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1.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621478

RESUMO

Loss of functional activity after a stroke is a leading cause of disability in adults worldwide. Particular attention is currently being paid to post-stroke cognitive impairment. Approaches based on multimodal exposure are increasingly being used when planning rehabilitation programs, which makes it possible to comprehensively cover the entire spectrum of existing neurological disorders in patients and enables to achieve a more effective recovery of functional activity after a stroke.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Reabilitação Neurológica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adulto , Atenção , Humanos
2.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(7): 2407-2414, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715707

RESUMO

In this study, a pot experiment was carried out to examine the effects of high CO2 concentration, drought and interaction on seedling growth traits, biomass accumulation and physiological characteristics of different stay-green wheat seedlings, with a stay-green wheat variety Yannong 19 and a non stay-green wheat variety Hanxuan 3 as test materials. There were four treatments in the Open Top Chamber with factorial of CO2 concentration (370 µmol·mol-1 vs 550 µmol·mol-1) and drought (45%-55% vs. 75%-85% of field water-holding capacity). Drought significantly inhibited the growth and development of wheat seedlings, while CO2 concentration significantly increased the number of tillers and promoted the growth and development of wheat seedlings. Under drought condition, high CO2 concentration increased the number of tillers of Hanxuan 3 and Yannong 19 by 61.0% and 42.3%, respectively. Under both water conditions, high CO2 concentration significantly increased the biomass of wheat seedlings, and decreased the content of peroxidase and proline in leaves. Under drought condition, high CO2 concentration showed stronger "fertilizer effect". Furthermore, different varieties had different responses to high CO2 concentration, with higher sensitivity of Hanxuan 3 to enhancement of CO2 concentration. Under the scenario of increasing CO2 concentration, the amount of irrigation water applied to a field can be appropriately reduced for efficient use of water resources. Meanwhile, it is necessary to pay attention to the selection of suitable wheat varieties.


Assuntos
Secas , Plântula , Atenção , Dióxido de Carbono , Triticum , Água
3.
Rev Infirm ; 69(260-261): 41-43, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600597

RESUMO

Nurses are regularly interrupted when performing their tasks. Yet studies have shown that there is a link between the fact of being interrupted when preparing medication and the increased risk of making a mistake. Seeking to reinforce the safety of the medication preparation stage, a team in Normandy studied the benefit, for the nurse, of wearing ear plugs during this specific time.


Assuntos
Atenção , Erros de Medicação/prevenção & controle , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Gestão da Segurança/métodos , França , Humanos
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e20720, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629646

RESUMO

Dual-task interference (DTI) is a decreased performance when conducting 2 tasks simultaneously, such as cognitive and motor tasks. This study aimed to identify the DTI-related factors with individually computerized interference and analyze the relative implications of decreasing DTI in healthy farmers.It followed 3 computerized experiments:The reaction time of correct releases (CRT) of BT1 in all tasks was measured, and the CRT ratios of DT were divided by the CRT values from CT and MT to obtain the DTI value. CRT during CT and MT was decreased compared to that during DT. The interference by CT (CRT of DT/CRT of MT × 100, CTI) was increased compared to the interference by MT (CRT of DT/CRT of CT×100, MTI). Additionally, comprehensive baseline characteristics, body composition, psycho-cognitive, and physical factors were assessed.Of a total of 54 participants, 16 are males (67.2 ±â€Š8.9 years) and 38 females (62.5 ±â€Š6.6 years). CTI showed significant correlations with age (r = 0.436, P < .001), farming period (r = 0.290, P = .033), score of the Mini-Mental State Examination in the Korean version of CERAD Assessment Packet (r = -0.329, P = .015), CRT of the Go/No-Go test (r = 0.67, P < .001), score of the short physical performance battery (r = -0.304, P = .026), and time of the timed up and go test (r = 0.364, P = .007). Regression analysis showed that the CRT of the Go/No-Go test (ß = 0.558, P < .001) was the most explanatory factors for CTI.Based on the individualized DTI values quantified, interference during cognitive task was mostly related to CRT of Go/No-Go test, reflecting the attentional level. These results could suggest strategies for the active attentional training to reduce DTI and passive simplification and modification of lifestyles.


