Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 8.733
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678551

RESUMO

The development of the concept of clinical signs of «general¼ predisposition to mental diseases that is defined by the notion of psychopathy is analyzed. The foundations of this concept in Russian psychiatry were laid by V.H. Kandinskiy and V.M. Behterev, hereinafter they were developed by S.S. Korsakov, P.I. Kovalevskiy and V.P. Serbskiy. S.A. Sukhanov and P.B. Gannushkin focused on the separate types of abnormal character that were connected with different neurosis and «degenerative¼ psychosis. According to S.A. Sukhanov's concept, the anxious-doubting (psychasthenic) character with the amplification of its symptoms transits to psychasthenia, the patological reasoning character (close to paranoic) to delusional disorders (or paranoic psychosis), hysterical character to hysterical neurosis, «morally defective¼ character to «moral madness¼. S.A. Sukhanov suggested the systematics of abnormal characters not by one prominent trait but by the presence of several signs from more broad set of traits that generally are typical for the given abnormal character.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria , Transtornos Psicóticos , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Caráter , Humanos , Federação Russa
2.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235253, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603338

RESUMO

Killing people is universally considered reprehensible and evokes in observers a need to punish perpetrators. Here, we explored how observers' personality is associated with their cognitive, emotional, and punishing reactions towards perpetrators using data from 1,004 participants who responded to a set of fifteen third-party perspective moral dilemmas. Among those, four scenarios (architect, life boat, footbridge, smother for dollars) describing deliberate killings were compared to investigate the role of the content features "motive for killing" (selfish vs. utilitarian) and "evitability of victims' death". Participants' moral appropriateness ratings, emotions towards perpetrators, and assigned punishments revealed complex scenario-personality interactions. Trait psychopathy was associated with harsher punishments in all scenarios but also with less concern about killing in general, an increased moral appreciation of utilitarian motives for killing, and a reduced concern about the killing of avoidable victims. Need for cognition was associated with considering a utilitarian motive for killing as a mitigating factor, while intuitive/authority-obedient thinking was linked to a strong focus on avoidability of harm as an aggravating factor when assigning punishments. Other-oriented empathy, trait anxiety, and justice sensitivity did not account for differences in third-party punishments. Our explorative findings highlight the importance of inter-individual differences for moral decision making and sense of justice.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Homicídio/psicologia , Julgamento , Adulto , Emoções , Empatia , Teoria Ética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Princípios Morais , Motivação , Punição/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(2-3): 117-131, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early puberty is associated with higher than average risk of antisocial behaviour, both in girls and boys. Most studies of such association, however, have focused on psychosocial mediating and moderating factors. Few refer to coterminous hormonal measures. AIM: The aim of this review is to consider the role of hormonal markers as potential mediating or moderating factors between puberty timing and antisocial behaviour. METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted searching Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, Psycinfo, Cochrane and Google Scholar. RESULTS: Just eight studies were found to fit criteria, all cross-sectional. Measurements were too heterogeneous to allow meta-analysis. The most consistent associations found were between adrenal hormones-both androgens and cortisol-which were associated with early adrenarche and antisocial behaviours in girls and later adrenarche and antisocial behaviour in boys. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from our review suggest that longitudinal studies to test bidirectional hormone-behaviour associations with early or late puberty would be worthwhile. In view of the interactive processes between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes, integrated consideration of the hormonal end products is recommended.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Adrenarca/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/etiologia , Hormônios/sangue , Menarca/fisiologia , Puberdade/fisiologia , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Adrenarca/fisiologia , Androgênios , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/metabolismo , Criança , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Gonadotropinas Hipofisárias/sangue , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
5.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234574, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584836

