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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(14): e19495, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243365

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Upper extremity motor impairment is one of the major sequelae of stroke, resulting in limitations of activities of daily living. Recently, contralesional cortical activation has been reported to be important for motor recovery in stroke patients with severe upper extremity hemiparesis due to the extensive corticospinal tract involvement. We therefore designed this study to investigate the effects of contralesional anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), which induces cortical activation, in stroke patients with severe upper extremity motor impairment. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will recruit patients with subacute stroke (<3 months after onset) with unilateral upper extremity weakness who meet the following criteria: Shoulder Abduction and Finger Extension (SAFE) score below 8, Fugl-Meyer Assessment for upper extremity (FMA-UE) score ≤25, and absent motor evoked potential (MEP) response on the affected extensor carpi radialis muscle. Subjects will be randomly allocated to either the intervention (n = 18) or the control group (n = 18). The intervention group will undergo 10 sessions of robotic arm rehabilitation with simultaneous anodal tDCS over the contralesional premotor area, whereas the control group will receive sham tDCS during the same sessions. One daily session consists of 25 minutes.The primary outcome measure of this study is the Fugl-Meyer Assessment score of the upper extremity; the secondary outcome measures are the Korean version of the Modified Barthel Index, the Brunnstrom stage of the affected arm and hand, the Box and Block Test, the Modified Ashworth Scale, the Manual Muscle Power Test, and the patient's encephalographic laterality index. DISCUSSION: Findings of this study will help to establish an individualized tDCS protocol according to the stroke severity and to find out the EEG parameters to predict the better recovery in subacute stroke patients with severe upper extremity hemiparesis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by the Seoul National University Bundang Hospital Institutional Review Board (IRB No. B-1806-475-006) and will be carried out in accordance with the approved guidelines. The results of the trial will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal.


Assuntos
Paresia/reabilitação , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos , Extremidade Superior , Atividades Cotidianas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Método Duplo-Cego , Potencial Evocado Motor , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Córtex Motor/fisiopatologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232123, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324801

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study was to: (a) assess centripetal force (CentF) and changes of direction (COD) in elite soccer players according to playing position (central defender, CD; lateral defender, LD; central midfielder, CM; lateral midfielder, LM; forward, FW), laterality (right-footed vs. left-footed) and field zone (central vs. lateral), and (b) analyze the relationship between anthropometric characteristics (age, weight, height, body mass and fat mass) and non-linear locomotion workload. Thirty professional soccer players (age: 26.57±5.56 years) were tracked during the 2017-2018 season during friendly, national and international matches (38 total games) using inertial measurement devices. CentF and COD were the variables extracted for analysis. A one-way ANOVA was used for playing position comparison, a t-test for laterality and field zone, and Pearson's correlation coefficient to analyze relationships between anthropometric characteristics and dependent variables. There were differences by playing position in COD (556.33-to-412.18), R20COD (484.36-to-354.81) and R60COD (48.38-to-38.61) (p < .01; ωp2 = 0.03-to-0.05; CD>CM>LD>LM = FW); in CODHIA (49.75-to-37.11), R20CODHIA (16.04-to-9.11) and R60CODHIA (10.64-to-9.11) (p < .01; ωp2 = 0.03-to-0.07; CM>FW>LM>CD = LD); in CODSPRINT (14.56-to-8.40) and R20CODSPRINT (3.29-to-1.40) (p < .01; ωp2 = 0.03-to-0.04; FW = LM = CM>CD = LD); and in CentFMAX both in clockwise (992.04-to-902.09N) and counterclockwise (999.24-to-872.61N) directions (p < .02; ωp2 = 0.02-to-0.07; FW = CD>CM = LM = LD). The highest values of counterclockwise CentF were performed by left-footed players in the central zone (p < .001; d = 0.71-to-1.44) and clockwise CentF by right-footed players (p < .001; d = 0.04-to-0.55) in the lateral field zone. Moderate correlations were found between age, body mass and high intensity/sprints COD and repeated COD ability (p < .05; r = 0.235-to-0.383). Therefore, team staff should consider anthropometric characteristics, playing position, laterality and field zone to individualize training workload related to non-linear locomotion in soccer.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Acelerometria , Adulto , Antropometria , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
3.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232128, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324834

