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1.
S Afr Med J ; 110(3): 172-174, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657691

RESUMO

The Protection of Personal Information Act No. 4 of 2013 (POPIA) promises a new dispensation of privacy protection for research participants in South Africa. In a recent article, Staunton et al. proposed that a purposive interpretation of POPIA would allow for the retention of the status quo of broad consent in the context of genomic research. In this response article, we analyse the argument presented by Staunton et al., and conclude that it fails to convince: firstly, because Staunton et al. do not present empirical data for their factual assumption that moving up the consent benchmark is likely to stymie research; secondly, because genomic research does not have a monopoly on the public interest, but shares it with the privacy rights of research participants; and thirdly, because POPIA was designed to promote the protection of privacy, not simply to preserve the status quo as found in existing policy instruments. In contrast to the position advocated by Staunton et al., we suggest that a purposive interpretation of POPIA is aligned with the plain meaning of the statute - namely that specific (not broad) consent is a prerequisite for research on genomic information.This article, which comments on an article by Staunton et al. (Staunton C, Adams R, Botes M, et al. Safeguarding the future of genomic research in South Africa: Broad consent and the Protection of Personal Information Act No. 4 of 2013. S Afr Med J 2019;109(7):468-470. https://doi.org/10.7196/SAMJ.2019.v109i7.14148), is followed by a letter by Thaldar and Townsend (Privacy rights of human research participants in South Africa must be taken seriously. S Afr Med J 2020;110(3):175-176. https://doi.org/10.7196/SAMJ.2020.v110i3.14450); and a response to the article and letter by Staunton et al. (S Afr Med J 2020;110(3):175-176. https://doi.org/10.7196/SAMJ.2020.v110i3.14450).


Assuntos
Confidencialidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Privacidade Genética/legislação & jurisprudência , Pesquisa em Genética/legislação & jurisprudência , Genômica , Humanos , África do Sul
4.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 20(1): 106, 2020 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases that can cause epidemics, such as COVID-19, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV, constitute a major social issue, with healthcare providers fearing secondary, tertiary, and even quaternary infections. To alleviate this problem, telemedicine is increasingly being viewed as an effective means through which patients can be diagnosed and medications prescribed by doctors via untact Thus, concomitant with developments in information and communication technology (ICT), medical institutions have actively analyzed and applied ICT to medical systems to provide optimal medical services. However, with the convergence of these diverse technologies, various risks and security threats have emerged. To protect patients and improve telemedicine quality for patient safety, it is necessary to analyze these risks and security threats comprehensively and institute appropriate countermeasures. METHODS: The security threats likely to be encountered in each of seven telemedicine service areas were analyzed, and related data were collected directly through on-site surveys by a medical institution. Subsequently, an attack tree, the most popular reliability and risk modeling approach for systematically characterizing the potential risks of telemedicine systems, was examined and utilized with the attack occurrence probability and attack success probability as variables to provide a comprehensive risk assessment method. RESULTS: In this study, the most popular modelling method, an attack tree, was applied to the telemedicine environment, and the security concerns for telemedicine systems were found to be very large. Risk management and evaluation methods suitable for the telemedicine environment were identified, and their benefits and potential limitations were assessed. CONCLUSION: This research should be beneficial to security experts who wish to investigate the impacts of cybersecurity threats on remote healthcare and researchers who wish to identify new modeling opportunities to apply security risk modeling techniques.


Assuntos
Segurança Computacional , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Gestão de Riscos/organização & administração , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Betacoronavirus , Confidencialidade , Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Organizacionais , Segurança do Paciente , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
5.
Recenti Prog Med ; 111(6): 357-367, 2020 06.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573551

RESUMO

The global emergency caused by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has suddenly changed how we communicate with families in all the CoViD-19 care settings, due to the obligation to maintain complete social isolation. Healthcare workers are isolated from their families, and must manage the consequences of this isolation just like the patients. They and their families perceive the personal attitudes, closeness and psychological support from the care teams. This perception of genuine participation by the healthcare workers during isolation is especially important when a patient dies, and it may influence the process of grief. This document is intended for all healthcare professionals caring for CoViD-19 patients, particularly those in more severe clinical conditions and it is aimed to help the care team to communicate with families distanced from the patient. The document consists of three parts: 1) presentation of the statements for communicating with patients family members during isolation; 2) discussion of key points as a theoretical framework for the statements; 3) instructions for telephone communication, with a checklist and a worksheet. The document was written by authors from different disciplines (doctors, nurses, psychologists, legal experts) and was then reviewed by a group of experts comprising professionals, people who have experienced ICU hospitalization, and their families. Finally, the document was approved by the National Boards of the Italian Society of Anesthesia and Intensive Care (SIAARTI), Italian Association of Critical Care Nurses (Aniarti), Italian Society of Emergency Medicine (SIMEU), and Italian Society of Palliative Care (SICP).


