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2.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 69(3): 252-271, 2020 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394823

RESUMO

Metacognitive and Mentalization Based Concepts and Treatment Models: Implications for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry The aim of this article is to provide a survey of metacognitive and mentalization-based therapeutic approaches and possible applications in the field of child and adolescent psychiatry. Firstly areas of metacognition are described and the concept of mentalization is introduced. Next, the treatments Mentalization Based Treatment (MBT), Metacognitive Interpersonal Therapy (MIT) and Metacognitive Therapy (MCT) are presented. Treatment models, theoretical backgrounds, the most important treatment steps, and typical interventions are explained. The treatment modalities are discussed concerning their conceptual similarities and differences as well as their applications in child and adolescent psychiatry. Finally the treatments are subsumed under the aspect of therapeutic change processes. An outlook for an integrative approach matching the level of metacognitive competency is given.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria do Adolescente , Psiquiatria Infantil , Mentalização , Metacognição , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Psicoterapia
9.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 29(1): 83-88, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900670

RESUMO

The number of children and adolescents with mental disorders in China is increasing year by year, but the child and adolescent psychiatrists (CAPs) remain very scarce. So far, there is only a national psychiatrist certification system, and no child and adolescent psychiatrist certification system. Instead, the psychiatrist can receive the post-graduation training certificate or nationally approved Ph.D. and Master's degree training certificate for becoming a CAP. Currently, studies on the training status of CAPs in China are unavailable. This study investigated the current training status of CAPs in China intending to improve the relevant training programs. Self-developed questionnaires were distributed to 28 Executive Committee members of Chinese Society of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry from 32 training hospitals which Nationally approved Ph.D. and Master's degree training base for child and adolescent psychiatry or post-graduation training (Intern and Fellow) base for child and adolescent psychiatry in 14 provinces and municipalities for collecting necessary information of the respondents, and evaluation of current education and training. Using the descriptive analysis for statistical analysis to understand the current training status of child psychiatrists in China. A total of 28 valid questionnaires were returned. The training units were concentrated in large- and medium-sized cities. Moreover, the current medical personnel in China for diagnosing and treatment of children and adolescents with mental disorders was small in number with fixed learning modes. For the training of CAPs, the scientific basis of the training content, as well as the practicality of the training content, and the ability to solve problems, are not sufficient. Furthermore, the effects of current educational training of CAPs regarding teaching and professional, scientific research abilities remained relatively weak. Therefore, it is necessary to focus on training comprehensive qualities and abilities, such as the spirit of dedication. Currently, physicians who have received post-graduate training or Ph.D. and Master's degree training in child and adolescent psychiatry in China are very scarce. Although CAPs have a long history of training, post-graduate, or doctoral master's degree training is mainly a training method. And, the national specialized certification system for CAPs pilot in major cities. The training system of CAPs should be further improved in the future, and the number of CAPs should be increased.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria do Adolescente/educação , Psiquiatria Infantil/educação , Educação Médica/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 29(1): 51-61, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190178

RESUMO

Mental health is a key component of health, yet appropriate care is limited. Evidence concerning child and adolescent mental health has predominantly come from western countries, while the Middle East region, with a large youth population, has reported very little on it. This original, cross-sectional study of child and adolescent psychiatry in the Middle East provides an assessment of current postgraduate programs, services and what is needed to build workforce capacity. Academic psychiatrists from 16 Middle East countries were invited to form a Consortium to map current postgraduate training as one of the determinants of available child and adolescent psychiatry services, identify gaps in the distribution of child and adolescent psychiatrists, and propose potential steps to improve access to child and adolescent mental health care. The study collected data from 15 of the 16 countries invited (no data provided from Yemen). The study revealed underdeveloped child and adolescent psychiatry academic systems throughout the region. Despite recognition of the specialty in a majority of the countries (11/15), only six countries had established a designated child and adolescent psychiatry training program. The overall shortage of child and adolescent mental health specialists varied, yet all Consortium members reported a need for additional child and adolescent psychiatry specialists and allied professionals. Lack of child and adolescent psychiatry specialized programs in place throughout the region has evidently contributed to the shortage of qualified child and adolescent mental health workforce in the Middle East.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria do Adolescente/educação , Psiquiatria Infantil/educação , Educação Médica/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Oriente Médio
14.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 29(1): 29-39, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227911