RESUMO

The social interactions that we experience from early infancy often involve actions that are not strictly instrumental but engage the recipient by eliciting a (complementary) response. Interactive gestures may have privileged access to our perceptual and motor systems either because of their intrinsically engaging nature or as a result of extensive social learning. We compared these two hypotheses in a series of behavioral experiments by presenting individuals with interactive gestures that call for motor responses to complement the interaction ('hand shaking', 'requesting', 'high-five') and with communicative gestures that are equally socially relevant and salient, but do not strictly require a response from the recipient ('Ok', 'Thumbs up', 'Peace'). By means of a spatial compatibility task, we measured the interfering power of these task-irrelevant stimuli on the behavioral responses of individuals asked to respond to a target. Across three experiments, our results showed that the interactive gestures impact on response selection and reduce spatial compatibility effects as compared to the communicative (non-interactive) gestures. Importantly, this effect was independent of the activation of specific social scripts that may interfere with response selection. Overall, our results show that interactive gestures have privileged access to our perceptual and motor systems, possibly because they entail an automatic preparation to respond that involuntary engages the motor system of the observers. We discuss the implications from a developmental and neurophysiological point of view.


Assuntos
Gestos , Relações Interpessoais , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção de Movimento , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0228599, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to determine the impact of the performance of bimanual coordination tasks with specific characteristics on the changes in quality of coordination, musculoskeletal load of the upper limbs and cognitive functions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A group of 26 people aged 60-67 years performed 6 sessions of bimanual coordination training. Each session included set of tasks that varied depending on the shape in which the cursor moved, the coordination mode (in-phase, anti-phase, complex) and the tracking mode (imposed or freely chosen speed). Performance was assessed by: Error, Variability and Execution. The load of upper limb muscles was expressed with the value of the normalized EMG amplitude. Cognitive functions were evaluated using the Vienna Test System. The Variability and Error values obtained during the sixth training session decreased by more than 50% of the initial values. Tasks with freely chosen speed showed changes from 15% to 34% for Error and from 45% to 50% for Variability. For tasks with imposed speed and coordination mode anti-phase or complex it was between 51% and 58% for Error and between 58% and 68% for Variability. Statistically significant differences between load during the sixth training session compared to the first session occurred in three out of four muscles and were between 9% to 39%. There were statistically significant differences in motor time and no differences in variables describing attention and working memory. CONCLUSIONS: Coordination mode is meaningful for improving coordination skills; tasks in the anti-phase and complex are recommended. Tracking mode also plays a role, tasks with an imposed cursor movement speed have greater potential to improve coordination skills than tasks with freely chosen. Improved control skills resulted in the reduction of upper limb musculoskeletal load. It can be assumed that an increase in coordination skills with the use of appropriate training can help to reduce musculoskeletal load.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Ataxia/reabilitação , Cognição/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Idoso , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Ataxia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Movimento/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Extremidade Superior
6.
World Neurosurg ; 138: 73-76, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive endoscopic spine surgery is useful for the treatment of various spinal conditions. Although surgery-related complications such as dural injury, exiting nerve root injury, incomplete decompression, and hematoma have been reported, there are few reports of late complications after endoscopic surgery. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 51-year-old man complained of radiating pain to the right leg. The patient underwent endoscopic foraminal decompression under the diagnosis of foraminal stenosis with isthmic type spondylolisthesis (L5-S1). The lower extremity radiating pain was improved after surgery. Six weeks after surgery, the patient's symptoms recurred. The patient experienced a sudden onset of severe low back pain, which was aggravated by any motion of the lumbar spine. Computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a fracture line with a sclerotic margin at the base of the right pedicle at the L5 level. Because the symptoms significantly interfered with his normal activities of daily living, the patient was treated with a total laminectomy, followed by posterior instrumented fusion. As the indication for endoscopic spinal surgery is widening, endoscopic decompression surgery is being performed for patients with low-grade lumbar spondylolisthesis, regardless of the presence of advanced spinal instability. However, endoscopic decompression surgery may cause damage to the posterior facet joint, which may have worsened the instability and lead to late complications such as progression of spondylolisthesis and pedicle stress fracture. CONCLUSIONS: The surgeon should carefully review risk factors such as isthmic type spondylolisthesis before planning spine surgery and minimize facet joint damage during endoscopic decompression.


