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1.
Acta Biomed ; 91(2): 230-231, 2020 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32420954

RESUMO

In late December 2019, in Wuhan (China), health authorities reported several clusters of pneumo- nia of unknown cause, subsequently attributed to a novel coronavirus, identified as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus 2. Anosmia and dysgeusia have been reported as particular symptoms.4,5  Notably, these sensory symptoms seem to have a peculiar trend, such as usually precede the onset of respiratory symp- toms. So, they have been defined as "sentinel" symptoms. We presented a series of COVID-19 patients. Anos- mia and dysgeusia frequently preceded respiratory complaints. Anosmia and dysgeusia seem to be short-lived and self-resolving in COVID-19, thus a neurotoxic effect swiftly disappearing and/or cytopathic damage could be hypothesized similarly to other viral infections.


Assuntos
Olfato , Paladar , Betacoronavirus , China , Infecções por Coronavirus , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Otorrinolaringologistas , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral
2.
Compr Psychiatry ; 100: 152184, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32422426

RESUMO

Anosmia and hypogeusia, the inability or decreased ability to smell and taste, have been reported as common complaints in SARS-CoV-2 patients who were still in an asymptomatic phase. These impairments affect the ability to sense odors in foods and the environment, obviously affecting quality of life, related to social interactions and general well-being. The British Association of Otorhinolaryngology (ENT-UK) considers loss of sense of smell in their list of COVID-19's markers of infection. Here we present two cases in which early manifestations of anosmia and hypogeusia were experienced with psycho-sensorial and atmospheric phenomena. Psychiatrists, neurologists and physicians in general should be aware of this symptom presentation in order to avoid mistreatment, given that persistent olfactory dysfunction might increase the risks of nutritional deficit and lead to development of adjustment disorders. All clinicians should be aware that the presentation of SARS-CoV-2's symptoms goes far beyond respiratory and sensorial dimensions and involves psychosensorial and neurological dimensions; these clinical observations could shed light on the neurobiological substrates involved in COVID-19 disease.


Assuntos
Ageusia/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Transtornos do Olfato/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Paladar/virologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neurobiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Qualidade de Vida , Olfato
3.
Am J Dent ; 33(3): 135-137, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470238

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To review the literature on the presence of two clinical manifestations in patients presenting COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) infection: loss of taste (ageusia) and loss of smell (anosmia). METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE were searched and studies were selected starting from November, 2019 until April 2020; also, the references of the selected articles were evaluated for methodological quality. RESULTS: Of the 19 studies analyzed, five were included to evaluate the presence of ageusia and/or anosmia as symptoms in patients who were tested and resulted positive for the SARS-CoV-2 virus. In a total of 10,818 patients, 8,823 presented ageusia (81.6%; range 5.6%-88%) and 8,088 presented anosmia (74.8%; range 5.1-85.6%). Only one study recorded both symptoms with a percentage of 18.6%. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This systematic review demonstrated significant presence of ageusia and anosmia in the patients with COVID-19 infection. These symptoms may be considered as the first manifestation of the infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Transtornos do Olfato , Pneumonia Viral , Olfato , Distúrbios do Paladar , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Transtornos do Olfato/virologia , Pandemias , Paladar , Distúrbios do Paladar/virologia
4.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(18): e174, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383370

RESUMO

Initially, acute loss of smell (anosmia) and taste (ageusia) was not considered important symptoms for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To determine the prevalence of these symptoms and to evaluate their diagnostic significance, we (approximately 150 physicians of the Daegu Medical Association) prospectively collected data of cases of anosmia and ageusia from March 8, 2020, via telephone interview among 3,191 patients in Daegu, Korea. Acute anosmia or ageusia was observed in 15.3% (488/3,191) patients in the early stage of COVID-19 and in 15.7% (367/2,342) patients with asymptomatic-to-mild disease severity. Their prevalence was significantly more common among females and younger individuals (P = 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively). Most patients with anosmia or ageusia recovered within 3 weeks. The median time to recovery was 7 days for both symptoms. Anosmia and ageusia seem to be part of important symptoms and clues for the diagnosis of COVID-19, particularly in the early stage of the disease.