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Isolamento de Pacientes , Pneumonia Viral , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Isolamento Social , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Lista de Checagem , Barreiras de Comunicação , Confidencialidade , Correio Eletrônico , Relações Familiares , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Preferência do Paciente , Relações Profissional-Família , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Apoio Social , Telefone , Revelação da Verdade
8.
Indian J Public Health ; 64(Supplement): S117-S124, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496240

RESUMO

Digital health interventions are globally playing a significant role to combat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is an infectious disease caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2. Here, we present a very brief overview of the multifaceted digital interventions, globally, and in India, for maintaining health and health-care delivery, in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Sistemas de Informação/organização & administração , Aplicativos Móveis , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Inteligência Artificial , Betacoronavirus , Confidencialidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Internet das Coisas/organização & administração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Prevenção Primária/organização & administração , Design de Software , Telemedicina/métodos , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
9.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(suppl 1): 2487-2492, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520293

RESUMO

Data has become increasingly important and valuable for both scientists and health authorities searching for answers to the COVID-19 crisis. Due to difficulties in diagnosing this infection in populations around the world, initiatives supported by digital technologies are being developed by governments and private companies to enable the tracking of the public's symptoms, contacts and movements. Considering the current scenario, initiatives designed to support infection surveillance and monitoring are essential and necessary. Nonetheless, ethical, legal and technical questions abound regarding the amount and types of personal data being collected, processed, shared and used in the name of public health, as well as the concomitant or posterior use of this data. These challenges demonstrate the need for new models of responsible and transparent data and technology governance in efforts to control SARS-COV2, as well as in future public health emergencies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Registros de Saúde Pessoal , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Privacidade , Confidencialidade , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Anonimização de Dados , Humanos , Mídias Sociais
10.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 270: 238-241, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570382

RESUMO

One major obstacle to developing precision medicine to its full potential is the privacy concerns related to genomic-data sharing. Even though the academic community has proposed many solutions to protect genomic privacy, these so far have not been adopted in practice, mainly due to their impact on the data utility. We introduce GenoShare, a framework that enables individual citizens to understand and quantify the risks of revealing genome-related privacy-sensitive attributes (e.g., health status, kinship, physical traits) from sharing their genomic data with (potentially untrusted) third parties. GenoShare enables informed decision-making about sharing exact genomic data, by jointly simulating genome-based inference attacks and quantifying the risk stemming from a potential data disclosure.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas/ética , Privacidade Genética , Genômica/ética , Disseminação de Informação/ética , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Confidencialidade , Revelação , Genoma , Humanos , Registro Médico Coordenado
11.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 270: 262-266, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570387

RESUMO

The IT- and data protection concept of the FAmiliäres Risiko für das KOloRektale Karzinom (FARKOR) project will be presented. FARKOR is a risk adapted screening-project in Bavaria, Germany focusing on young adults with familial colorectal cancer (CRC). For each participant, data from different sources have to be integrated: Treatment records centrally administered by the resident doctors association (KVB), data from health insurance companies (HIC), and patient reported lifestyle data. Patient privacy rights must be observed. Record Linkage is performed by a central independent trust center. Data are decrypted, integrated and analyzed in a secure part of the scientific evaluation center with no connection to the internet (SECSP). The presented concept guarantees participants privacy through different identifiers, separation of responsibilities, data pseudonymization, public-private key encryption of medical data and encrypted data transfer.


Assuntos
Segurança Computacional , Confidencialidade , Registro Médico Coordenado , Sistemas Computadorizados de Registros Médicos , Privacidade , Alemanha , Humanos , Seguro Saúde , Registro Médico Coordenado/métodos , Direitos do Paciente
12.
F1000Res ; 92020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32494358

RESUMO

The practice of anesthesiology is inextricably dependent upon technology. Anesthetics were first made possible, then increasingly safe, and now more scalable and efficient in part due to advances in monitoring and delivery technology. Herein, we discuss salient advances of the last three years in the technology of anesthesiology. Consumer technology and telemedicine have exploded onto the scene of outpatient medicine, and perioperative management is no exception. Preoperative evaluations have been done via teleconference, and copious consumer-generated health data is available. Regulators have acknowledged the vast potential found in the transfer of consumer technology to medical practice, but issues of privacy, data ownership/security, and validity remain. Inside the operating suite, monitoring has become less invasive, and clinical decision support systems are common. These technologies are susceptible to the "garbage in, garbage out" conundrum plaguing artificial intelligence, but they will improve as network latency decreases. Automation looms large in the future of anesthesiology as closed-loop anesthesia delivery systems are being tested in combination (moving toward a comprehensive system). Moving forward, consumer health companies will search for applications of their technology, and loosely regulated health markets will see earlier adoption of next-generation technology. Innovations coming to anesthesia will need to account for human factors as the anesthesia provider is increasingly considered a component of the patient care apparatus.


