, insulin, ghrelin, and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) responses were assessed for 3 h and then subjects were offered an ad libitum lunch (water and pizza). RESULTS: Pizza intakes (n = 28) after CR, 2gOBG, 4gOBG, and 4gloMW (mean ± SEM: 887 ± 64, 831 ± 61, 834 ± 78, and 847 ± 68 kcal, respectively) were similar (nonsignificant). Compared with CR, 4gOBG significantly reduced glucose (78 ± 10 compared with 135 ± 15 mmol × min/L) and insulin (14.0 ± 1.6 compared with 26.8 ± 3.5 nmol × min/L) incremental area-under-the-curve and delayed gastric-emptying half-time (geometric mean: 285; 95% CI: 184, 442, compared with geometric mean: 105; 95% CI: 95, 117 min), effects not seen after 4gloMW. Subjective appetite, PYY, and ghrelin responses after 2gOBG, 4gOBG, and 4gloMW were similar to those after CR. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that OBG viscosity determines its effect on postprandial glucose, insulin, and gastric emptying. However, we were unable to demonstrate a significant effect of OBG on appetite or food intake, regardless of its viscosity.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03490851.


Assuntos
Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Avena , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Insulina/sangue , beta-Glucanas/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Desjejum , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Viscosidade , Adulto Jovem , beta-Glucanas/administração & dosagem
13.
Support Care Cancer ; 28(3): 1173-1181, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203507

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Taste changes due to chemotherapy may contribute to the high prevalence of malnutrition in cancer patients. It is believed that 50-70% of patients with cancer suffer from taste disorders. The aim of the present study was to analyze the taste alterations in patient population compared with that in controls, also in relation to gender. In this way, it could open to a new approach for a personalized diet to prevent and/or reduce taste alterations and malnutrition in cancer patients. METHODS: Forty-five cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy were compared with healthy controls (n = 32). Taste function test was used to determine taste sensitivity. Different concentrations for each of the four basic tastes (salty, sweet, sour, bitter) and also fat and water tastes were evaluated. RESULTS: A significant difference in taste sensitivity between patients and control group was found, in line with previous similar studies. As in the control group, taste perception in patients was better in females than in males, suggesting interaction effect between group and gender. CONCLUSIONS: Coping strategies regarding subjective taste impairment should be provided since alterations in taste sensitivity influence food preferences and appetite. Clinicians could thus have the potential to underpin changes in dietary intake and consequently in nutritional status; understanding the extent of the contribution of each taste would help in the development of effective interventions in future. Consequently, patients can adopt appropriate appetizing strategies and, based on that, change their feeding habits.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Disgeusia/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/patologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/fisiopatologia , Percepção Gustatória/fisiologia , Adulto , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Apetite , Dieta , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Caracteres Sexuais , Paladar
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(2): 1100-1109, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759587

RESUMO

Little is known about how dairy products with different nutrient contents and food matrices affect appetite sensation and gut hormone secretion. The objective of this study was to investigate how appetite sensation and gut hormone secretion in healthy adults are affected by meals with the same amount of fat but from different dairy products. Forty-seven healthy adults (70% women) were recruited to a randomized controlled crossover study with 4 dairy meals consisting of butter, cheese, whipped cream, or sour cream, corresponding to 45 g (approximately 60 energy percent) of fat. Plasma samples were collected for analysis of cholecystokinin (CCK), pancreatic polypeptide (PP), peptide YY (PYY), and ghrelin concentrations at 0, 2, 4, and 6 h after the meals and analyzed as the incremental area under the curve (iAUC0-6h) in a mixed model. Hunger, satiety, and appetite sensations were measured with a visual analog scale (VAS) immediately after finishing the meals and at 4 and 6 h postprandially. Intake of cheese induced a higher level of plasma PP-iAUC0-6h compared with butter or whipped cream, and a higher level of plasma CCK-iAUC0-6h compared with whipped cream. Intake of whipped cream increased VAS appetite at 4 h compared with cheese or sour cream, and at 6 h compared with cheese or butter. No significant meal effect was found for hunger, satiety, plasma PYY, or plasma ghrelin concentration. Intake of cheese increased postprandial plasma PP and CCK concentrations and decreased appetite compared with whipped cream but not with sour cream. These findings encourage further investigations of how different dairy products affect gut hormone secretion and appetite sensation.