Assuntos
Ageusia/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Coronavirus , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Ageusia/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Sexo , Olfato , Paladar
5.
J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 49(1): 26, 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A rapidly evolving evidence suggests that smell and taste disturbance are common symptoms in COVID-19 infection. As yet there are no reports on duration and recovery rates. We set out to characterise patients reporting new onset smell and taste disturbance during the COVID-19 pandemic and report on early recovery rates. METHODS: Online Survey of patients reporting self-diagnosed new onset smell and taste disturbance during the COVID-19 pandemic, with 1 week follow-up. RESULTS: Three hundred eighty-two patents completed bot an initial and follow-up survey. 86.4% reported complete anosmia and a further 11.5% a very severe loss of smell at the time of completing the first survey. At follow-up 1 week later, there is already significant improvement in self-rating of severity of olfactory loss. 80.1% report lower severity scores at follow-up, 17.6% are unchanged and 1.9% are worse. 11.5% already report compete resolution at follow up, while 17.3% report persistent complete loss of smell, with reported duration being 1 to over 4 weeks. This is reflected in the overall cumulative improvement rate of 79% patients overall in the interval between surveys. CONCLUSIONS: A review of the growing evidence base supports the likelihood that out cohort have suffered olfactory loss as part of COVID-19 infection. While early recovery rates are encouraging, long term rates will need to be further investigated and there may be an increase in patients with persistent post-viral loss as a result of the pandemic. We further call for loss of sense of smell to be formerly recognised as a marker of COVID-19 infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Olfato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr ; 88(3): 184-193, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232807

RESUMO

Past research has revealed a variety of olfactory deficits associated with psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. These deficits are evident in psychophysical olfactory testing as well as neurophysiological and neuroanatomical examinations. The specific type of olfactory dysfunction appears disorder specific. For example, with regard to affective disorders, the functional and anatomical overlap between olfactory and emotion-specific brain areas has been suggested as a major underlying factor for olfactory dysfunction. Based on converging evidence of changes in olfactory perception related to Major Depression, Schizophrenia, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease, olfactory testing has been discussed as an important additional diagnostic marker. Hence, valid methods for objective and reliable olfactory testing as well as guidelines for the interpretation of the respective diagnostic findings are required. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of reported olfactory deficits in psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. In addition, a selection of olfactory tests, available in German-speaking countries, with regard to the respective disorder-related olfactory deficit in question are presented and classified. Original data regarding an empirical validation of the Düsseldorf Odour Discrimination Test in a clinical population are presented.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/complicações , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/complicações , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Olfato
7.
Science ; 368(6487)2020 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273438

RESUMO

Olfactory responses to single odors have been well characterized but in reality we are continually presented with complex mixtures of odors. We performed high-throughput analysis of single-cell responses to odor blends using Swept Confocally Aligned Planar Excitation (SCAPE) microscopy of intact mouse olfactory epithelium, imaging ~10,000 olfactory sensory neurons in parallel. In large numbers of responding cells, mixtures of odors did not elicit a simple sum of the responses to individual components of the blend. Instead, many neurons exhibited either antagonism or enhancement of their response in the presence of another odor. All eight odors tested acted as both agonists and antagonists at different receptors. We propose that this peripheral modulation of responses increases the capacity of the olfactory system to distinguish complex odor mixtures.


Assuntos
Odorantes/análise , Neurônios Receptores Olfatórios/fisiologia , Olfato/fisiologia , Acetofenonas/análise , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/análise , Animais , Compostos de Benzil/análise , Camundongos , Camundongos Mutantes , Microscopia Confocal , Mucosa Olfatória/inervação , Análise de Célula Única
8.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252221

RESUMO

While the medical community supports the growth of citrus consumption as part of a healthy diet, there is limited knowledge about consumer preferences for these fruits. The current study analyzed the purchasing patterns and drivers of fresh citrus fruits from a convenience sample of 346 Italian food shoppers. Results revealed that clementines were the citrus fruit purchased most, followed by oranges and tangerines. Sweetness and smell were important product attributes for respondents. Different drivers affect the purchasing frequencies of various citrus fruits. Taste motivation, with a specific preference for acidity, impacts orange purchasing. Similarly, clementines are purchased primarily for taste motivation, however, the core sensory attribute for respondents in this case was sweetness. Meanwhile, for tangerines, the taste motivation is less important than the energy motivation, and the size together with the color are the core purchasing drivers. These outcomes provide food scientists, agronomists and market practitioners with new insights into Italian consumers' preferences for citrus fruits, thus contributing to a potential expansion of this market.


