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1.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621483

RESUMO

A review of the current literature on the possible use of mexidol (ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate) in the treatment of mental (including addictive) disorders is conducted. The possibility of its use to reduce negative psychopathological symptoms, neurocognitive deficit, manifestations of the antipsychotic syndrome (including its extrapyramidal disorders) in antipsychotic treatment of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and insomnia disorders in the complex therapy of borderline mental disorders has been shown. The potential of mexidol in the treatment of addictive pathology, as well as the effects of intoxication caused by alcohol and other psychoactive (including narcotic) substances, deserves special attention.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Antipsicóticos , Humanos , Picolinas
4.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678550

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the efficacy of the immunomodulatory drug γ-D-glutamyl-L-tryptophan in complex therapy of asthenic disorders in remissions in patients with schizophrenia and to analyze clinical and immunological indicators. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-three male patients (aged 41.9±9.46 years) with paroxysmal-progressive schizophrenia in remission (ICD-10 F20.x1; F20.x2), including 24 patients with affective-asthenic and 39 with negative-asthenic types, were studied. The assessment of the patients' condition was carried out using PANSS, SANS, CDSS, MFI-20. The activity of inflammatory markers: leukocyte elastase (LE) and α1-proteinase inhibitor (a1-PI) was determined in blood serum. The clinical and immunological assessment was performed before, after therapy (in 5 days) and at the remote stage (in a month). RESULTS: Augmentation of standard therapy with γ-D-glutamyl-L-tryptophan facilitated positive reduction in the main clinical manifestations of endogenous asthenia of both types in comparison with placebo (p<0.02). The features of the protease inhibitor system revealed in the patients confirm their clinical heterogeneity and also determine varying efficacy of augmentation by the immunotropic medicine. For patients with the low level of protease activity, which is characteristic of endogenous asthenia with prevalence of negative disorders in clinical picture, the augmentation by γ-D-glutamyl-L-tryptophan was more effective: the decrease in severity of asthenic symptoms was followed by the significant increase in the relatively reduced LE activity (p<0.01), which presumably, relates to the insufficiency of functional activity of neutrophils. CONCLUSION: Augmentation of complex therapy of asthenic disorders in schizophrenia by γ-D-glutamyl-L-tryptophan can be recommended.


Assuntos
Astenia , Esquizofrenia , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Elastase de Leucócito , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , alfa 1-Antitripsina
5.
Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr ; 88(6): 387-397, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557467

RESUMO

In Germany, psychoses are still diagnosed too late. The average duration of untreated psychosis is (DUP) one year. Early intervention should, therefore, be given higher priority. The shorter the duration of the DUP, the higher the probability of permanent recovery and a better long-term prognosis. Public education work and specialised early detection centres with low-threshold access can improve care and thus the prospects of patients, mostly young, and already in the early phase of the disease. In addition to anti-psychotic therapy, evidence-based psychotherapeutic procedures, family and peer work, as well as accompanying offers are necessary to support patients individually in being or remaining reintegrated into the labour market ("Individual Placement and Support", IPS). While in some countries, such as Denmark and Australia, the possibility of early intervention is already part of standard care, Germany has not yet gone beyond model projects. Changing this must be one of the main objectives for the coming years. With this review, the authors would therefore like to encourage further thinking and action.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Precoce , Psicoterapia , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/terapia , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Alemanha , Humanos
8.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(2): 183-192, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592457

RESUMO

Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are serious neuropsychiatric disorders. Studies have found a high seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in psychiatric patients. This study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection among schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients. A case-control study was conducted in Assiut University Hospitals on 53 patients with schizophrenia, 57 patients with bipolar disorder, and 50 healthy volunteers. The psychiatric patients were recruited from the psychiatry department and the controls from their relatives. Both groups were subjected to socio-demographic assessment. Neither of them was immunodeficient nor with any other psychiatric disorders. Anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies were detected by indirect-ELISA to find the relationship between T. gondii infection and psychiatric disorders. Data were analysed using Chi-square test. The seropositivity rate, among patients with schizophrenia (50.9%) and patients with bipolar disorders (52.6%), was significantly higher than control group (30%) (P = 0.031 and 0.018 respectively). We found no statistically significant difference among all groups regarding environmental risk factors associated with T. gondii infection, except cat contact which was higher in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients (P = 0.011 and 0.007 respectively). The results of our study confirm that T. gondii infection is significantly correlated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and significantly associated with cat contact rather than beef consumption.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Transtorno Bipolar , Esquizofrenia , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Transtorno Bipolar/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Gatos , Grupos Controle , Egito/epidemiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose/sangue , Toxoplasmose/complicações , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia
9.
In Vivo ; 34(3 Suppl): 1629-1632, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503821