Assuntos
Descompressão Cirúrgica/efeitos adversos , Endoscopia/efeitos adversos , Forame Magno/cirurgia , Fraturas de Estresse/etiologia , Fraturas de Estresse/cirurgia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/etiologia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Espondilolistese/complicações , Espondilolistese/cirurgia , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Instabilidade Articular/cirurgia , Laminectomia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fusão Vertebral
7.
J Clin Neurophysiol ; 37(2): 90-103, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142020

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has recently emerged as a noninvasive alternative to the intracarotid sodium amytal (Wada) procedure for establishing hemispheric dominance (HD) for language. The accuracy of HD determined by TMS was examined by comparing against the HD derived by magnetoencephalography (MEG), a prominent clinical technique with excellent concordance with the Wada procedure. METHODS: Sixty-seven patients (54 patients ≤18 years) underwent language mapping with TMS and MEG as part of clinical epilepsy and tumor presurgical assessment. Language was mapped in MEG during an auditory word recognition paradigm, and a laterality index was calculated using the number of dipoles and their spatial extent in the two hemispheres. Transcranial magnetic stimulation language mapping was performed as patients performed a naming task, and TMS-induced speech disruptions were recorded during 5-Hz TMS applied to anterior and posterior language cortices. Transcranial magnetic stimulation laterality index was estimated using the number and type of speech disruption in the language regions of each hemisphere. RESULTS: Transcranial magnetic stimulation and MEG estimates of HD were concordant in 42 (63%) patients, resulting in a sensitivity of 74% and a specificity of 72%. The overall accuracy of TMS was 73%, equivalent to an odds ratio of 7.35. CONCLUSIONS: In this first large-scale comparative study in a clinical population, we demonstrate that TMS is a safe and reliable noninvasive tool in determining HD for language. Improving the accuracy of TMS by optimizing TMS parameters and improving task choice will further facilitate the use of TMS to characterize language function, especially in pediatrics.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Idioma , Magnetoencefalografia/métodos , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Criança , Epilepsia/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS Biol ; 18(3): e3000207, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119667

RESUMO

Speech perception is mediated by both left and right auditory cortices but with differential sensitivity to specific acoustic information contained in the speech signal. A detailed description of this functional asymmetry is missing, and the underlying models are widely debated. We analyzed cortical responses from 96 epilepsy patients with electrode implantation in left or right primary, secondary, and/or association auditory cortex (AAC). We presented short acoustic transients to noninvasively estimate the dynamical properties of multiple functional regions along the auditory cortical hierarchy. We show remarkably similar bimodal spectral response profiles in left and right primary and secondary regions, with evoked activity composed of dynamics in the theta (around 4-8 Hz) and beta-gamma (around 15-40 Hz) ranges. Beyond these first cortical levels of auditory processing, a hemispheric asymmetry emerged, with delta and beta band (3/15 Hz) responsivity prevailing in the right hemisphere and theta and gamma band (6/40 Hz) activity prevailing in the left. This asymmetry is also present during syllables presentation, but the evoked responses in AAC are more heterogeneous, with the co-occurrence of alpha (around 10 Hz) and gamma (>25 Hz) activity bilaterally. These intracranial data provide a more fine-grained and nuanced characterization of cortical auditory processing in the 2 hemispheres, shedding light on the neural dynamics that potentially shape auditory and speech processing at different levels of the cortical hierarchy.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Eletrodos Implantados , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsia , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino
9.
World Neurosurg ; 138: 214-217, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebral vasospasm following clipping of an unruptured aneurysm is a rare phenomenon. When it does occur, cerebral vasospasm usually occurs on the side ipsilateral to the surgical intervention. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 68-year-old man underwent right-sided pterional craniotomy for clipping of an unruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm and experienced contralateral vasospasm 5 days later. CONCLUSIONS: We further discuss the pathophysiology underlying vasospasm after uncomplicated craniotomy and nonhemorrhagic aneurysm clipping.