RESUMO

Research suggests that people behave more cooperatively towards those who smile and less cooperatively towards those with personality pathology. Here, we integrated these two lines of research to model the combined effects of smiles and personality pathology on trust. In two experiments, participants read vignettes portraying a person with either borderline personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder, or no personality pathology. These portrayals were paired with a brief video clip that showed a person with either a neutral expression or a smile. Participants then played a Trust game with the "person" presented using each vignette and video clip combination. In Experiment 1, rates of trust were lower in response to the borderline and antisocial personality disorder vignettes compared with the control vignette. Interestingly, the effect of smiles was dependent upon personality. Although participants were more trusting of smiling confederates portrayed as having borderline personality disorder or no pathology, they were less trusting of confederates portrayed as having antisocial personality disorder if they smiled. In Experiment 2, run with a second set of personality vignettes, rates of trust were lower in response to both personality disorder vignettes and higher in response to smiles with no significant interaction. Together, these results suggest that information regarding both the current emotional state as well as the personality traits of a partner are important for creating trust.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/patologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/patologia , Sorriso/psicologia , Confiança/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Gravação em Vídeo
6.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(2-3): 95-104, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indeterminate sentences for Public Protection (IPPs) were introduced in England and Wales under the Criminal Justice Act 2003 for offenders not eligible for a life sentence but considered to pose a serious risk to the public. In 2012, new IPPs became illegal, in part after the European Court of Human Rights ruled in three cases that failure to make appropriate provision for rehabilitation services while the men were in prison breached their rights under Article 5 of the Convention and thus from arbitrary detention. People already sentenced under this provision, however, remained in the system. Humberside Indeterminate Public Protection Project (HIPPP) supports intensive case management of male IPP offenders still serving this sentence. AIMS: To examine variables associated with pathway outcome among men under IPPs in one English region-Humberside. Our primary hypothesis was that programme engagement in prison would be significantly associated with release. METHODS: The HM Prison and Probation Services National Delius (nDelius) and Offender Assessment System (OASys) were used to identify all men from the region subject to IPPs and beyond tariff (the fixed, punishment part of their sentence) and to retrieve data on the sentence, pathway status and specific risk factors. We used content analysis to identify variables of interest, and logistic regression models to explore associations of variables with different types of pathway outcome. RESULTS: A total of 82 men were identified, 34 of whom had ever been recorded as having been given a diagnosis of anti-social personality disorder (ASPD). Men experiencing relationship difficulties with professionals were significantly more likely to be denied release [Odds Ratio (OR) = 7.75, Confidence Interval (CI) 2.08-28.57], have a deferred parole (OR = 7.81, CI 1.59-38.46) or be awaiting parole (OR = 4.46, CI 1.09-18.18) compared with men released to the community or serving in an open prison. Completion of programmes was not associated with pathway outcome. A modest association between diagnosis of anti-social personality disorder and pathway outcome association was confounded by other variables. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: While programme completion did not have the expected association with release, relational difficulties with professionals proved significant barriers to release. This suggests that ambitions for the Offender Personality Disorder (OPD) pathway in supporting professionals to develop collaborative relationships with offenders are well founded. Part of this approach lies in sophisticated, psychologically informed case formulations which may help to discriminate between risk factors and personality disorder traits which have social rather than risk implications.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Direito Penal , Criminosos , Direitos Humanos , Prisioneiros , Adulto , Inglaterra , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos da Personalidade , Prisões , Estudos Retrospectivos , País de Gales
7.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(5): 420-430, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multisystemic therapy is a manualised treatment programme for young people aged 11-17 years who exhibit antisocial behaviour. To our knowledge, the Systemic Therapy for At Risk Teens (START) trial is the first large-scale randomised controlled trial of multisystemic therapy in the UK. Previous findings reported to 18 months after baseline (START-I study) did not indicate superiority of multisystemic therapy compared with management as usual. Here, we report outcomes of the trial to 60 months (START-II study). METHODS: In this pragmatic, randomised, controlled, superiority trial, young people (aged 11-17 years) with moderate-to-severe antisocial behaviour were recruited from social services, youth offending teams, schools, child and adolescent mental health services, and voluntary services across England, UK. Participants were eligible if they had at least three severity criteria indicating past difficulties across several settings and one of five general inclusion criteria for antisocial behaviour. Eligible families were randomly assigned (1:1), using stochastic minimisation and stratifying for treatment centre, sex, age at enrolment, and age at onset of antisocial behaviour, to management as usual or 3-5 months of multisystemic therapy followed by management as usual. Research assistants and investigators were masked to treatment allocation; the participants could not be masked. For this extension study, the primary outcome was the proportion of participants with offences with convictions in each group at 60 months after randomisation. This study is registered with ISRCTN, ISRCTN77132214, and is closed to accrual. FINDINGS: Between Feb 4, 2010, and Sept 1, 2012, 1076 young people and families were assessed for eligibility and 684 were randomly assigned to management as usual (n=342) or multisystemic therapy (n=342). By 60 months' of follow-up, 188 (55%) of 342 people in the multisystemic therapy group had at least one offence with a criminal conviction, compared with 180 (53%) of 341 in the management-as-usual group (odds ratio 1·13, 95% CI 0·82-1·56; p=0·44). INTERPRETATION: The results of the 5-year follow-up show no evidence of longer-term superiority for multisystemic therapy compared with management as usual. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research Health Services and Delivery Research programme.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Comunicação , Transtorno da Conduta/reabilitação , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Terapia Familiar/métodos , Delinquência Juvenil/reabilitação , Poder Familiar , Apoio Social , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Terapia de Controle da Ira , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Criança , Inglaterra , Feminino , Visita Domiciliar , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Rede Social , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
J R Soc Med ; 113(3): 110-118, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160121