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus. It is contagious in humans and is the cause of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In the current analysis, we searched for SARS-CoV-2 sequences within the human genome. To compare the SARS-CoV-2 genome to the human genome, we used the blast-like alignment tool (BLAT) of the University of California, Santa Cruz Genome Browser. BLAT can align a user sequence of 25 bases or more to the genome. BLAT search results revealed a 117-base pair SARS-CoV-2 sequence in the human genome with 94.6% identity. The sequence was in chromosome 1p within an intronic region of the netrin G1 (NTNG1) gene. The sequence matched a sequence in the SARS-CoV-2 orf1b (open reading frames) gene. The SARS-CoV-2 human sequence lies within non-structural proteins 14 and 15 (NSP14 and NSP15), and is quite close to the viral spike sequence, separated only by NSP16, a 904-base pair sequence. The mechanism for SARS-CoV-2 infection is the binding of the virus spike protein to the membrane-bound form of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and internalization of the complex by the host cell. It is probably no accident that a sequence from the SARS-CoV-2 orf1b gene is found in the human NTNG1 gene, implicated in schizophrenia, and that haloperidol, used to treat schizophrenia, may also be a treatment for COVID-19. We suggest, therefore, that it is important to investigate other haloperidol analogs. Among them are benperidol, bromperidol, bromperidol decanoate, droperidol, seperidol hydrochloride, and trifluperidol. These analogs might be valuable in the treatment of COVID-19 and other coronavirus infections.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Genes Virais , Netrina-1/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Sequência de Bases , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , DNA Complementar/genética , Endorribonucleases/genética , Exorribonucleases/genética , Haloperidol/análogos & derivados , Haloperidol/farmacologia , Haloperidol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Íntrons/genética , Pan troglodytes/genética , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , RNA Viral/genética , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Especificidade da Espécie , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética
10.
Compend Contin Educ Dent ; 41(6): 319-323; quiz 324, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32551713

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a mental illness affecting millions of people worldwide. It is a psychiatric disorder characterized by psychosis leading to hallucinations and delusions. Hallucinations are typically either visual or auditory disturbances, whereas delusions are false beliefs. This disorder is associated with numerous oral findings, many of which may be due to the disease itself or to the treatment used for the condition. This article will discuss the pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia and the effects of drugs that are commonly used to treat it. Additionally, necessary dental treatment modifications for a schizophrenic patient will be discussed.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Delusões , Alucinações , Humanos
11.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(6)2020 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540884