RESUMO

There is very limited information available on child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) training in the Southeast European (SEE) region. The objective of this study was to fill in this gap by presenting descriptive data on CAP training and national mental health services for children and adolescent in 11 SEE countries. On the initiative of World Psychiatric Association-CAP section, national CAP association boards from each SEE country allocated one member to the Consortium on Academic Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in SEE (CACAP SEE) in 2018. Using an internally distributed questionnaire, CACAP SEE members provided information on the CAP training structure and mental health care. Ten out of eleven SEE countries recognized CAP as a separate specialty. Duration of training did not differ much between the SEE countries. Other components were more variable (availability of rotations, overseas electives, and inclusion of psychotherapy). Ten countries were familiar with the CAP requirements of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS-CAP) and five provided the training in accordance with it. Nine countries had less than 36 board-certified child and adolescent psychiatrists practicing in the country. The number of general psychiatrists treating children and adolescents with mental disorders was higher than the number of CAP specialists in five of the countries. Although CAP was recognized as a separate specialty in the vast majority of SEE countries, there was a substantial variation among them in available CAP training. In most of the countries, there is a considerable lack of CAP specialists for several reasons, including loss of trained specialists to other countries.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria do Adolescente/educação , Psiquiatria Infantil/educação , Educação Médica/métodos , Saúde Mental/educação , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
15.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 29(1): 95-103, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641901

RESUMO

The specialty of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry was formally recognised in the 1930s. The Faculty of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry was established in 1964 in Australia, as a subspecialty in The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists (RANZCP). The aim of the current article is first to provide a brief summary and overview of the current status of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (CAP), followed by an outline of the requirements of the Training Program for CAP in Australia and New Zealand. The training required to become a fully qualified child and adolescent psychiatrist in Australia and New Zealand consists of different stages and takes the form of competency-based training. Information relating to assessment types, supervision and research requirements is also described. Accreditation procedures for the training program are stipulated by RANZCP to monitor standards and to ensure consistency within the programs delivered across Australia and New Zealand. Employment opportunities for trainees upon completion of the program are discussed. In summary, this article highlights the requirements of the training programs for CAP in Australia and New Zealand.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria do Adolescente/educação , Psiquiatria Infantil/educação , Adolescente , Austrália , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia
16.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 29(1): 89-93, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529268

RESUMO

India has a considerable skilled manpower deficit in the area of child and adolescent mental health, given its population and their needs. To address this deficit, in the recent past, various centres in India have begun specialty training in the field of child and adolescent psychiatry with the lead being taken by the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore. This is a welcome step in the right direction. However, specialty training of this nature cannot exist in a vacuum. There is a need for a comprehensive and cohesive child and adolescent mental health policy which must include adopting certain standards in training in the various sub-specialties of child and adolescent mental health. From this national policy, provisions must be made for a spectrum of care from specialized tertiary care to high-quality community-based care. Dedicated, skilled mental health professionals who will impart training at the highest level as well help train a cadre of specialists (psychiatrists, pediatricians) and non-specialists with various degrees of exposure and training in the field of child and adolescent mental health are the need of the hour to have a stepped model of care. This will go a long way in ensuring effective and equitable distribution of the sparse human resources. Similar issues may operate in other low- and middle-income countries and thus the discussion may be relevant to such populations as well.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria do Adolescente/educação , Psiquiatria Infantil/educação , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Psiquiatria/educação , Adolescente , Criança , Família , Humanos , Índia , Saúde Mental
17.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 29(1): 63-69, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515613