Assuntos
Atenção , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Desempenho Psicomotor , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tempo de Reação , República da Coreia
5.
J Music Ther ; 57(3): 353-378, 2020 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651585

RESUMO

Patients diagnosed with both substance use disorder (SUD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) often experience hypervigilance, increased fear, and difficulties regulating emotions. This dual diagnosis increases treatment complexity. Recently, a short-term music therapy intervention for arousal and attention regulation (the SMAART intervention) was designed based on neurobiological findings. Twelve patients with SUD and PTSD (50% females) in outpatient treatment participated in six weekly one-hour sessions of the SMAART intervention. Six patients completed the study. PTSD symptom severity was evaluated with the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Scale Interview for DSM-5 (PSSI-5) pre- and post-intervention, and sustained attention was evaluated with the Bourdon-Wiersma (BW) test. A significant difference in measurements for the PSSI-5 overall symptom severity was found pre- and post-intervention. Furthermore, participants showed significant improvement on subscales of hyperarousal, mood and cognition, and attention. The BW test completion time decreased significantly. Two participants dropped out before the end of the intervention due to craving. Concerning future research, it is recommended to define the role of the music more explicitly and to change the design to a randomized controlled trial. A risk for future larger studies is a high dropout rate (50%). Several limitations of the study are discussed.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Musicoterapia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/complicações , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Adulto , Emoções , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Drug Discov Ther ; 14(3): 151-152, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669524

RESUMO

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the third leading contributor to lost disability-adjusted life years worldwide, and this is especially true in the elderly population. In order to reduce the burden of disease, effective management of CAP is crucial to public health in terms of maintaining and promoting the health of the elderly and involves safe drug use, vaccinations, early treatment in the ICU, and health education. Since the long-term mortality of CAP is particularly high in the elderly, biomarkers and a predictive diagnostic model of CAP should be developed in future research.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/prevenção & controle , Gerenciamento Clínico , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atenção , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/epidemiologia
8.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 270: 287-291, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570392

RESUMO

Eye tracking studies have demonstrated deficits in attention in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) for a range of different social attention-based tasks. Here we examined social attention skills in a large sample of ASD participants (n = 120), using eye tracking data from a social information processing task, and compared them with a typically developing (TD) group (n = 35). Assuming eye movement parameters are random variables generated by an underlying stochastic process, we modeled the fixation sequences of participants in ASD and TD groups with a Hidden Markov Model. The Regions of Interests (ROIs), modeled as hidden states, corresponded to the true ROIs with a prediction accuracy of >90% for each group. The transition between ROIs revealed bias towards a specific area in the scene in ASD group, which deviated from the TD group. Objective time-dynamic measures of gaze patterns can potentially serve as useful endpoints in ASD diagnosis. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT02299700.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Cadeias de Markov , Comportamento Social , Habilidades Sociais , Processos Estocásticos
9.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(6): e19981, 2020 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social media has become increasingly important as a source of information for the public and is widely used for health-related information. The outbreak of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has exerted a negative impact on dental practices. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to analyze the nature and diffusion of COVID-19-related oral health information on the Chinese social media site Weibo. METHODS: A total of 15,900 tweets related to oral health and dentistry information from Weibo during the COVID-19 outbreak in China (December 31, 2019, to March 16, 2020) were included in our study. Two researchers coded 1000 of the total tweets in advance, and two main thematic categories with eight subtypes were refined. The included tweets were analyzed over time and geographic region, and coded into eight thematic categories. Additionally, the time distributions of tweets containing information about dental services, needs of dental treatment, and home oral care during the COVID-19 epidemic were further analyzed. RESULTS: People reacted rapidly to the emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 threat to dental services, and a large amount of COVID-19-related oral health information was tweeted on Weibo. The time and geographic distribution of tweets shared similarities with epidemiological data of the COVID-19 outbreak in China. Tweets containing home oral care and dental services content were the most frequently exchanged information (n=4803/15,900, 30.20% and n=4478, 28.16%, respectively). Significant differences of public attention were found between various types of bloggers in dental services-related tweets (P<.001), and the tweets from the government and media engaged the most public attention. The distributions of tweets containing information about dental services, needs of dental treatment, and home oral care information dynamically changed with time. CONCLUSIONS: Our study overviewed and analyzed social media data on the dental services and oral health information during the COVID-19 epidemic, thus, providing insights for government organizations, media, and dental professionals to better facilitate oral health communication and efficiently shape public concern through social media when routine dental services are unavailable during an unprecedented event. The study of the nature and distribution of social media can serve as a useful adjunct tool to help make public health policies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Odontologia , Comunicação em Saúde , Educação em Saúde , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Atenção , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Pandemias
10.
Z Psychosom Med Psychother ; 66(2): 149-163, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552584