RESUMO

COVID-19 became a global pandemic in early 2020. While well known for its pulmonary manifestations, the virus also has a number of cardiac manifestations as well. Takotsubo syndrome has scarcely been reported in patients with COVID-19, but it is possible that the cytokine storm associated with the infection can trigger Takotsubo syndrome in patients with underlying risk factors for Takotsubo (emotional distress, physical distress, history of psychiatric disorders).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus , Heparina/administração & dosagem , Metilprednisolona/administração & dosagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/sangue , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(25): e237, 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an emerging threat worldwide. It remains unclear how comorbidities affect the risk of infection and severity of COVID-19. METHODS: This is a nationwide retrospective case-control study of 219,961 individuals, aged 18 years or older, whose medical costs for COVID-19 testing were claimed until May 15, 2020. COVID-19 diagnosis and infection severity were identified from reimbursement data using diagnosis codes and on the basis of respiratory support use, respectively. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using multiple logistic regression, after adjusting for age, sex, region, healthcare utilization, and insurance status. RESULTS: The COVID-19 group (7,341 of 219,961) was young and had a high proportion of female. Overall, 13.0% (954 of 7,341) of the cases were severe. The severe COVID-19 group had older patients and a proportion of male ratio than did the non-severe group. Diabetes (odds ratio range [ORR], 1.206-1.254), osteoporosis (ORR, 1.128-1.157), rheumatoid arthritis (ORR, 1.207-1.244), substance use (ORR, 1.321-1.381), and schizophrenia (ORR, 1.614-1.721) showed significant association with COVID-19. In terms of severity, diabetes (OR, 1.247; 95% confidential interval, 1.009-1.543), hypertension (ORR, 1.245-1.317), chronic lower respiratory disease (ORR, 1.216-1.233), chronic renal failure, and end-stage renal disease (ORR, 2.052-2.178) were associated with severe COVID-19. CONCLUSION: We identified several comorbidities associated with COVID-19. Health care workers should be more careful while diagnosing and treating COVID-19 when patients have the abovementioned comorbidities.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Pandemias , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Am J Psychiatry ; 177(6): 491-496, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475142

RESUMO

Six articles in the June 2020 issue of the American Journal of Psychiatry address the overall construct of cognition. These articles have a broad connection to cognition, which is itself a broad concept. From the experimental psychology perspective, cognition is the set of processes associated with attending, learning, knowing, and remembering. From the clinical perspective, a number of neuropsychiatric conditions are defined by the presence of cognitive impairment, with onset ranging from childhood, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and intellectual disability, to later life, such as dementia. Other conditions have notable cognitive impairments even if specific cognitive impairments are not an explicit part of their formal diagnostic criteria, including autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. Thus, the array of articles in this issue are related to each other and also may make important points about the role of cognition in everyday functioning and the connections between cognitive impairments in neuropsychiatric conditions and in the human population in general. Further, these articles address the neurobiological substrates that have an impact on cognition, with important implications in other domains, such as genomics. Finally, through sophisticated research methods, they clarify the results of previous studies that were affected by a variety of methodological challenges.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtorno Autístico/epidemiologia , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Cognição , Demência/epidemiologia , Sono , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
14.
Rech Soins Infirm ; 140(1): 69-76, 2020 03.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524803

RESUMO

Nursing research continues to grow and become self-sustaining. It was in this context that we received funding from the Hospital Program for Nursing and Paramedical Research for our research project on schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that affects 1% of the general population, and is a crippling disease both cognitively and socially. Cognitive remediation and therapeutic education are nursing practices deemed suitable for the psychosocial rehabilitation of schizophrenia patients. We hypothesized that a therapeutic education program placed upstream of cognitive remediation would have beneficial effects. We planned to include eighty patients aged eighteen to sixty, randomized into two groups, one combining cognitive remediation and therapeutic education, the second using just cognitive remediation. Each patient was assessed using a range of neuropsychological scales. Due to difficulties encountered in including and following up with participants, our statistical results could not be used. We therefore turned our focus to the factors that facilitate and hinder the setting up of a nursing research project. We organized these factors into three areas : those related to the nurse ; those related to the care facility and the organization ; and those related to the research. The results were consistent with the literature and show how important it is to encourage nurses to be more involved in a scientific approach.


Assuntos
Pesquisa em Enfermagem/economia , Pesquisa em Enfermagem/organização & administração , Esquizofrenia/enfermagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479008