Assuntos
Citrus , Comércio , Comportamento do Consumidor , Preferências Alimentares , Percepção Gustatória , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Frutas , Humanos , Itália , Olfato , Paladar
10.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0229302, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241020

RESUMO

Multimodal signaling is nearly ubiquitous across animal taxa. While much research has focused on male signal production contributing to female mate-choice or preferences, females often give their own multimodal signals during intersexual communication events. Multimodal signal components are often classified based on whether they contain redundant information (e.g., the backup hypothesis) or non-redundant information (e.g., the multiple messages hypothesis) from the perspective of the receiver. We investigated the role of two different female vocalizations produced by the female house mouse (Mus musculus): the broadband, relatively low-frequency squeaks (broadband vocalizations or BBVs,), and the higher-frequency ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs). These female vocalizations may convey differently valenced information to the male receivers. We paired these vocalizations with and without female urine to examine the influence of combining information across multiple modalities. We found evidence that female urine and vocalizations act as non-redundant multimodal cues as males responded with different behaviors and vocalization rates depending on the female signal presented. Additionally, male mice responded with greater courtship effort to the multimodal combination of female USVs paired with female urine than any other signal combination. These results suggest that the olfactory information contained in female urine provides the context by which males can then evaluate potentially ambiguous female vocalizations.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Corte/psicologia , Percepção Olfatória/fisiologia , Olfato/fisiologia , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Copulação/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Preferência de Acasalamento Animal/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos CBA , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Micção/fisiologia
12.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252288

RESUMO

Smell and taste decline with aging, and markedly deteriorate when nutritional deficiencies occur. This study aims to examine the associations between Vitamin D (VD) deficiency and smell and taste impairments among adults. This paper details a cross-sectional study utilizing data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2013-2014.). Smell impairment was assessed by the Pocket Smell Test and defined as failing to correctly identify six or more of the eight odors. Taste impairment was defined as failing to correctly identify quinine or sodium chloride. VD was measured as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin. Multivariable weighted logistic regressions were utilized. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were presented. Overall, 2216 (smell sample) and 2636 (taste sample) participants were included, aged between 40 and 80 years old. Of those, 18.3% had taste impairment, 12.2% had smell impairment, and 20% had VD deficiency (<20 ng/mL). Compared to participants with sufficient VD (>30 ng/mL), those with VD deficiency were more likely by 39% to report a higher prevalence of smell impairment (OR = 1.39, 95%CI: 1.02-1.89); and only participants aged 70-80 years with VD inadequacy (20-30 ng/mL) were more likely by 96% to report a higher prevalence of taste impairment (OR = 1.96, 95%CI: 1.35-1.85). VD may have a significant role in age-related smell impairment in adults aged 40 years or older, and in age-related taste impairment in the elderly aged 70-80 years.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Olfato/fisiologia , Paladar/fisiologia
13.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0221981, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240170

RESUMO

For rodents, olfaction is essential for locating food, recognizing mates and competitors, avoiding predators, and navigating their environment. It is thought that rodents may have expanded olfactory receptor repertoires in order to specialize in olfactory behavior. Despite being the largest clade of mammals and depending on olfaction relatively little work has documented olfactory repertoires outside of conventional laboratory species. Here we report the olfactory receptor repertoire of the African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys ansorgei), a Muroid rodent distantly related to mice and rats. The African giant pouched rat is notable for its large cortex and olfactory bulbs relative to its body size compared to other sympatric rodents, which suggests anatomical elaboration of olfactory capabilities. We hypothesized that in addition to anatomical elaboration for olfaction, these pouched rats might also have an expanded olfactory receptor repertoire to enable their olfactory behavior. We examined the composition of the olfactory receptor repertoire to better understand how their sensory capabilities have evolved. We identified 1145 intact olfactory genes, and 260 additional pseudogenes within 301 subfamilies from the African giant pouched rat genome. This repertoire is similar to mice and rats in terms of size, pseudogene percentage and number of subfamilies. Analyses of olfactory receptor gene trees revealed that the pouched rat has 6 expansions in different subfamilies compared to mice, rats and squirrels. We identified 81 orthologous genes conserved among 4 rodent species and an additional 147 conserved genes within the Muroid rodents. The orthologous genes shared within Muroidea suggests that there may be a conserved Muroid-specific olfactory receptor repertoire. We also note that the description of this repertoire can serve as a complement to other studies of rodent olfaction, as the pouched rat is an outgroup within Muroidea. Thus, our data suggest that African giant pouched rats are capable of both natural and trained olfactory behaviors with a typical Muriod olfactory receptor repertoire.