Assuntos
Laticínios , Grelina/sangue , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Polipeptídeo Pancreático/sangue , Precursores de Proteínas/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Apetite , Queijo , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Fome/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Prandial , Saciação , Adulto Jovem
15.
Metabolism ; 104: 154043, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our previous work has shown that oral supplementation with inulin propionate ester (IPE) reduces intra-abdominal fat and prevents weight gain and that oral propionate intake enhances resting fat oxidation. The effects of IPE combined with exercise training on energy substrate utilisation are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of 4-weeks IPE supplementation, in combination with a moderate intensity exercise training programme, on whole body fat oxidation and on plasma GLP-1 and PYY. METHODS: Twenty overweight healthy women participated in randomised parallel study and underwent 4 weeks of supervised exercise training either with IPE (EX/IPE group) or Placebo (EX/Placebo group) supplementation. Before and after the intervention participants conducted an experimental trial, which involved collection of expired gas and blood samples in the fasted state and during 7 h of the postprandial state. RESULTS: Within groups, the EX/IPE group significantly enhanced the amount of fat (Pre, 24.1 ±â€¯1.2 g; Post, 35.9 ±â€¯4.0 g, P < 0.05) oxidised and reduced CHO (Pre, 77.8 ±â€¯6.0 g; Post, 57.8 ±â€¯7.7 g, P < 0.05) oxidised, reduced body weight (Pre, 77.3 ±â€¯4.2 kg; Post, 76.6 ±â€¯4.1 kg, P < 0.05) and body fat mass (Pre, 37.7 ±â€¯1.9%; Post, 36.9 ±â€¯1.9%, P < 0.05). In EX/Placebo group, changes in amount of fat (Pre, 36.8 ±â€¯3.9 g; Post, 37.0 ±â€¯4.0 g) and CHO (Pre, 62.7 ±â€¯6.5 g; Post, 61.5 ±â€¯7.4 g) oxidised, body weight (Pre, 84.2 ±â€¯4.3 kg; Post, 83.6 ±â€¯4.3 kg) and body fat mass (Pre, 40.1 ±â€¯1.9%; Post, 38.7 ±â€¯1.5%) were not significant (P > 0.05). Comparing between groups, changes in the amount of fat oxidised were significantly (P < 0.05) different and a trend for difference was observed for amount of CHO oxidised (P = 0.06) and RER (P = 0.06). The interventions had no impact on fasting or postprandial plasma concentrations of GLP-1 and PYY. CONCLUSION: Moderate intensity exercise training programmes when combined with daily oral IPE supplementation may help overweight women to achieve increase in fat oxidation. The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT04016350.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Exercício Físico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Inulina/uso terapêutico , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/terapia , Propionatos/uso terapêutico , Adiposidade , Adulto , Apetite , Peso Corporal , Terapia Combinada , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Hormônios/metabolismo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxirredução , Método Simples-Cego
16.
Cancer ; 126(1): 156-164, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31497875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition in cancer is an independent factor associated with negative clinical outcomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of malnutrition across different age groups in patients with cancer in Brazil and to identify associations with nutrition impact symptoms (NIS). METHODS: In this observational, cross-sectional, multicenter study, the authors evaluated 4783 patients with cancer aged ≥20 years who were admitted to 45 public hospitals in Brazil. Nutritional status, nutritional risk, and NIS were evaluated using the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment. RESULTS: More than one-fourth (25.5%) of all participants were aged ≥65 years. In patients aged ≥65 years, the prevalence of moderate/suspected and severe malnutrition was 55%, it was 45.4% in those aged 51 to 64 years, and it was 36.1% in those aged ≤50 years. Among the NIS with a higher risk of occurrence in patients aged ≥65 years were no appetite (odds ratio [OR], 1.90; 95% CI, 1.62-2.22; P < .05) and dry mouth (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.1-1.67; P < .05). In patients between ages 51 and 64 years, compared with those aged ≤50 years, the NIS with a higher risk of occurrence were no appetite (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.23-1.69; P < .05), dry mouth (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.02-1.45; P < .05), and problems with swallowing (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.25-1.96; P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of malnutrition and the occurrence of NIS are high in hospitalized Brazilian patients aged ≥65 years who have cancer. The occurrence of NIS was higher in the population aged >50 years than in those aged ≤50 years. Nutritional screening and assessment should be performed immediately after hospitalization to enable early diagnosis and multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary intervention(s).