RESUMO

Increased attention of radiotherapy patients to religiousness and spirituality - a comparison with patients in a psychosomatic outpatient clinic Objectives: The aim of this study is to prove both hypothesis, that patients of radiation therapy are different to patients of a psychosomatic outpatient unit in case of their spirituality and religiosity and that these attitudes have an influence of their own lives. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, a data set of the Department of Psychosomatic and Psychotherapy of the University Hospital Münster in 2013 (n = 1110) was compared to data from 2017 by the Department of Radiation Therapy - Radiation oncology of the University Münster (n = 275) in terms of their religiosity and spirituality. The survey was carried out by a questionnaire on religious attitudes (FRA-RE, Heuft 2016). An age- and gender-controlled statistical analysis has been made by means of partial correlations and mean comparisons. Results: The results are consistent with the hypothesis that patients of radiotherapy, in contrast to psychosomatic patients, are more religious, more spiritual, show more private, but also public religious/spiritual practice, have a stronger desire for more religiosity in their lives and belief that religiosity helps to overcome times of crisis. Conclusions: Thus, it is of particular importance to provide this burdened patient clientele spiritual/religious offers for coping with their disease.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Neoplasias/psicologia , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/psicologia , Religião e Psicologia , Espiritualidade , Atenção , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e93, 2020 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460940

RESUMO

Thinking through other minds creatively situates the free-energy principle within real-life cultural processes, thereby enriching both sociocultural theories and Bayesian accounts of cognition. Here, shifting the attention from thinking-through to becoming-with, we suggest complementing such an account by focusing on the empirical, computational, and conceptual investigation of the multiscale dynamics of social interaction.


Assuntos
Atenção , Cognição , Teorema de Bayes
12.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e113, 2020 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460943

RESUMO

We consider the ways humans engage in social epistemic actions, to guide each other's attention, prediction, and learning processes towards salient information, at the timescale of online social interaction and joint action. This parallels the active guidance of other's attention, prediction, and learning processes at the longer timescale of niche construction and cultural practices, as discussed in the target article.


Assuntos
Cognição , Relações Interpessoais , Atenção , Processos Grupais , Humanos , Aprendizagem
13.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(1): 213, 2020 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Semantic resources such as knowledge bases contains high-quality-structured knowledge and therefore require significant effort from domain experts. Using the resources to reinforce the information retrieval from the unstructured text may further exploit the potentials of such unstructured text resources and their curated knowledge. RESULTS: The paper proposes a novel method that uses a deep neural network model adopting the prior knowledge to improve performance in the automated extraction of biological semantic relations from the scientific literature. The model is based on a recurrent neural network combining the attention mechanism with the semantic resources, i.e., UniProt and BioModels. Our method is evaluated on the BioNLP and BioCreative corpus, a set of manually annotated biological text. The experiments demonstrate that the method outperforms the current state-of-the-art models, and the structured semantic information could improve the result of bio-text-mining. CONCLUSION: The experiment results show that our approach can effectively make use of the external prior knowledge information and improve the performance in the protein-protein interaction extraction task. The method should be able to be generalized for other types of data, although it is validated on biomedical texts.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Atenção/fisiologia , Bases de Conhecimento , Semântica , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Publicações
14.
Epilepsia ; 61(6): 1166-1173, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353184