RESUMO

Glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors have critical roles in several neurological and psychiatric diseases. Dizocilpine (MK-801) is a ligand at phencyclidine recognition sites that is associated with NMDA receptor-coupled cation channels, where it acts as a potent noncompetitive antagonist of central glutamate receptors. In this study, we investigate the effect of clozapine on MK-801-induced neurochemical and neurobehavioral alterations in the prefrontal cortex of mice. Acute administration of NMDA noncompetitive antagonist MK-801 impairs motor coordination, grip strength, and locomotor activity. Clozapine is the only medication that is indicated for treating refractory schizophrenia, due to its superior efficacy among all antipsychotic agents; however, its mechanism is not well understood. To understand its mechanism, we investigated the effects of clozapine on motor coordination, locomotor activity, and grip strength in mice against the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801. MK-801 induced elevations in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity, and c-fos expression. The administration of clozapine inhibited the effects caused by MK-801 (0.2 mg/kg body weight). Motor coordination and grip strength paradigms that had been altered by MK-801 were restored by clozapine. Moreover, clozapine also ameliorated MK-801-induced elevation in AChE and MAO activity. Our immunostaining results demonstrated that clozapine treatment reduced overexpression of the neuronal activity marker c-fos in cortices of the brain. Results of the current study determine that clozapine ameliorated cognition in MK-801-treated mice via cholinergic and neural mechanisms. These findings show that clozapine possesses the potential to augment cognition in diseases such as schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Clozapina/farmacologia , Maleato de Dizocilpina/toxicidade , Aprendizagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas da Serotonina/farmacologia , Animais , Antipsicóticos/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/toxicidade , Masculino , Camundongos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Esquizofrenia/induzido quimicamente
17.
PLoS Genet ; 16(5): e1008185, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392212

RESUMO

Psychiatric disorders are highly heritable and associated with a wide variety of social adversity and physical health problems. Using genetic liability (rather than phenotypic measures of disease) as a proxy for psychiatric disease risk can be a useful alternative for research questions that would traditionally require large cohort studies with long-term follow up. Here we conducted a hypothesis-free phenome-wide association study in about 330,000 participants from the UK Biobank to examine associations of polygenic risk scores (PRS) for five psychiatric disorders (major depression (MDD), bipolar disorder (BP), schizophrenia (SCZ), attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD)) with 23,004 outcomes in UK Biobank, using the open-source PHESANT software package. There was evidence after multiple testing (p<2.55x10-06) for associations of PRSs with 294 outcomes, most of them attributed to associations of PRSMDD (n = 167) and PRSSCZ (n = 157) with mental health factors. Among others, we found strong evidence of association of higher PRSADHD with 1.1 months younger age at first sexual intercourse [95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.25,-0.92] and a history of physical maltreatment; PRSASD with 0.01% lower erythrocyte distribution width [95%CI: -0.013,-0.007]; PRSSCZ with 0.95 lower odds of playing computer games [95%CI:0.95,0.96]; PRSMDD with a 0.12 points higher neuroticism score [95%CI:0.111,0.135] and PRSBP with 1.03 higher odds of having a university degree [95%CI:1.02,1.03]. We were able to show that genetic liabilities for five major psychiatric disorders associate with long-term aspects of adult life, including socio-demographic factors, mental and physical health. This is evident even in individuals from the general population who do not necessarily present with a psychiatric disorder diagnosis.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Feminino , Heterogeneidade Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/genética , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
18.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(1): 172, 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the last decade, a large number of common variants underlying complex diseases have been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWASs). Summary data of the GWASs are freely and publicly available. The summary data is usually obtained through single marker analysis. Gene-based analysis offers a useful alternative and complement to single marker analysis. Results from gene level association tests can be more readily integrated with downstream functional and pathogenic investigations. Most existing gene-based methods fall into two categories: burden tests and quadratic tests. Burden tests are usually powerful when the directions of effects of causal variants are the same. However, they may suffer loss of statistical power when different directions of effects exist at the causal variants. The power of quadratic tests is not affected by the directions of effects but could be less powerful due to issues such as the large number of degree of freedoms. These drawbacks of existing gene based methods motivated us to develop a new powerful method to identify disease associated genes using existing GWAS summary data. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this paper, we propose a new truncated statistic method (TS) by utilizing a truncated method to find the genes that have a true contribution to the genetic association. Extensive simulation studies demonstrate that our proposed test outperforms other comparable tests. We applied TS and other comparable methods to the schizophrenia GWAS data and type 2 diabetes (T2D) GWAS meta-analysis summary data. TS identified more disease associated genes than comparable methods. Many of the significant genes identified by TS may have important mechanisms relevant to the associated traits. TS is implemented in C program TS, which is freely and publicly available online. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed truncated statistic outperforms existing methods. It can be employed to detect novel traits associated genes using GWAS summary data.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
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