Assuntos
Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Aneurisma Intracraniano/cirurgia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Vasoespasmo Intracraniano/etiologia , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Instrumentos Cirúrgicos
10.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230129, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163517

RESUMO

The assessment of language lateralization has become widely used when planning neurosurgery close to language areas, due to individual specificities and potential influence of brain pathology. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allows non-invasive and quantitative assessment of language lateralization for presurgical planning using a laterality index (LI). However, the conventional method is limited by the dependence of the LI on the chosen activation threshold. To overcome this limitation, different threshold-independent LI calculations have been reported. The purpose of this study was to propose a simplified approach to threshold-independent LI calculation and compare it with three previously reported methods on the same cohort of subjects. Fifteen healthy subjects, who performed picture naming, verb generation, and word fluency tasks, were scanned. LI values were calculated for all subjects using four methods, and considering either the whole hemisphere or an atlas-defined language area. For each method, the subjects were ranked according to the calculated LI values, and the obtained rankings were compared. All LI calculation methods agreed in differentiating strong from weak lateralization on both hemispheric and regional scales (Spearman's correlation coefficients 0.59-1.00). In general, a more lateralized activation was found in the language area than in the whole hemisphere. The new method is well suited for application in the clinical practice as it is simple to implement, fast, and robust. The good agreement between LI calculation methods suggests that the choice of method is not key. Nevertheless, it should be consistent to allow a relative comparison of language lateralization between subjects.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurocirurgia/métodos , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230184, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182270

RESUMO

The left and right foot representation area is located within the interhemispheric fissure of the sensorimotor cortex and share spatial proximity. This makes it difficult to visualize the cortical lateralization of event-related (de)synchronization (ERD/ERS) during left and right foot motor imageries. The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of using ERD/ERS in the mu, low beta, and high beta bandwidth, during left and right foot dorsiflexion kinaesthetic motor imageries (KMI), as unilateral control commands for a brain-computer interface (BCI). EEG was recorded from nine healthy participants during cue-based left-right foot dorsiflexion KMI tasks. The features were analysed for common average and bipolar references. With each reference, mu and beta band-power features were analysed using time-frequency (TF) maps, scalp topographies, and average time course for ERD/ERS. The cortical lateralization of ERD/ERS, during left and right foot KMI, was confirmed. Statistically significant features were classified using LDA, SVM, and KNN model, and evaluated using the area under ROC curves. An increase in high beta power following the end of KMI for both tasks was recorded, from right and left hemispheres, respectively, at the vertex. The single trial analysis and classification models resulted in high discrimination accuracies, i.e. maximum 83.4% for beta ERS, 79.1% for beta ERD, and 74.0% for mu ERD. With each model the features performed above the statistical chance level of 2-class discrimination for a BCI. Our findings indicate these features can evoke left-right differences in single EEG trials. This suggests that any BCI employing unilateral foot KMI can attain classification accuracy suitable for practical implementation. Given results stipulate the novel utilization of mu and beta as independent control features for discrimination of bilateral foot KMI in a BCI.