Assuntos
Anestesia/tendências , Telemedicina , Inteligência Artificial , Segurança Computacional , Confidencialidade , Humanos
13.
Med Leg J ; 88(2): 73-76, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490713

RESUMO

The Covid-19 pandemic and the resulting fear, quarantine and lockdown measures implemented in Italy and other countries to contain the risk of contagion have seriously impacted the mental health of a large number of people. The need to offer psychological and psychotherapeutic support to these people, while respecting the government's pressing calls to "stay home", have led many psychologists and psychotherapists, both in the public and private sectors, to provide their professional services via teleconference, telephone, smartphone, etc. The aim of this work is to highlight some critical issues related to the sudden switch from the traditional method of providing psychological services to the digital one in Italy.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena , Telemedicina , Segurança Computacional , Confidencialidade , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Itália/epidemiologia , Pandemias
16.
Am Psychol ; 75(5): 644-654, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437180

RESUMO

Psychologists are in a position to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic through research, practice, education, and advocacy. However, concerns exist about the ethical implications associated with transitioning from face-to-face to online or virtual formats as necessitated by stay-at-home orders designed to enforce the social distancing required to flatten the curve of new COVID-19 cases. The purpose of this article is to review potential ethical issues and to provide guidance to psychologists for ethical conduct in the midst of the current crisis and its aftermath. In addition to contextualizing relevant ethical considerations according to the principles and standards of the current American Psychological Association's ethics code, vignettes are presented to exemplify the ethical dilemmas psychologists in various roles may face when responding to COVID-19 and to offer suggestions and resources for resolving potential conflicts. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Códigos de Ética , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Psicologia/ética , Telemedicina/ética , Betacoronavirus , Competência Clínica , Confidencialidade/ética , Documentação/ética , Ética em Pesquisa , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética , Editoração/ética , Pesquisa , Sociedades Científicas
17.
Wiad Lek ; 73(5): 1032-1036, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386390

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study: 1) to determine the features of temporary access to documents containing information that may be a medical confidentiality; 2) to identify legislative gaps regarding the regulation of the measure of criminal proceedings; 3) to formulate proposals for improvement of legislation in the part of the investigated issue. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The legal basis for the protection of information that may be a medical confidentiality is provided. Legislative provisions have been identified and analyzed, which provide for particulars of access to documents containing information that may be a medical confidentiality. It is argued that the evidence collected in violation of the procedural order of the measure of criminal proceedings is inadmissible and therefore cannot be taken into account by the court in the future. Writing the article, the authors used both general and special methods of scientific knowledge, namely: formal-legal, formal-logical, comparative analysis and logical-normative. The complex application of these methods has made it possible to formulate science-based conclusions and proposals. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Exemption of documents containing information that may constitute medical confidentiality should be done exclusively by temporary access to them. In order to eliminate the legislative gaps of the investigated issue, it is proposed to amend the current legislation accordingly.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Confidencialidade , Direitos Humanos , Humanos
18.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0231615, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469883

RESUMO

Businesses in the smart home sector are actively promoting the benefits of smart home technologies for consumers, such as convenience, economy and home security. To better understand meanings of and trust in the smart home, we carried out a nationally representative survey of UK consumers designed to measure adoption and acceptability, focusing on awareness, ownership, experience, trust, satisfaction and intention to use. We analysed the results using theories of meanings and acceptability of technologies including semiotics, social construction of technology (SCOT) and sociotechnical affordance. Our findings suggest that the meaning and value proposition of the smart home have not yet achieved closure for consumers, but is already foregrounding risks to privacy and security amongst the other meaning-making possibilities it could afford. Anxiety about the likelihood of a security incident emerges as a prominent factor influencing adoption of smart home technology. This factor negatively impacts adoption. These findings underline how businesses and policymakers will need to work together to act on the sociotechnical affordances of smart home technology in order to increase consumers' trust. This intervention is necessary if barriers to adoption and acceptability of the smart home are to be addressed now and in the future.


Assuntos
Segurança Computacional , Habitação , Sistemas de Informação/normas , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Residenciais/normas , Confiança , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Confidencialidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telemedicina , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
20.
N Z Med J ; 133(1515): 104-111, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438382

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic requires us to rethink how virtual approaches might work for people who use alcohol and other drugs. Are virtual clinics only suitable for clients with whom clinicians have already formed a therapeutic relationship? How well would virtual clinics work for new clients presenting to services, for clients in acute distress, and for those with complex problems? Addressing the sustained change required to maintain substance-free lives or a safe substance-use life requires robust psychotherapeutic approaches, which have traditionally been delivered through physical contact, whether they are one-to-one or group-based interventions. The challenge during this time of the COVID-19 pandemic is to deliver effective talking therapies while avoiding physical contact. How then should services continue to offer counselling and support in such an environment? How can we learn from the COVID-19 situation to deliver treatment to individuals who may have difficulties attending traditional clinic-based care, such as those in more rural areas with transport difficulties? This article focuses on identifying practical issues and providing some solutions.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Psicoterapia/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Betacoronavirus , Confidencialidade , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Pandemias , Psicoterapia de Grupo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Telemedicina
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