Assuntos
Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Apetite/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Desnutrição/complicações , Desnutrição/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/patologia , Avaliação Nutricional
17.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 14(10): 1119-1129, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820808

RESUMO

Extensive literature shows that alexithymia, a subclinical trait defined by difficulties in identifying and describing feelings, is characterized by multifaceted impairments in processing emotional stimuli. Nevertheless, its underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we hypothesize that alexithymia may be characterized by an alteration in learning the emotional value of encountered stimuli and test this by assessing differences between individuals with low (LA) and high (HA) levels of alexithymia in the computation of reward prediction errors (RPEs) during Pavlovian appetitive conditioning. As a marker of RPE, the amplitude of the feedback-related negativity (FRN) event-related potential was assessed while participants were presented with two conditioned stimuli (CS) associated with expected or unexpected feedback, indicating delivery of reward or no-reward. No-reward (vs reward) feedback elicited the FRN both in LA and HA. However, unexpected (vs expected) feedback enhanced the FRN in LA but not in HA, indicating impaired computation of RPE in HA. Thus, although HA show preserved sensitivity to rewards, they cannot use this response to update the value of CS that predict them. This impairment may hinder the construction of internal representations of emotional stimuli, leaving individuals with alexithymia unable to effectively recognize, respond and regulate their response to emotional stimuli.


Assuntos
Apetite/fisiologia , Retroalimentação Psicológica/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Recompensa , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos , Condicionamento Operante , Tomada de Decisões , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
19.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 46(12): 1814-1817, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879394

RESUMO

Cachexia is well known to be a complication with malignant disease. The frequency of cancer-associated cachexia is different among various type of cancer, and relatively high in pancreas cancer, gastric cancer or lung cancer. The typical symptoms with cancer-associated cachexia includes body weight loss, appetite loss and general fatigue. In 2011, EPCRC published the consensus report of definition for cancer-associated cachexia in 2011, and the diagnostic criteria based on body weight loss is used widely. Although the systemic inflammation complicated with cancer plays an important role for cachexia development, basic research has clarified that cancer promotes cachexia directly using proteolysis inducing factor, lipid mobilizing factor and others. Recently, anamorelin, ghrelin mimics gathers attention as a treatment drug for cancer-associated cachexia. Clinical trials confirmed that anamorelin increased the lean body mass in cancer patients probably due to improve the appetite and protein anabolism. Treatment strategy for cancer-associated cachexia needs the comprehensive approach with nutritional and exercise therapy in addition with anti-cachexia drug.


Assuntos
Caquexia/etiologia , Neoplasias , Anorexia , Apetite , Humanos , Neoplasias/complicações
20.
Chin J Physiol ; 62(5): 217-225, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670286

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between adiposity parameters and fasting serum levels of appetite-regulating peptides: leptin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), desacyl ghrelin, peptide YY(1-36), obestatin, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), and agouti-related protein in 30 healthy, non-obese subjects. Thirty European Caucasian adult participants were included in the study (17 men and 13 women). Body composition (body fat and lean body mass) was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Concentrations of peptides in serum were assessed using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Women had higher level of leptin (P < 0.001), with no other differences for analyzed peptides. We have found a significant correlation between serum concentrations of CART and NPY (P < 0.001). Fasting leptin level was associated with age (P = 0.002), waist circumference (P < 0.001), and lean body mass (P < 0.001). Levels of ghrelin were lower in participants with dyslipidemia (P = 0.009). Levels of obestatin (P = 0.008) and leptin (P = 0.02) were higher in participants with insulin resistance. Associations between body fat and appetite-regulating peptides are more complex than simple feedback loops. Leptin is probably the first signal in the pathway that regulates body fat content, as of all analyzed peptides leptin was the only one that was associated with body composition or anthropometric measurements.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Adulto , Proteína Relacionada com Agouti , Apetite , Jejum , Feminino , Grelina , Humanos , Leptina , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso , Neuropeptídeo Y , Peptídeo YY
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