RESUMO

This manuscript reviews contemporary training in the field of child and adolescent psychiatry in the USA. There are multiple well-defined pathways to becoming a child and adolescent psychiatrist in the USA. The Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education oversees child and adolescent psychiatry training programs and ensures that training programs are meeting the appropriate common and program-specific requirements. The American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology ensures that the individual child and adolescent psychiatrist is competent. There is a substantial shortage of child and adolescent psychiatrists in the US, and efforts are being made to increase the number of and accessibility of trained child and adolescent psychiatrists. Child and adolescent psychiatry training in the United Sates is constantly evolving and future directions include increased engagement of medical students and general psychiatry residents, new abbreviated pathways for training, and international collaboration between programs.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria do Adolescente/educação , Psiquiatria Infantil/educação , Educação Médica/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos
18.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 29(1): 71-81, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802272

RESUMO

Mental disorders affect approximately 10-15% of children and adolescents worldwide. In South America these numbers are probably higher due to poverty and adverse life events that frequently affect this region. The availability of qualified services and well-trained professionals to care for those children are by far insufficient. The aim of this study was to assess and describe child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) training in Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, and Chile, to support the development and strengthen training standards. The coordinators of CAP residency programs in Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, and Chile were invited to answer an online questionnaire about the characteristics of their training programs. Twelve programs from Brazil, three programs from Chile, two from Argentina, and one from Uruguay completed the questionnaires. In the last three countries, CAP is recognized as an independent specialty, while in Brazil it is considered a subspecialty of psychiatry. None of the countries have a national guideline for CAP residency training. Recently, there has been an increase in the number of professionals interested in pursuing a formal CAP training. This is the first study aiming to evaluate the current scenario of CAP training in South America. The results point to a great potential in the evaluated programs, but also to the need for homogeneous criteria for CAP training and evaluation of residents. A more efficient communication among programs would be an enriching strategy for their development, which may be facilitated by the results of this study.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria do Adolescente/educação , Psiquiatria Infantil/educação , Adolescente , Argentina , Brasil , Criança , Chile , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Uruguai
19.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 29(1): 11-27, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845068

RESUMO

There is great cultural diversity across Europe. This is reflected in the organisation of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) services and the training of the respective professionals in different countries in Europe. Patients and their parents will want a high quality, knowledgeable, and skillful service from child and adolescent psychiatrists (CAPs) wherever they see them in Europe. A European comparison of training programs allows all stakeholders in different European countries to assess the diversity and to initiate discussions as to the introduction of improvements within national training programs. Major issues to be addressed in comparing child and adolescent psychiatric training programs across Europe include: (1) formal organisation and content of training programs and the relationship to adult psychiatry and paediatrics; (2) flexibility of training, given different trainee interests and that many trainees will have young families; (3) quality of governance of training systems; (4) access to research; and (5) networking. The Child and Adolescent Psychiatry-Study of Training in Europe (CAP-State) is a survey of training for child and adolescent psychiatrists (CAPs) across European countries. It aims to revisit and extend the survey carried out in 2006 by Karabekiroglu and colleagues. The current article is embedded in a special issue of European Child + Adolescent Psychiatry attempting to for the first time address training in CAP at the European and global levels. Structured information was sought from each of 38 European and neighboring countries (subsequently loosely referred to as Europe) and obtained from 31. The information was provided by a senior trainee or recently qualified specialist and their information was checked and supplemented by information from a senior child and adolescent psychiatry trainer. Results showed that there is a very wide range of provision of training in child and adolescent psychiatry in different countries in Europe. There remains very substantial diversity in training across Europe and in the degree to which it is subject to national oversight and governance. Some possible reasons for this variation are discussed and some recommendations made.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria do Adolescente/educação , Psiquiatria Infantil/educação , Educação Médica/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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