Assuntos
Sincronização Cortical/fisiologia , Pé/fisiologia , Cinestesia/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Adulto , Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Humanos , Imagens, Psicoterapia/métodos , Imaginação/fisiologia , Masculino , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Brain ; 143(3): 862-876, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155246

RESUMO

Humans are uniquely able to retrieve and combine words into syntactic structure to produce connected speech. Previous identification of focal brain regions necessary for production focused primarily on associations with the content produced by speakers with chronic stroke, where function may have shifted to other regions after reorganization occurred. Here, we relate patterns of brain damage with deficits to the content and structure of spontaneous connected speech in 52 speakers during the acute stage of a left hemisphere stroke. Multivariate lesion behaviour mapping demonstrated that damage to temporal-parietal regions impacted the ability to retrieve words and produce them within increasingly complex combinations. Damage primarily to inferior frontal cortex affected the production of syntactically accurate structure. In contrast to previous work, functional-anatomical dissociations did not depend on lesion size likely because acute lesions were smaller than typically found in chronic stroke. These results are consistent with predictions from theoretical models based primarily on evidence from language comprehension and highlight the importance of investigating individual differences in brain-language relationships in speakers with acute stroke.


Assuntos
Lobo Frontal/patologia , Lobo Parietal/patologia , Distúrbios da Fala/patologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Lobo Temporal/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem , Distúrbios da Fala/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Adulto Jovem
13.
Biol Bull ; 238(1): 25-40, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163729

RESUMO

The paired claws in Gazami crabs, Portunus trituberculatus, are bilaterally asymmetrical, and asymmetry is remarkable on the distal two segments of the first pereiopod, that is, the dactylus and propodus. Shells are exclusively cracked by use of the right chela, representing handedness. In Gazami crabs, handedness is reversed after autotomy of the right chela. Our study focused on the ontogeny of handedness and the mechanism of handedness reversal. Morphologically, asymmetry was first detected in megalopa larvae where the right propodus was significantly larger than the left, as was the canine at the base of the right dactylus. Presumably, the rate of chelagenesis differed between the left and right chelae. With these morphological features, the right chela functioned as a crusher. The crusher exerted a closing force two to three times that of the cutter. With loss of the right crusher, the left chela was bigger than the regenerated right chela and was converted to the crusher. In contrast, the performance of the regenerated right chela deteriorated compared to that of the original right crusher, and exertion of full closing force was inhibited by the more active left chela. Furthermore, crabs with two crusher chelae did not clearly show handedness. A decrease in size and performance of the regenerated right chela can be explained by a default program hypothesis. In conclusion, a difference in the chelagenesis rate results in bilateral asymmetry of the two chelipeds, and then handedness is generated by neural regulation in the thoracic ganglion innervating these claws. Since handedness is reversed after autotomy, the thoracic ganglion would not be lateralized in Gazami crabs. A default program hypothesis is proposed to explain the ontogeny of bilateral chela asymmetry and handedness reversal.


Assuntos
Braquiúros , Animais , Cães , Lateralidade Funcional , Larva
14.
Clin Nucl Med ; 45(4): e178-e184, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108695

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Symptom laterality is one of the main characteristics of Parkinson disease (PD) and reported to be associated with motor and nonmotor symptom severity and prognosis. This study aimed to evaluate the changes of laterality after deep brain stimulation (DBS) and the association between dopamine transporter SPECT using I FP-CIT (DAT SPECT) and symptom laterality in PD before and after DBS. METHODS: Nineteen patients with PD who received bilateral subthalamic nucleus DBS were enrolled. The clinical scores including Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and Hoehn and Yahr were evaluated at baseline, 6 months, and 1 year after DBS. Also, the patients underwent DAT SPECT before and 6 months and 1 year after DBS. Symptom and DAT laterality indices were determined based on the UPDRS part 3 and DAT SPECT, respectively. The association between DAT and symptom laterality was assessed at baseline and 6 months and 1 year after DBS. RESULTS: At baseline, 11, 6, and 2 among 19 patients had left-side-dominant, right-side-dominant, and symmetric motor symptom, respectively. Among 19 patients, there were 10 patients who showed changed symptom laterality within 1 year after DBS. The agreement between symptom laterality and DAT laterality was good to excellent at baseline and 6 months and 1 year after DBS (weighted κ = 0.742, 0.736, and 0.813). Furthermore, symptom and DAT laterality indices showed significant correlation at baseline (r = 0.542, P = 0.02), 6 months (r = 0.579, P = 0.01), and 1 year after DBS (r = 0.689, P = 0.02). Symptom laterality could be determined by DAT laterality index with areas under curve of 0.833 (P = 0.045), 0.982 (P < 0.001), and 1.000 (P < 0.001) at baseline and 6 and 12 months after DBS, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The symptom laterality could be altered after DBS and was well correlated with laterality evaluated by DAT SPECT. An objective evaluation of laterality using DAT SPECT would be helpful for the management of patients with PD especially for adjusting the DBS programming for fine balancing of the asymmetric symptom after DBS. The large-scale study is warranted for validation of this result.