Assuntos
Neurônios Receptores Olfatórios/metabolismo , Filogenia , Receptores Odorantes/genética , Olfato/genética , Animais , Genoma/genética , Camundongos , Bulbo Olfatório/metabolismo , Pseudogenes/genética , Ratos , Receptores Odorantes/classificação
14.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(3): e1007718, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226007

RESUMO

Mechanisms that control movements range from navigational mechanisms, in which the animal employs directional cues to reach a specific destination, to search movements during which there are little or no environmental cues. Even though most real-world movements result from an interplay between these mechanisms, an experimental system and theoretical framework for the study of interplay of these mechanisms is not available. Here, we rectify this deficit. We create a new method to stimulate the olfactory system in Drosophila or fruit flies. As flies explore a circular arena, their olfactory receptor neuron (ORNs) are optogenetically activated within a central region making this region attractive to the flies without emitting any clear directional signals outside this central region. In the absence of ORN activation, the fly's locomotion can be described by a random walk model where a fly's movement is described by its speed and turn-rate (or kinematics). Upon optogenetic stimulation, the fly's behavior changes dramatically in two respects. First, there are large kinematic changes. Second, there are more turns at the border between light-zone and no-light-zone and these turns have an inward bias. Surprisingly, there is no increase in turn-rate, rather a large decrease in speed that makes it appear that the flies are turning at the border. Similarly, the inward bias of the turns is a result of the increase in turn angle. These two mechanisms entirely account for the change in a fly's locomotion. No complex mechanisms such as path-integration or a careful evaluation of gradients are necessary.


Assuntos
Drosophila , Locomoção/genética , Odorantes , Neurônios Receptores Olfatórios/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Biologia Computacional , Drosophila/genética , Drosophila/fisiologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Optogenética , Olfato/genética , Olfato/fisiologia
15.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(9): 1200-1203, 2020 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283006

RESUMO

The novel SARS-CoV-2 virus has very high infectivity, which allows it to spread rapidly around the world. Attempts at slowing the pandemic at this stage depend on the number and quality of diagnostic tests performed. We propose that the olfactory epithelium from the nasal cavity may be a more appropriate tissue for detection of SARS-CoV-2 virus at the earliest stages, prior to onset of symptoms or even in asymptomatic people, as compared to commonly used sputum or nasopharyngeal swabs. Here we emphasize that the nasal cavity olfactory epithelium is the likely site of enhanced binding of SARS-CoV-2. Multiple non-neuronal cell types present in the olfactory epithelium express two host receptors, ACE2 and TMPRSS2 proteases, that facilitate SARS-CoV-2 binding, replication, and accumulation. This may be the underlying mechanism for the recently reported cases of smell dysfunction in patients with COVID-19. Moreover, the possibility of subsequent brain infection should be considered which begins in olfactory neurons. In addition, we discuss the possibility that olfactory receptor neurons may initiate rapid immune responses at early stages of the disease. We emphasize the need to undertake research focused on additional aspects of SARS-CoV-2 actions in the nervous system, especially in the olfactory pathway.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Encéfalo/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Precoce , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Mucosa Olfatória/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Olfato , Animais , Betacoronavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Encéfalo/imunologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Camundongos , Mucosa Olfatória/citologia , Mucosa Olfatória/imunologia , Mucosa Olfatória/metabolismo , Neurônios Receptores Olfatórios/imunologia , Neurônios Receptores Olfatórios/metabolismo , Neurônios Receptores Olfatórios/virologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/virologia , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Replicação Viral
16.
Food Chem ; 318: 126520, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155563