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the severity of psychological distress between patients with epilepsy and healthy controls during the COVID-19 outbreak in southwest China, as well as identify potential risk factors of severe psychological distress among patients with epilepsy. METHODS: This cross-sectional case-control study examined a consecutive sample of patients older than 15 years treated at the epilepsy center of West China Hospital between February 1 and February 29, 2020. As controls, sex- and age-matched healthy visitors of inpatients (unrelated to the patients) were also enrolled during the same period. Data on demographics and attention paid to COVID-19 were collected by online questionnaire, data on epilepsy features were collected from electronic medical records, and psychological distress was evaluated using the 6-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K-6). Potential risk factors of severe psychological distress were identified using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: The 252 patients and 252 controls in this study were similar along all demographic variables except family income. Patients with epilepsy showed significantly higher K-6 scores than healthy controls and spent significantly more time following the COVID-19 outbreak (both P < .001). Univariate analyses associated both diagnosis of drug-resistant epilepsy and time spent paying attention to COVID-19 with severe psychological distress (defined as K-6 score >12; both P ≤ .001). Multivariate logistic regression identified two independent predictors of severe psychological distress: time spent paying attention to COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.172, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.073-1.280) and diagnosis of drug-resistant epilepsy (OR = 0.283, 95% CI = 0.128-0.623). SIGNIFICANCE: During public health outbreaks, clinicians and caregivers should focus not only on seizure control but also on mental health of patients with epilepsy, especially those with drug-resistant epilepsy. K-6 scores > 12 indicate severe psychological distress. This may mean, for example, encouraging patients to engage in other activities instead of excessively following media coverage of the outbreak.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Depressão/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Angústia Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Atenção , Betacoronavirus , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Surtos de Doenças , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232717, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433668

RESUMO

The experience of being imitated is theorised to be a driving force of infant social cognition, yet evidence on the emergence of imitation recognition and the effects of imitation in early infancy is disproportionately scarce. To address this lack of empirical evidence, in a within-subjects study we compared the responses of 6-month old infants when exposed to ipsilateral imitation as opposed to non-imitative contingent responding. To examine mediating mechanisms of imitation recognition, infants were also exposed to contralateral imitation and bodily imitation with suppressed emotional mimicry. We found that testing behaviours-the hallmark of high-level imitation recognition-occurred at significantly higher rates in each of the imitation conditions compared to the contingent responding condition. Moreover, when being imitated, infants showed higher levels of attention, smiling and approach behaviours compared to the contingent responding condition. The suppression of emotional mimicry moderated these results, leading to a decrease in all social responsiveness measures. The results show that imitation engenders prosocial effects in 6-month old infants and that infants at this age reliably show evidence of implicit and high-level imitation recognition. In turn, the latter can be indicative of infants' sensitivity to others' intentions directed toward them.


Assuntos
Comportamento Imitativo/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Atenção , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Sorriso
16.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(4): e1007662, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352973

RESUMO

Alpha blocking, a phenomenon where the alpha rhythm is reduced by attention to a visual, auditory, tactile or cognitive stimulus, is one of the most prominent features of human electroencephalography (EEG) signals. Here we identify a simple physiological mechanism by which opening of the eyes causes attenuation of the alpha rhythm. We fit a neural population model to EEG spectra from 82 subjects, each showing a different degree of alpha blocking upon opening of their eyes. Though it has been notoriously difficult to estimate parameters by fitting such models, we show how, by regularizing the differences in parameter estimates between eyes-closed and eyes-open states, we can reduce the uncertainties in these differences without significantly compromising fit quality. From this emerges a parsimonious explanation for the spectral differences between states: Changes to just a single parameter, pei, corresponding to the strength of a tonic excitatory input to the inhibitory cortical population, are sufficient to explain the reduction in alpha rhythm upon opening of the eyes. We detect this by comparing the shift in each model parameter between eyes-closed and eyes-open states. Whereas changes in most parameters are weak or negligible and do not scale with the degree of alpha attenuation across subjects, the change in pei increases monotonically with the degree of alpha blocking observed. These results indicate that opening of the eyes reduces alpha activity by increasing external input to the inhibitory cortical population.