Assuntos
Estimulação Encefálica Profunda , Lateralidade Funcional , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Tropanos
15.
Science ; 367(6481): 1043-1047, 2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108113

RESUMO

Does brain asymmetry for speech and music emerge from acoustical cues or from domain-specific neural networks? We selectively filtered temporal or spectral modulations in sung speech stimuli for which verbal and melodic content was crossed and balanced. Perception of speech decreased only with degradation of temporal information, whereas perception of melodies decreased only with spectral degradation. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data showed that the neural decoding of speech and melodies depends on activity patterns in left and right auditory regions, respectively. This asymmetry is supported by specific sensitivity to spectrotemporal modulation rates within each region. Finally, the effects of degradation on perception were paralleled by their effects on neural classification. Our results suggest a match between acoustical properties of communicative signals and neural specializations adapted to that purpose.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Música , Nível de Percepção Sonora/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228541, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069294

RESUMO

Switching between tasks requires individuals to inhibit mental representations of the previous task demands and to activate representations of the new task demands. The inhibition of the executed task remains active for a while so that when the inhibited task set must be re-activated shortly after, the need to overcome residual task set inhibition leads to behavioral costs. In a sham-controlled balanced-order within-subjects experimental design we investigated whether applying right anodal/left cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the dorsolateral prefrontal or parietal cortex modulated the ability to overcome persistent task inhibition during task switching. Results showed that right anodal/left cathodal tDCS over the parietal cortex improves performance selectively when switching back to a recently inhibited task that requires previous inhibition to be overcome. Right Anodal/left cathodal tDCS over the prefrontal cortex improves performance during task switching in general, either when re-engaging in a inhibited task or when engaging in a non-inhibited task. Results suggest a different contribution of prefrontal and parietal regions to task switching, with parietal cortex being selectively involved in overcoming persistent task inhibition and prefrontal cortex being more generally involved in the control of task set during task switching.


Assuntos
Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Inibição Psicológica , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletrodos , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adulto Jovem
19.
Muscle Nerve ; 61(4): E31-E32, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985845
20.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 203: 103010, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981826

RESUMO

Behavioural evidence suggest that males outperform females in mentally transforming objects, whereas whether sex differences exist in mentally transforming body part images (implicit motor imagery) is an open issue. The aim of the present study was to fill this gap testing performance of 360 healthy participants on a classical behavioural measure of implicit motor imagery: the hand laterality task. Participants had to judge handedness of hand images portrayed from back and palm and presented in different spatial orientations. Two main findings emerged. First, males were significantly faster than females in judging hands portrayed from palm, in particular left palms at 0°, 90° and 180° orientation, whereas females were faster than males in judging backs, in particular left and right backs at 0° and the left back at 90°. Second, both males and females showed a significant biomechanical effect (faster responses for hands portrayed in medial vs. lateral positions) while judging palms, albeit the effect was stronger in males, whereas only females showed a significant biomechanical effect when judging backs. Thus, males and females seem to differently exploit motor simulation processes during mental transformation of hand images depending on a specific familiarity with body parts portrayed from different views. This result might be taken into account when tailoring motor imagery tasks in applied contexts, as motor rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Mãos/fisiologia , Imagens, Psicoterapia/métodos , Orientação Espacial/fisiologia , Adulto , Imagem Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Imaginação/fisiologia , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
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