RESUMO

Gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS) and dynamic quantitative descriptive analysis (D-QDA) were combined to explore the aroma release and perception from the retronasal cavity during bread consumption. D-QDA results elucidated that the sweet, creamy, and roasty notes were the most active attributes during oral processing. The final stage of oral processing had the most complicated changing pattern, followed by the intermediate and initial stages. Thirteen aroma compounds were detected in the retronasal cavity, of which eight had odor activity values (OAVs) greater than 1. The total OAV changing pattern was consistent with the D-QDA results. Addition experiments further confirmed that acetoin, 2,3-butanedione, and 3-(methylthio)propanal were key aroma compounds contributing to retronasal olfaction. 2,3-Butanedione and 3-(methylthio)propanal were both identified as key odorants in the mouth cavity and retronasal cavity during oral processing, but they had 30% loss during the breath delivery from the mouth cavity to the retronasal cavity.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Odorantes/análise , Acetoína/análise , Adulto , Diacetil/análise , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Cavidade Nasal , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Olfato , Paladar , Triticum , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
17.
Anim Cogn ; 23(4): 629-642, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152923

RESUMO

Oceans are extremely dynamic environments, which poses challenges for top-predators such as seabirds to find food resources. Yet, seabirds evolved sensorial abilities (olfactory senses) along with complex behaviours (social information transfer through local enhancement) to improve foraging efficiency. Using the Cory's shearwater (Calonectris borealis) as a model species, we developed an individual-based model to explore the complementary role of different searching mechanisms (olfactory foraging and local enhancement) for the optimal foraging behaviour of pelagic seabirds during 1-day foraging trips around breeding colonies. Model outputs were compared with observed patterns of Cory's shearwaters distribution during local foraging trips. Also, the foraging efficiency of virtual individuals was analysed considering hypothetical scenarios of foraging conditions and densities of foraging individuals around breeding colonies. The results support the use of a combination of searching strategies by Cory's shearwaters, which produced representative patterns of space use from tracked individuals, including spatial foraging segregation of neighbouring sub-colonies. Furthermore, while the mechanisms underpinning local enhancement played a key role in mitigating sub-optimal foraging conditions, the use of olfactory senses conferred great adaptive foraging advantages over a wide range of environmental conditions. Our results also indicate a synergistic effect between the two strategies, which suggests that a multimodal foraging strategy is useful to forage in extremely dynamic environments. The developed model provides a basis for further investigation regarding the role of foraging mechanisms in the population dynamics of colonial animals, including the adaptive foraging behaviour of marine top predators to dynamic environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Olfato , Animais , Aves , Comportamento Alimentar , Oceanos e Mares
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1246, 2020 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144256

RESUMO

The anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) is the initial recipient of odour information from the olfactory bulb, and the target of dense innervation conveying spatiotemporal cues from the hippocampus. We hypothesized that the AON detects the coincidence of these inputs, generating patterns of activity reflective of episodic odour engrams. Using activity-dependent tagging combined with neural manipulation techniques, we reveal that contextually-relevant odour engrams are stored within the AON and that their activity is necessary and sufficient for the behavioural expression of odour memory. Our findings offer a new model for studying the mechanisms underlying memory representations.


Assuntos
Memória Episódica , Modelos Neurológicos , Bulbo Olfatório/fisiologia , Córtex Olfatório/fisiologia , Condutos Olfatórios/fisiologia , Animais , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Camundongos , Odorantes , Optogenética , Olfato/fisiologia
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(9): 2718-2727, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013424

RESUMO

Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) coupled with GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and aroma recombination-omission experiments led to the identification of the key aroma compounds responsible for the different flavors of raw and roasted peas. The results demonstrated that a total of 30 odorants were identified in raw and roasted peas. Nine and twenty compounds were identified as important odorants in raw and roasted peas with odor activity values (OAVs) greater than 1, respectively. Aroma recombination-omission experiments demonstrated that six aroma compounds significantly contributed to the characteristic aroma of peas (p < 0.05). Among these, 3-methylbutanoic acid (OAV = 382) and hexanal (OAV = 280) significantly contributed to the aroma of peas. Fifteen aroma compounds significantly contributed to the characteristic aroma of roasted peas (p < 0.05). Among these, pyrazines and pyranones showed important contribution to the aroma of roasted peas. Roasting increased the variety of key aroma compounds significantly and contributed a nutty flavor to peas. The comprehensive aroma characterization of peas and determination of the effect of roasting on key aroma compound alteration will be helpful for new pea products' flavor quality control.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Adulto , Culinária , Feminino , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Masculino , Odorantes/análise , Olfatometria , Ervilhas/química , Olfato , Adulto Jovem
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