Assuntos
Ritmo alfa , Eletroencefalografia , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Atenção , Mapeamento Encefálico , Humanos , Modelos Neurológicos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Distribuição Normal
17.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(S1): S255-S257, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463284

RESUMO

In this commentary we discuss a downstream consequence of increases in stress and anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic. Stress and anxiety can lead to mind wandering, which in turn competes for limited cognitive resources. We encourage researchers to be understanding and patient concerning the inevitable cognitive impact of the pandemic and subsequent reduced productivity levels from our students, colleagues, and ourselves. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Psicoterapia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Eficiência , Humanos , Atenção Plena , Estudantes , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0223941, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469952

RESUMO

Expert behavior is characterized by rapid information processing abilities, dependent on more structured schemata in long-term memory designated for their domain-specific tasks. From this understanding, expertise can effectively reduce cognitive load on a domain-specific task. However, certain tasks could still evoke different gradations of load even for an expert, e.g., when having to detect subtle anomalies in dental radiographs. Our aim was to measure pupil diameter response to anomalies of varying levels of difficulty in expert and student dentists' visual examination of panoramic radiographs. We found that students' pupil diameter dilated significantly from baseline compared to experts, but anomaly difficulty had no effect on pupillary response. In contrast, experts' pupil diameter responded to varying levels of anomaly difficulty, where more difficult anomalies evoked greater pupil dilation from baseline. Experts thus showed proportional pupillary response indicative of increasing cognitive load with increasingly difficult anomalies, whereas students showed pupillary response indicative of higher cognitive load for all anomalies when compared to experts.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pupila/fisiologia , Radiografia Dentária/psicologia , Radiografia Panorâmica/psicologia
19.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230866, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352984

RESUMO

Faces are one of the most important stimuli that we encounter, but humans vary dramatically in their behavior when viewing a face: some individuals preferentially fixate the eyes, others fixate the mouth, and still others show an intermediate pattern. The determinants of these large individual differences are unknown. However, individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) spend less time fixating the eyes of a viewed face than controls, suggesting the hypothesis that autistic traits in healthy adults might explain individual differences in face viewing behavior. Autistic traits were measured in 98 healthy adults recruited from an academic setting using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient, a validated 50-statement questionnaire. Fixations were measured using a video-based eye tracker while participants viewed two different types of audiovisual movies: short videos of talker speaking single syllables and longer videos of talkers speaking sentences in a social context. For both types of movies, there was a positive correlation between Autism-Spectrum Quotient score and percent of time fixating the lower half of the face that explained from 4% to 10% of the variance in individual face viewing behavior. This effect suggests that in healthy adults, autistic traits are one of many factors that contribute to individual differences in face viewing behavior.


Assuntos
Atenção , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Face , Adolescente , Adulto , Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0226792, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353028

RESUMO

Mind wandering (MW) refers to the shift of attention away from a primary task and/or external environment towards thoughts unrelated to the task. Recent evidence has shown that pupillometry can be used as an objective marker of the onset and maintenance of externally-driven MW episodes. In the present study we aimed to further investigate pupillary changes associated with the onset and duration of self-reported MW episodes. We used a modified version of the joint behavioural-pupillometry paradigm we recently introduced. Participants were asked to perform a monotonous vigilance task which was intermixed with task-irrelevant cue-phrases (visually presented verbal cues); they were instructed to interrupt the task whenever a thought came to mind (self-caught method) and to indicate the trigger of their thought, if any. We found systematic pupil dilation after the presentation of verbal cues reported to have triggered MW, compared with other verbal cues presented during a supposedly on-task period (i.e., the period immediately following the resuming of the task after a self-caught interruption and MW report). These results confirm that pupil diameter is sensitive to the changes associated with the onset of MW and its unfolding over time. Moreover, by computing the latency between the trigger presentation and the task interruption (self-catch), we could also estimate the duration of MW episodes triggered by verbal cues. However, a high variability was found, implying very large inter-event variability, which could not be explained by any of the MW properties we acquired (including: temporal focus, specificity, emotional valence). Our behavioural and pupillometry findings stress the need for objective measures about the temporal unfolding of MW (while most studies focus on arbitrary time-window preceding self-reports of MW).


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Pupila/fisiologia , Pensamento/fisiologia , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Autorrelato , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
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