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Research suggests that antisocial lifestyles constitute significant health risks. However, there are marked individual differences in the stability of antisocial behaviour. These different offending pathways may bear differential risks for adult health. DESIGN: Injury and illness data were collected prospectively in the longitudinal Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development. SETTING: Working-class inner-city area of South London. PARTICIPANTS: Participants included the 411 men from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, with interview data collected at ages 18, 32 and 48 years for each individual. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Organic illness, hospitalisation and injuries. RESULTS: By age 48, adjusted odds ratios showed that the incidence of organic illness was higher among Life-Course-Persistent, Late-Onset offenders and offenders in general. Based on adjusted odds ratios at age 32, the incidence of hospitalisations was higher for Late-Onset offenders. Adjusted odds ratios at age 48 also showed that the incidence of hospitalisations was higher for all three offender types and offenders in general. Our results also provide evidence that offenders were more likely to suffer injuries than non-offenders. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study imply that preventing individuals from offending is likely to have substantial benefits for health.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estilo de Vida , Saúde Mental , Admissão do Paciente/tendências , Medição de Risco , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Londres/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Meio Social , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229876, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142531

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Aggression is a clinical symptom of various psychiatric disorders that can be conceptualised as a physical act towards another person with the intent to cause harm. In antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), aggression is a frequent manifestation that differently compromise therapeutic and prognostic goals according to its impulsive or premeditated categorisation. ASPD is characterised by high levels of impulsivity, psychopathic traits, and a high prevalence of co-morbid substance use disorders (SUDs). Aggression in ASPD patients may determine long and recurrent imprisonment thus representing a challenge clinicians and legal experts face. OBJECTIVES: Our aims were to characterise impulsive and premeditated aggression in male ASPD offenders as well as to determine the potential role of SUDs, impulsivity, and psychopathic traits as predictors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study we evaluated a sample of ASPD offenders with a battery of clinical and psychometric, standardised instruments: the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), the European Version of the Addiction Severity Index (EuropASI), the Barratt Impulsivity Scale Version 11 (BIS-11), and the Impulsive/Premeditated Aggression Scale (IPAS). RESULTS: We used a total sample of 134 offenders, all of whom were male. ASPD patients (n = 96) had a 71.9% prevalence of impulsive aggression and a 28.1% prevalence of premeditated aggression. ASPD patients with impulsive aggression had significantly lower scores of total PCL-R (p<0.01) factor 1 and interpersonal facet 1 (p<0.05), compared with ASPD patients with premeditated aggression. ASPD patients with impulsive aggression and ASPD patients with premeditated aggression had comparable BIS-11 mean scores, and exhibited an equal prevalence of SUDs. The interpersonal facet 1of the PCL-R predicted the aggression type (p<0.05) in ASPD patients, and the exponential beta value for facet 1 was 1.42 (CI = 1.03; 1.95). CONCLUSIONS: The aggression type that is associated with ASPD is mainly impulsive in nature. ASPD patients who have higher scores of psychopathic traits have a lower probability of exhibiting impulsive aggression and a higher probability of exhibiting premeditated aggression. Although ASPD patients have high levels of impulsivity and a high frequency of SUDs, these two variables were not predictors of the aggression type.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Comportamento Impulsivo , Psicometria , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
12.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229625, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097954

RESUMO

The Dark Triad of personality is a cluster of three socially aversive personality traits: Machiavellianism, narcissism and psychopathy. These traits are associated with a selfish, aggressive and exploitative interpersonal strategy. The objective of the current study was to establish relationships between the Dark Triad traits (and their dimensions) and momentary affect. Machiavellianism, grandiose narcissism, vulnerable narcissism and the dimensions of the Triarchic model of psychopathy (namely, boldness, meanness and disinhibition) were examined. We used the Day Reconstruction Method, which is based on reconstructing affective states experienced during the previous day. The final sample consisted of 270 university students providing affective ratings of 3047 diary episodes. Analyses using multilevel modelling showed that only boldness had a positive association with positive affective states and affect balance, and a negative association with negative affective states. Grandiose narcissism and its sub-dimensions had no relationship with momentary affect. The other dark traits were related to negative momentary affect and/or inversely related to positive momentary affect and affect balance. As a whole, our results empirically demonstrated distinctiveness of the Dark Triad traits in their relationship to everyday affective states. These findings are not congruent with the notion that people with the Dark Triad traits, who have a dispositional tendency to manipulate and exploit others, are generally cold and invulnerable to negative feelings. The associations between the Dark Triad and momentary affect were discussed in the contexts of evolutionary and positive psychology, in relation to the role and adaptive value of positive and negative emotions experienced by individuals higher in Machiavellianism, narcissism and psychopathy.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Maquiavelismo , Masculino , Narcisismo , Psicometria/métodos , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228384, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023291

RESUMO

In the field of psychopathy, there is an ongoing debate about the core traits that define the disorder, and that therefore must be present to some extent in all psychopaths. The main controversy of this debate concerns criminal behaviour, as some researchers consider it a defining trait, while others disagree. Using a representative sample of 204 Spanish convicted inmates incarcerated at the Pereiro de Aguiar Penitentiary in Ourense, Spain, we tested two competing models, the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), which includes criminal behaviour items, versus the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP), which does not. We used two different PCL-R models, one that includes criminal items and another that does not. PCL-R factors, facets, and testlets from both models and CAPP dimensions were correlated and compared. Two different PCL-R cut-off scores, 25 or more and 30 or more, were used for the analysis. Overall, a strong correlation was found between PCL-R and CAPP scores in the whole sample, but as scores increased and inmates became more psychopathic, the correlations weakened. All these data indicate that psychopathy, understood to mean having high scores on the PCL-R and CAPP, is a multidimensional entity, and inmates can develop the disorder and then receive the diagnosis through different dimensions. The CAPP domains showed better correlations when compared with the PCL-R factors from both models, showing that an instrument for the assessment of psychopathy without a criminal dimension is valuable for clinical assessment and research purposes.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Determinação da Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Psicometria/métodos , Psicopatologia/métodos , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Lista de Checagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Espanha
16.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(3): 245-253, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies with behavioural and neuropsychological tests have supported the developmental taxonomy theory of antisocial behaviour, which specifies abnormal brain development as a fundamental aspect of life-course-persistent antisocial behaviour, but no study has characterised features of brain structure associated with life-course-persistent versus adolescence-limited trajectories, as defined by prospective data. We aimed to determine whether life-course-persistent antisocial behaviour is associated with neurocognitive abnormalities by testing the hypothesis that it is also associated with brain structure abnormalities. METHODS: We used structural MRI data collected at 45 years of age from participants in the Dunedin Study, a population-representative longitudinal birth cohort of 1037 individuals born between April 1, 1972, and March 31, 1973, in Dunedin, New Zealand, who were resident in the province and who participated in the first assessment at 3 years of age. Participants underwent MRI, and mean global cortical surface area and cortical thickness were extracted for each participant. Participants had been previously subtyped as exhibiting life-course-persistent, adolescence-limited, or no history of persistent antisocial behaviour (ie, a low trajectory group) based on informant-reported and self-reported conduct problems from the ages of 7 years to 26 years. Study personnel who processed the MRI images were masked to antisocial group membership. We used linear estimated ordinary least squares regressions to compare each antisocial trajectory group (life-course persistent and adolescence limited) with the low trajectory group to examine whether antisocial behaviour was related to abnormalities in mean global surface area and mean cortical thickness. Next, we used parcel-wise linear regressions to identify antisocial trajectory group differences in surface area and cortical thickness. All results were controlled for sex and false discovery rate corrected. FINDINGS: Data from 672 participants were analysed, and 80 (12%) were classified as having life-course-persistent antisocial behaviour, 151 (23%) as having adolescence-limited antisocial behaviour, and 441 (66%) as having low antisocial behaviour. Individuals on the life-course-persistent trajectory had a smaller mean surface area (standardised ß=-0·18 [95% CI -0·24 to -0·11]; p<0·0001) and lower mean cortical thickness (standardised ß=-0·10 [95% CI -0·19 to -0·02]; p=0·020) than did those in the low group. Compared with the low group, the life-course-persistent group had reduced surface area in 282 of 360 anatomically defined parcels and thinner cortex in 11 of 360 parcels encompassing circumscribed frontal and temporal regions associated with executive function, affect regulation, and motivation. Widespread differences in brain surface morphometry were not observed for the adolescence-limited group compared with either non-antisocial behaviour or life-course-persistent groups. INTERPRETATION: These analyses provide initial evidence that differences in brain surface morphometry are associated with life-course-persistent, but not adolescence-limited, antisocial behaviour. As such, the analyses are consistent with the developmental taxonomy theory of antisocial behaviour and highlight the importance of using prospective longitudinal data to define different patterns of antisocial behaviour development. FUNDING: US National Institute on Aging, Health Research Council of New Zealand, New Zealand Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, UK Medical Research Council, Avielle Foundation, and Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Córtex Cerebral , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Pré-Escolar , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Tamanho do Órgão , Psicopatologia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940764

RESUMO

Physical education (PE), by its own characteristics, is a subject where social communication is especially promoted. However, it is necessary to have tools that evaluate the social behaviour of students during PE classes. For this reason, we propose to validate and adapt the Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior in Sport Scale to the Spanish context of PE classes. The study involved 1081 students aged 12 to 18 (M = 14.83; SD = 1.27). The psychometric properties of the Prosocial Behavior Scale were analyzed through several statistical analyses. The results of the confirmatory factorial analysis and the exploratory factorial analysis supported the internal structure of the questionnaire. In addition, the scale was invariant to gender. Cronbach's alpha values were higher than 0.70 in the factors and sub-factors, finally showing adequate levels of temporal stability. Taking into account the results achieved in the present study, PE teachers have an effective tool to assess the social and antisocial behaviour of their students' students during PE classes.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Educação Física e Treinamento/normas , Esportes/normas , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Logro , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Comportamento Social , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Psychol Assess ; 32(3): e1-e14, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944794

RESUMO

The Triarchic Measure of Psychopathy (TriPM) was developed to assess manifest expressions of biobehavioural liabilities relevant to psychopathy and other forms of mental illness. Psychometric findings have been examined for a number of international translations of the TriPM, but further work is needed to evaluate its cross-cultural applicability and its properties in clinical versus nonclinical samples. The present study sought to evaluate the reliability and criterion-related validity and characterize the internal factor structure of the European Portuguese version of the TriPM in a large community sample (N = 1,833), and examine its ability to differentiate between community and prisoner (N = 240) samples. Reliability and criterion-related validity analysis supported the TriPM as an effective measure of psychopathic traits. Internal structure was characterized using exploratory structural equation modeling to specify bifactor models for the TriPM's three subscales and for the inventory as a whole; the model for each subscale included a general factor and a variable number of specific factors as determined by parallel analysis. These modeling analyses demonstrated unidimensionality for each TriPM subscale, and provided support for the triarchic structure of the TriPM as a whole. Additionally, Receiver Operating Characteristics analysis showed that the disinhibition score, as assessed by the TriPM, is the most sensitive for differentiating between prisoner and community samples. Our results are in line with other reports regarding the psychometric properties of the TriPM and provide further evidence for the construct validity of the TriPM. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Portugal , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicometria , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Traduções , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227405, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Khat abuse and psychopathy are both strongly related to criminal activity. Higher rates of substance use in people with psychopathy are hypothesized to be related to psychopathic personality traits, which include high sensation seeking, low conscientiousness and neuroticism, impulsivity, and irresponsibility. Little is known, however, about the association between psychopathy and khat abuse among prisoners in Ethiopia. Therefore, we evaluated the presence of these two factors in prisoners in the correctional institution in Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used a cross-sectional study design to collect data from 336 prisoners from June 5 to July 5, 2017. Study participants were selected by a systematic random sampling technique. Khat abuse was assessed with the Drug Abuse Screening Tool and psychopathy with the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version. We also assessed nicotine dependence with the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence; alcohol use disorder, with the alcohol use disorder identification test; adverse traumatic life events, with the Life Events Checklist; and social support, with the Oslo 3-Item Social Support Scale. Data were entered into EpiData version 3.1 and analyzed in bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models. Variables with a P value < 0.05 in the final fitted model were declared to be significantly associated with the outcome variable. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of lifetime khat use was 59.9%, and the prevalence of khat abuse in prisoners with psychopathy was 78.0%. Prisoners with psychopathy had a three times higher odds ratio of abusing khat than those without psychopathy (AOR = 3.00 [1.17-7.67]). Among the confounders, a family history of substance use (AOR = 2.50 [1.45-4.31]), poor support (AOR = 2.28 [1.11-4.67]), alcohol use disorder (AOR = 7.78 [4.16-14.53]), and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts (AOR = 2.26 [1.45-4.31]) were also positively associated with khat abuse. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of khat abuse was higher in prisoners with possible or probable psychopathy.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Catha , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Tabagismo/epidemiologia
20.
J Psychol ; 154(2): 144-158, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652110

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to analyze the direct and indirect relationships between the two phenotypes of narcissism, vulnerable and grandiose, and the tendency to perpetrate psychological abuse, exploring the mediating role of romantic jealousy. Our sample included 473 participants (213 males), aged 18-30 years (M = 22.74; SD = 2.81), involved in a stable romantic relationship. A structural equation modeling was conducted to test our model and a multigroup analysis was performed to test gender differences. Results show that the two forms of narcissism are both linked to psychological perpetrated abuse, but in different ways. Vulnerable narcissism was linked to psychological abuse only indirectly, through the role of romantic jealousy. On the contrary, grandiose narcissism was positively and directly associated with psychological abuse within the romantic relationship. Moreover, the model was invariant across genders. Limitations, strengths, and theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Ciúme , Narcisismo , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA